Multicenter Study of Perioperative Ischemia (McSPI) Research Group. Postoperative red blood cell transfusion and morbid outcome in uncomplicated cardiac surgery patients

Department of Anesthesiology, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München, Marchinoninistr. 15, 81377 München, Germany.
Intensive Care Medicine (Impact Factor: 7.21). 01/2011; 37(1):97-109. DOI: 10.1007/s00134-010-2017-z
Source: PubMed


To evaluate postoperative red blood cell (RBC) transfusion and its association with postoperative cardiac events and multiorgan morbidity in uncomplicated cardiac surgery patients.
A cohort of 945 patients from the 5,436 coronary artery bypass grafting patients enrolled in the international Multicenter Study of Perioperative Ischemia (McSPI) Epidemiology II (EPI II) study was investigated. Inclusion criteria were low to moderate risk profile, postoperative hemoglobin level ≥ 10 g/dl, minimal postoperative blood loss, and no evidence of any morbid event on the day of surgery. RBC transfusion was assessed during the first 24 postoperative hours and cardiac as well as multiorgan outcomes from postoperative day 2 to hospital discharge. Multivariate analysis was applied to assess the effect of RBC transfusion on multiorgan outcomes. A secondary propensity score analysis was performed in 4,465 patients without early postoperative morbid outcomes.
Transfused patients (193/945, 20.4%) were more likely to suffer cardiac events (P = 0.03), harvest-site infection (P = 0.002), and composite morbidity outcome (P = 0.04). RBC transfusion was associated with cardiac events on multivariate as well as on propensity score analysis (adjusted odds ratio, 1.39; 95% confidence interval, 1.01-1.92; P = 0.04), and with harvest-site infection on multivariate analysis. Additionally, propensity score analysis suggested possible associations of RBC transfusion with increased risks for composite morbidity outcome and in-hospital mortality, renal morbidity, pneumonia, and mediastinitis.
The data suggest a potential association between postoperative RBC transfusion and increased morbidity for cardiac surgery patients with low to moderate mortality risk profiles, adequate hemoglobin levels, and low bleeding rates.

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    • "In particular, this related to a higher incidence of major cardiac and pulmonary complications, more frequent use of mechanical ventilation, and a higher rate of critical care service utilization. Therefore, our findings based on the analysis of data from over 400 US hospitals are consistent with studies that have previously been published [1–8]. However, we were able to determine that the risk of blood transfusions was lower than the risk of advanced age and comorbidity burden. "
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    ABSTRACT: Background. Various studies have raised concern of worse outcomes in patients receiving blood transfusions perioperatively compared to those who do not. In this study we attempted to determine the proportion of perioperative complications in the orthopedic population attributable to the use of a blood transfusion. Methods. Data from 400 hospitals in the United States were used to identify patients undergoing total hip or knee arthroplasty (THA and TKA) from 2006 to 2010. Patient and health care demographics, as well as comorbidities and perioperative outcomes were compared. Multivariable logistic regression models were fitted to determine associations between transfusion, age, and comorbidities and various perioperative outcomes. Population attributable fraction (PAF) was determined to measure the proportion of outcome attributable to transfusion and other risk factors. Results. Of 530,089 patients, 18.93% received a blood transfusion during their hospitalization. Patients requiring blood transfusion were significantly older and showed a higher comorbidity burden. In addition, these patients had significantly higher rates of major complications and a longer length of hospitalization. The logistic regression models showed that transfused patients were more likely to have adverse health outcomes than nontransfused patients. However, patients who were older or had preexisting diseases carried a higher risk than use of a transfusion for these outcomes. The need for a blood transfusion explained 9.51% (95% CI 9.12–9.90) of all major complications. Conclusions. Advanced age and high comorbidity may be responsible for a higher proportion of adverse outcomes in THA and TKA patients than blood transfusions.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2014 · The Scientific World Journal
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    • "In cardiac patients over 80, the use of blood products was shown to be detrimental, although a recent study did not find this association [6]. Even in patients who were considered low-risk preoperatively , the transfusion of blood added significant risks for cardiac events, infection and morbidity postoperatively [7]. Other hazards associated with transfusions are transfusiontransmitted infections (such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) or hepatitis and the newly discovered Creutzfeld-Jacob disease and the dengue virus) and non-infectious complications [4] [8]. "
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    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVES Prior studies have found that cardiac surgery patients receiving blood transfusions are at risk for increased mortality and morbidity following surgery. It is not clear whether this increased risk occurs across all haematocrit (HCT) levels. The goal of this study was to compare operative mortality in propensity-matched cardiac surgery patients based on stratification of the preoperative HCT levels.METHODS Between 1 August 2004 and 30 June 2011, 3516 patients had cardiac surgery. One thousand nine hundred and twenty-two (54.5%) required blood transfusion during or after surgery. A propensity score for transfusion was developed based on 22 baseline variables. One thousand seven hundred and fourteen patients were matched: 857 in the transfusion group (TG) and 857 in the non-transfused control group (CG). Univariate analyses demonstrated that, after propensity matching, the groups did not differ on any baseline factors included in the propensity model. Operative mortality was defined as death within 30 days of surgery. Preoperative HCT was stratified into four groups: <36, 36-39, 40-42 and ≥43.RESULTSFor HCT <36%, 30-day mortality was higher in the TG than that in the CG (3.0 vs 0.0%). For HCT 36-39, operative mortality was similar between TG (1.1%, N = 180) and CG (0.8%, N = 361; P = 0.748). For HCT 40-42, operative mortality was significantly higher in the TG compared with that in the CG (1.9 vs 0%, N = 108 and 218, respectively; P = 0.044). For HCT of ≥43, there was a trend towards higher operative mortality in the TG vs the CG (2.0 vs 0%, N = 102 and 152, respectively; P = 0.083). Other surgical complications followed the same pattern with higher rates found in the transfused group at higher presurgery HCT levels. HCT at discharge for the eight groups were similar, with an average of 29.1 ± 1.1% (P = 0.117).CONCLUSIONS Our study indicates that a broad application of blood products shows no discernible benefits. Furthermore, patients who receive blood at all HCT levels may be placed at an increased risk of operative mortality and/or other surgical complications. Paradoxically, even though patients with low HCTs theoretically should benefit the most, transfusion was still associated with a higher complication and mortality rate in these patients. Our results indicate that blood transfusion should be used judiciously in cardiac surgery patients.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2013 · Interactive Cardiovascular and Thoracic Surgery
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    • "Rates of transfusion persist high after cardiac surgery despite studies showing that RBC transfusion does not result in better outcomes and even increases rates of complications after cardiac surgery [6]. Guidelines from the Society of Thoracic Surgeons and Society of Cardiovascular Anesthesiologists emphasize the lack of evidence on transfusion triggers after cardiac surgery [7]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Allogeneic red blood cell (RBC) transfusion has been proposed as a negative indicator of quality in cardiac surgery. Hospital length of stay (LOS) may be a surrogate of poor outcome in transfused patients. Data from 502 patients included in Transfusion Requirements After Cardiac Surgery (TRACS) study were analyzed to assess the relationship between RBC transfusion and hospital LOS in patients undergoing cardiac surgery and enrolled in the TRACS study. According to the status of RBC transfusion, patients were categorized into the following three groups: 1) 199 patients (40%) who did not receive RBC, 2) 241 patients (48%) who received 3 RBC units or fewer (low transfusion requirement group), and 3) 62 patients (12%) who received more than 3 RBC units (high transfusion requirement group). In a multivariable Cox proportional hazards model, the following factors were predictive of a prolonged hospital length of stay: age higher than 65 years, EuroSCORE, valvular surgery, combined procedure, LVEF lower than 40% and RBC transfusion of > 3 units. RBC transfusion is an independent risk factor for increased LOS in patients undergoing cardiac surgery. This finding highlights the adequacy of a restrictive transfusion therapy in patients undergoing cardiac surgery. Trial registration identifier: http://NCT01021631.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2013 · Journal of Cardiothoracic Surgery
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