Postpartum Smoking Abstinence and Smoke-Free Environments
College of Nursing at the University of Kentucky, Lexington, Kentucky, USA. Health Promotion Practice
(Impact Factor: 0.55).
01/2011; 12(1):126-34. DOI: 10.1177/1524839909353727
The purpose of this exploratory study was to describe factors that contribute to successful postpartum smoking abstinence among women who quit smoking during pregnancy. Research questions addressed the primary motivators and lifestyle characteristics of women who do not return to postpartum smoking. Participants were recruited from a feasibility study (N = 16) based on their ability to remain smoke free for at least 6 months following delivery. Individual interviews were analyzed using content analysis strategies. Women's narratives described the process of postpartum smoking abstinence. Four themes emerged: (a) child's health as the primary motivator, (b) demanding a smoke-free home or environment, (c) smoking perception changes from one of primarily comfort to one of disgust, and (d) viewing abstinence as a lifelong change. Clinical implications include educating families about the effects of smoke-free environments on the health of their children while redirecting smoking habits with healthy behaviors.
Available from: Dena J Schulman-Green
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ABSTRACT: Many women stop smoking during pregnancy. Factors associated with relapse are known, but no intervention prevents the return to smoking among pregnant women. The objective of this study was to determine why women return to smoking after prolonged abstinence during pregnancy by examining mothers' intention to smoke at the time of delivery and the perceptions that shape their intention.
We conducted in-depth, semi-structured interviews during their postpartum hospital stay with 24 women who stopped smoking while pregnant. We asked participants whether they intended to resume smoking after pregnancy and why. Transcripts were analyzed using grounded theory-based qualitative methods to identify themes.
Participants ranged in age from 18 to 36 years, and 63 percent were white. Three themes emerged from the interviews with the mothers: 1) they did not intend to return to smoking but doubted whether they would be able to maintain abstinence; 2) they believed that it would be possible to protect their newborns from the harms of cigarette smoke; and 3) they felt that they had control over their smoking and did not need help to maintain abstinence after pregnancy.
Although most participants did not intend to resume smoking, their intentions may be stymied by their perceptions about second-hand smoke and by their overestimation of their control over smoking. Further study should quantify these barriers and determine their evolution over the first year after pregnancy with the goal of informing more successful, targeted interventions.
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ABSTRACT: Tobacco use among pregnant women, as well as second-and third-hand smoke exposure of their infants, translates into the startling fact that more than one third of American children live with at least one parent who smokes cigarettes daily. Maternal smoking or second-hand smoke exposure during pregnancy is deleterious to the mother's health and contributes to prematurity, low birth-weight infants, and increased risk of sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) and recurrent wheezing during the first year of life. Pregnant women who stop tobacco use during pregnancy are at high risk for postpartum relapse frequently associated with a partner who smokes tobacco, stress, poverty, and lack of social and medical support to remain tobacco free. Enhanced efforts to identify and support pregnant women who smoke, and to implement strategies to prevent exposure of their fetus and newborn to the hazards of tobacco-smoke exposure, are paramount in our public health efforts to eliminate health disparities in the United States. We discuss the critical elements of programs to assist mothers to stop smoking during pregnancy and toward family efforts to maintain a smoke-free environment for their infant. Postpartum interventions, whether in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU), newborn nursery, or postnatal care setting, can provide assistance that women need to remain smoke free, to educate spouses or significant others and their families, and to aide in establishing goals of maintaining a tobacco smoke-free home and car. Physicians and other perinatal healthcare providers have a duty to identify pregnant women who smoke for "meaningful use" in the electronic medical record, and to provide advice and assistance in evidence-based smoking interventions in obstetrical care settings. Pediatricians, neonatologists, and others providing postpartum, "normal" nursery or NICU care have an opportunity to protect infants and young children from second-and third-hand smoke exposure by assisting their parents and family members in maintaining a tobacco-free environment to improve the health of infants, toddlers, and young children.
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ABSTRACT: A woman's psychological health can affect prenatal behaviors. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between maternal beliefs, prenatal behaviors, and preterm birth (PTB) in a multiethnic population. This was a planned secondary analysis of a cross-sectional trial of postpartum women with singleton gestation. In all, 210 participants were given the Fetal Health Locus of Control (FHLC) scale to measure three primary maternal beliefs that influenced their prenatal behaviors (Internal Control, Chance, Powerful Others). Women who experienced preterm delivery and those who smoked during pregnancy scored the Chance category significantly higher than those who delivered term infants (p = .05; p = .004, respectively). This suggests those who smoked during pregnancy had a greater degree of belief that Chance influenced their infant's health status. Cultural differences also emerged specific to the impact of health care providers on PTB; with Hispanic women scoring Powerful Others the highest among the groups (p = .02). Nurses can plan a critical role in identifying at-risk women (smoking, strong Chance beliefs) while providing a clear message that taking action and modifying high-risk behaviors can reduce risk for adverse pregnancy outcome.
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