Article

Silver nanoparticle applications and human health. Clin Chim Acta

King Abdullah Institute for Nanotechnology, King Saud University, Riyadh-11451, Saudi Arabia.
Clinica chimica acta; international journal of clinical chemistry (Impact Factor: 2.82). 12/2010; 411(23-24):1841-8. DOI: 10.1016/j.cca.2010.08.016
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT

Nanotechnology is rapidly growing with nanoparticles produced and utilized in a wide range of commercial products throughout the world. For example, silver nanoparticles (Ag NP) are used in electronics, bio-sensing, clothing, food industry, paints, sunscreens, cosmetics and medical devices. These broad applications, however, increase human exposure and thus the potential risk related to their short- and long-term toxicity. A large number of in vitro studies indicate that Ag NPs are toxic to the mammalian cells derived from skin, liver, lung, brain, vascular system and reproductive organs. Interestingly, some studies have shown that this particle has the potential to induce genes associated with cell cycle progression, DNA damage and apoptosis in human cells at non-cytotoxic doses. Furthermore, in vivo bio-distribution and toxicity studies in rats and mice have demonstrated that Ag NP administered by inhalation, ingestion or intra-peritoneal injection were subsequently detected in blood and caused toxicity in several organs including brain. Moreover, Ag NP exerted developmental and structural malformations in non-mammalian model organisms typically used to elucidate human disease and developmental abnormalities. The mechanisms for Ag NP induced toxicity include the effects of this particle on cell membranes, mitochondria and genetic material. This paper summarizes and critically assesses the current studies focusing on adverse effects of Ag NPs on human health.

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Available from: Maqusood Ahamed, Feb 03, 2014
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    • "Silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) are one of the most commercially available nanoparticles in recent years. They are incorporated into a larger range of products such as personal care goods, food containers, laundry additives, clothing, cosmetics, sunscreens, paints and household cleaners and appliances (Ahamed et al., 2010; Dubas and Pimpan, 2008; Schrand et al., 2008). The bulk of Ag NPs released from consumer products is expected to enter agroecosystem through the application of sewage sludge and cause an impact on microbial diversity and activities due to their antimicrobial properties (Blaser et al., 2008). "
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    ABSTRACT: The current study sought to explore the response of application of purified silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) to soil grown with faba bean (Vicia faba L.) and inoculated either with Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae ASU (KF670819) or Glomus aggregatum 14G or in combination. Ag NPs was synthesized and stabilized using PVP and characterized by UV-vis spectroscopy and the characteristic surface plasmon resonance band centered at 430nm. Also, the morphologies and structures of Ag NPs were characterized by X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy and the size distribution ranged from 5 to 50nm. In the first experiment, the germination and seedling growth of faba bean plants were tested under different concentrations of Ag+ as AgNO3 and Ag NPs (100-900μgkg-1 soil). The germination declined by 40% when exposed to Ag NPs at concentration 800μgkg-1 soil, while the same level from Ag+ completely inhibited seed germination. In the second experiment the effect of a high concentration of Ag NPs (800μgkg-1 soil) on R. leguminosarum bv. viciae growth and G. aggregatum activity in soil and their symbiosis with faba bean was investigated. It was proved that Ag NPs considerably retarded the process of nodulation, nitrogenase activity, mycorrhizal colonization, mycorrhizal responsiveness and glomalin content. High concentration of Ag NPs (800μgkg-1 soil) resulted in detectable alterations including the intracellular deterioration of cytoplasmic components by means of autophagy and disintegration of bacteroids. These findings elucidate the mechanism of toxic action of Ag NPs which resulted in early senescence of root nodules.
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    • "AgNPs are increasingly being utilized due to their antimicrobial properties and have been incorporated in products such as textiles, household appliances, food storage containers, and medical devices such as i.v. catheters and lines [1] [2] [3] [4]. Fe 3 O 4 NPs have been proposed as drug delivery platforms and for their use as magnetic resonance imaging contrast agents [5] [6] [7]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Macrophages are central to the development of atherosclerosis by absorbing lipids, promoting inflammation, and increasing plaque deposition. Nanoparticles (NPs) are becoming increasingly common in biomedical applications thereby increasing exposure to the immune and vascular systems. This project investigated the influence of NPs on macrophage function and specifically cholesterol uptake. Macrophages were exposed to 20 nm silver NPs (AgNPs), 110 nm AgNPs, or 20 nm Fe 3 O 4 NPs for 2 h and NP uptake, cytotoxicity, and subsequent uptake of fluorescently labeled cholesterol were assessed. Macrophage uptake of NPs did not induce cytotoxicity at concentrations utilized (25 μ g/mL); however, macrophage exposure to 20 nm AgNPs reduced subsequent uptake of cholesterol. Further, we assessed the impact of a cholesterol-rich environment on macrophage function following NP exposure. In these sets of experiments, macrophages internalized NPs, exhibited no cytotoxicity, and altered cholesterol uptake. Alterations in the expression of scavenger receptor-B1 following NP exposure, which likely influences cholesterol uptake, were observed. Overall, NPs alter cholesterol uptake, which may have implications in the progression of vascular or immune mediated diseases. Therefore, for the safe development of NPs for biomedical applications, it is necessary to understand their impact on cellular function and biological interactions in underlying disease environments.
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