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Well-Connected Leaders: The Impact of Leaders' Social Network Ties on LMX and Members' Work Attitudes

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Abstract

We examined the proposition that leaders' social network ties in the larger organization influence the quality of their leader-member exchange (LMX) with their employees, which, in turn, impacts these employees' job satisfaction and turnover intentions. Using multilevel, multisource data from a field study of 184 bank employees nested within 42 branch managers, we found that leaders who had higher quality relationships with their bosses and who were more central in their peer networks were perceived by their subordinates as having greater status in the organization and, therefore, were able to form higher quality relationships with them. Further, the effects of the leaders' perceived status on LMX were stronger when subordinates were less central in their own peer network. Finally, LMX mediated the impact of leaders' perceived status in the organization on subordinates' job satisfaction and turnover intentions. Implications for theory and practice are discussed.

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... However, employees have the ability to develop generic perceptions of their supervisor's power, influence and status in the organization (Fiol et al., 2001;Eisenberger et al., 2002;Farmer and Aguinis, 2005) irrespective of their own dyadic relationship with their supervisor. This definition thus positions PSSP as a source of social information that employees can derive from their supervisors' use of power directed at other important organizational actors, and that allows them to appraise their supervisor's centrality in the organizational decision-making process (Eisenberger et al., 2002;Venkataramani et al., 2010;Chi et al., 2018). For example, an employee may not know how his/her supervisor behaves in an important meeting regarding the company strategy but may know that his/her vision has been adopted by the organization. ...
... Moreover, employees are also more likely to internalize attributes that are perceived to be viable, desirable, and useful in a specific work context (Ashforth et al., 2016). As powerful supervisors are more salient representatives of the organization in the eyes of followers (Eisenberger et al., 2002;Venkataramani et al., 2010), employees should be more likely to internalize the organizational values and goals that they embody. Seeing themselves as more powerful and sharing the organization's goals and values, employees are more likely to adopt positive beliefs, attitudes and behaviors toward their organization. ...
... Second, studies have shown that supervisors' centrality in the organization (Sparrowe and Liden, 2005;Venkataramani et al., 2010), supervisors perceived organizational identity (Eisenberger et al., 2002), and expressions of support by organizations towards supervisors (Shanock and Eisenberger, 2006) all influence employees' attitudes. We reasoned that this research stream spoke to how supervisors' ability to represent the organization is perceived by employees and that such perceptions mattered for employees' sense of organizational identification and belongingness. ...
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It has been theoretically proposed that employees' perceptions of their supervisor social power in the organization entail a potential to influence their beliefs, attitudes, and behaviors. However, no study has investigated such potential. This lack of research stems from the absence of a common understanding around the meaning of perceived supervisor social power (PSSP) and the absence of any validated measure. Therefore, the purpose of this article is to establish PSSP definition and to validate a five-item scale to measure this construct. Three studies encompassing four independent samples of employees from three different countries and three different languages (i.e., France, cross-sectional [Study 1, Sample 1], Canada, cross-sectional [Study 1, Sample 2: French Canada; Study 2: English Canada], Romania, two-wave data collection [Study 3]) were conducted to assess the validity of PSSP. Results showed that responses to the PSSP scale presented excellent psychometric properties (i.e., factor validity, reliability, and convergent and discriminant validity). Furthermore, the structure of the proposed five-item measure of PSSP was found to be invariant across four samples. Finally, PSSP nomological validity (i.e., integration into a nomological network) was assessed. Study 1 and Study 2 showed that PSSP was positively related to affective organizational commitment. All three studies showed that PSSP acted as a positive moderator of the relation between affective commitment to the supervisor and affective organizational commitment. Together, these studies support the psychometric soundness of the PSSP scale and presented the first evidence of its potential to influence followers. Implications of these findings for future research on supervisor social power are discussed.
... In addition to willingness, the leader must have the ability to provide valuable rewards. Such ability will be enhanced when the leader has higher organizational status (Eisenberger et al., 2002;Venkataramani, Green, & Schleicher, 2010). Because leaders need to be both willing and able to provide valuable rewards, the impact of LIE on reward expectancy and, in turn, on UPB is likely to be strongest when both LMX and leader status are higher. ...
... Research on LMX finds that owing to the reciprocity norm, partners in high LMX relationships usually refrain from treating each other in harmful ways and act generously toward one another (Dulebohn et al., 2012). Similarly, research shows that high organizational status helps leaders build stronger relationships with their employees (Venkataramani et al., 2010) and enhances the impact of LMX and leader support on employees' positive attitudes and behaviors (Eisenberger et al., 2002;Tangirala et al., 2007). However, evidence also suggests that LMX and leader status may promote employees' favorable evaluations of leaders' unethical behaviors (Pelletier, 2012;Shapiro et al., 2011). ...
Article
Numerous organizational scandals have implicated leaders in encouraging employees to advance organizational objectives through unethical means. However, leadership research has not examined leaders' encouragement of unethical behaviors. We define leader immorality encouragement (LIE) as an employee's perception that their leader encourages unethical behaviors on behalf of the organization. Across four studies, we found, as hypothesized, that (1) LIE promotes employees' unethical behavior carried out with the intention to aid the organization (unethical pro-organizational behavior); (2) this relationship is mediated by employees' moral disengagement and the expectation of rewards; (3) LIE, via moral disengagement , enhances employees' self-serving unethical behavior; and (4) the relationship between LIE and unethical behavior is stronger when the leader has a higher quality exchange relationship with the employee and is perceived by the employee as having higher organizational status. Our set of findings contributes to an understanding of
... In alignment with these criteria, we focus on two specific employee network characteristics that managers perceive as signals of employee reputation, and thus, quality (Hochwarter et al., 2007): (a) employees' centrality in their unit's friendship networks and (b) their shared membership in friendship cliques with managers. We focus on these two network characteristics because they both encompass observability-the extent to which a relevant observer can detect the signal-in that the manager has some, albeit perhaps imperfect, window into the structure of employees' network ties in the unit (Balkundi & Kilduff, 2005;Duchon et al., 1986;Venkataramani et al., 2010). In addition, as we note further below, centrality in friendship networks (i.e., the number of people seeking a focal individual as a friend) indicates signal frequency and highlights consistency or agreement among multiple signals related to the same source. ...
... Our findings have important implications for leadership research in general and delegation research in particular. At a broad level, we join growing research that has highlighted how the leader-subordinate dyad does not exist in a vacuum but rather, is influenced by the network of other relationships in which it is embedded (e.g., Mehra et al., 2006;Venkataramani et al., 2010). In the context of delegation, first, although acknowledging earlier work that focused on manager or employee characteristics and then on manageremployee dyadic relationships, the present research expands the delegation research purview to reputational signals associated with relevant third-party ties in the work unit. ...
Article
Delegation is a critical tool for busy managers. Early delegation research suggests that managers are reluctant to delegate beyond a few highly competent employees or those with whom they have a strong relationship. Extending this line of research, we integrate signaling theory with a view of social networks as "prisms," to demonstrate the relevance of employees' network ties in the work unit for delegation. Signaling theory argues that when direct data about employee competence are mixed or ambiguous, decision makers will look for more indirect signals with which to make inferences about quality and reputation. One such signal is suggested by the networks as "prisms" perspective, which argues that network ties can operate as reputational signals in the absence of more direct quality data. Combining these insights and data from a field study and two follow-up laboratory studies, we find that in situations of moderate employee competence, managers will draw positive reputational inferences and be more willing to delegate to employees when such employees are more central in the friendship network of the work unit as well as when they share common memberships in friendship cliques with the managers. These network ties, however, do not matter for delegation decisions when there are direct data to indicate that employees are highly competent or clearly poor performers. Our lab studies elucidate the mediating role of perceived reputation. Implications for theory and practice are discussed. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).
... While TMX is conceptually distinct from LMX, they are very likely to exist in a reciprocal relationship to each other. That is, TMX could strengthen or weaken the effect of LMX, in that one relationship influences other relationships through social cues, such as reputation, status, influence, and power [18,24,25]. Thus, I also investigate the interaction effect of LMX and TMX on job crafting. ...
... As I mentioned above, TMX is conceptually distinct from LMX, but they are very likely to exist in a reciprocal relationship to each other. In other words, TMX could strengthen or weaken the effect of LMX, in that one relationship influences other relationships through social cues, such as reputation, status, influence, and power [18,24,25]. In this regard, studying the interaction effects of LMX and TMX is important for extending our understanding of social dynamics within organizations. ...
Article
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In order to better understand the social aspects of job crafting, this study explores the direct and interactive effects of leader–member exchange (LMX) and team-member exchange (TMX) on three types of job crafting (i.e., task, relational, and cognitive crafting). Drawing on both social exchange theory and the job demands–resources model, this study examines the social antecedents of job crafting in a sample of 336 members of three shipbuilding companies. The results indicate that individuals who have high-quality relationships with their leaders engage in more job crafting and that TMX is positively related to job crafting, after controlling for LMX. In addition, the results show that TMX moderates the positive relationship between LMX and job crafting, such that a higher TMX strengthens the LMX–job crafting link. The implications of these findings for job crafting and social antecedents are discussed, and suggestions for future research are presented.
... Again, the social network approach suggests that in order to understand leadership development, a researcher should focus on not only the connections between leaders and followers but also their relations outside their focal work group (Balkundi & Kilduff, 2005). For example, earlier research has shown that leaders' position in social networks of the workplace is related to others' perceptions of them as leaders (e.g., Venkataramani, Green, & Schleicher, 2010). In this regard, the social network approach thus provides theories and concepts to examine both formal and informal aspects of leadership. ...
... The social network approach can be used to examine, for example, how leadership evolves as leaders' connections with others change in social networks over time. Earlier research on leadership and networks has shown that Figure 11.1 An example of network diagram leaders' position in a social network is related to their reputation as a leader , others' perception of their charisma (Balkundi, Kilduff, & Harrison et al., 2011), their status in the organization (Venkataramani et al., 2010), and their promotion to a leader role (Parker & Welch, 2013). For example, Balkundi and colleagues (2011) found that a leader's central position in a social network is related to others' perception of his or her charisma as a leader. ...
... Indeed, given that direct supervisors, who often serve in the role of sales managers, are typically compensated as a function of their salespeople's success (Rouziou 2019), it is likely that supervisors share a greater amount of their internally generated resources with those salespeople who need it most, which we surmise are those for whom networking comes less naturally. Indeed, research into LMX has suggested that a leader's statusand the benefits associated with itare most important for those subordinate salespeople who are less central in their own networks (Venkataramani, Green, and Schleicher 2010). As such, we predict that low networking ability salespeople will receive greater marginal performance benefits, and thus demonstrate steeper performance growth trajectories, than their high networking ability counterparts, when paired with high-status supervisors. ...
... Indeed, research has indicated that supervisor sponsorship can be a "blessing or a curse," such that a subordinate may be blessed if they are paired with a well-connected supervisor, but cursed if they are not (Sparrowe and Liden 2005). Salespeople who are well connected within their own networks may be able to "make up" for some of the information and other resource deficits associated with having a low-status supervisor by relying on their other coworkers (Molm 1987;Venkataramani et al. 2010) Therefore, in such situations, salespeople with high networking ability will be better positioned than their low networking ability counterparts when paired with a low-status supervisor, as the high networking ability salesperson will rely on their own network for information and other critical resources. Formally stated: ...
Article
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Despite recent attention from scholars, internal networking remains underexplored in the sales literature, particularly with respect to its effect on longitudinal measures of performance. The current research addresses this notable omission by examining the interactive effect of salespeople’s internal networking ability and their supervisor’s organizational status on performance growth trajectories. Utilizing 20 quarters of individual, financial performance data from 113 salespeople at a warehousing equipment manufacturer, we find that both internal networking and a supervisor’s organizational status drive a salesperson’s performance growth trajectory. However, the interaction of these two variables has a negative – and counterintuitive – effect on performance growth trajectory. That is, supervisors with high organizational status attenuate (buttress) the performance growth of their high (low) networking salespeople. Taken together, these results reveal an important boundary condition regarding the efficacy of internal networking, and underscore the importance of sales managers in shaping the effectiveness of their salespeople’s internal networking efforts.
... The leader-member relationship only builds up over time as they learn more about each other (Gerstner and Day, 1997). It is reckoned that from this angle, the Leader-Member Exchange Theory can be grounded on Role Theory and Social Exchange Theory (Venkataramani et al., 2010). Because, in the Leader-Member Exchange Theory, the relationships originates between leader and followers are based on a series of role behaviours. ...
... Accordingly, it is expected to see more positive attitudes and behaviours from the followers who are in high-quality relationships with their leaders, towards the organization and the leader. Hence, in previous studies, it was defined that the members who are in a high-quality relationship with the leaders show increased organizational commitment, work engagement, job satisfaction, performance, organizational citizenship behaviour and decreased intention to leave (Eisenberger et al., 2010;Dulebohn et al., 2012;Gerstner and Day, 1997;Hsieh, 2012;Ilies et al., 2007;Martin et al., 2016;Radstaak and Hennes, 2017;Venkataramani et al., 2010). For this reason, it can be stated that the highquality relationship between leaders and members is a more desired kind of exchange for organizations. ...
Article
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Purpose-Main purpose of this study is to define the antecedents of job crafting. Within this context, it is questioned whether self-efficacy has a moderating role on the indirect effect leader-member exchange on job crafting, when combined with perceived supervisor support. Design/methodology/approach-The data were collected via questionnaires and simple random sampling while including middle school teachers in a city of Turkey as participants. In addition, data were gathered in October and November 2019. The reason why teachers were selected for this study is the fact that there is limited amount of studies in the literature doing so. In order to test the hypotheses, hierarchical regression analysis, sobel test and moderated mediation analysis were used. Findings-The findings show that leader-member exchange positively and significantly affects job crafting and additionally perceived supervisor support has a mediating role in this relationship. Along with this, it is also defined that supervisor support affects job crafting positively and significantly while self-efficacy has a moderating role in this relationship. Finally, it is seen that self-efficacy has a moderating role in the indirect effect of leader-member exchange on job crafting, when combined with supervisor support. Discussion-The study tries to put forward the effects of leader-member exchange, perceived supervisor support and self-efficacy on job crafting in a single model with a multilevel perspective. Additionally, there was no studies found in the literature that takes all these variables into consideration together and that looks into the relationship between these variables for teachers. For this reason, it can be stated that the obtained findings are important both for the literature and for practitioners.
... The relationship of LMX and supervisory mentoring on social media on burnout and role stress have also been measured using a chi-square and t-test analysis (Thomas & Lankau, 2009). Venkataramani, Green, and Schleicher (2010) studied the impact of social network ties as measured on LMX and work attitudes. LMX was found to mediate a leader's perceived status on employees' turnover intentions and job satisfaction. ...
Thesis
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The leader-member exchange (LMX) theory is a leadership theory that focuses on the dyadic relationship between a leader and supervisor. The research topic revolved around the LMX theory and examined the differences between levels of text messaging and levels of LMX quality on task performance and job satisfaction. The researcher used a three-by-five two-way MANOVA statistical analysis to examine the differences between three text messaging groups and five LMX groups. The dissertation used three research questions through a quantitative research methodology. Research Question 1 examined the differences in the combined linear variate for task performance and job satisfaction between low, moderate, or high levels of amount of text messaging of those individuals who either had very-high, high, moderate, low, or very-low LMX quality levels. Research Question 2 examined the differences in the combined linear variate for task performance and job satisfaction between very-high, high, moderate, low, or very-low LMX quality levels of those who either had low, moderate, or high levels in their amount of text messaging. Research Question 3 examined the interaction between LMX quality (very-high, high, moderate, low, or very-low) and the amount of text messaging (low, moderate, or high) on the combined linear variates for task performance and job satisfaction. Using Qualtrics’ collection procedures, adult administrative employees (18 years of age or older) who had a direct supervisor and who fit the inclusionary and exclusionary criteria were targeted as possible participants. Data from over 6,000 participants were collected, of which 122 were analyzed, and 121 were included in the dissertation results. Each of the 15 groups had at least seven participants, excluding one case that was found to be an outlier. One of the three hypotheses was rejected. An ANOVA analysis for Research Question 2 resulted in a significant difference between LMX quality and job satisfaction. The findings suggested a positive relationship between high-quality LMX relationship and job satisfaction, as scholars in the literature noted. Despite the limitations of the study, which included the self-rated questionnaires on task performance, the findings suggested the benefits of fostering a high-quality LMX relationship in the workplace to influence positive work outcomes. Recommendations for future research include exploring and examining the relationship building process of an LMX relationship based on ICT usage, and, in turn, the relationship between LMX quality based on ICT usage on other work outcomes.
... They can help the leader develop social structures that give the leaders access to support throughout a broader organization (Galvin, Balkundi, & Waldman, 2010). Upward relationships with senior management can connect leaders to broader opportunities through relational sponsorship and other support (Sparrowe & Liden, 1997;Venkataramani, Green, & Schleicher, 2010). Internal lateral relationships can also foster collaborations where people share leadership responsibilities (Carson, Tesluk, & Marrone, 2007;Klein, Ziegert, Knight, & Xiao, 2006). ...
Article
Leadership is a prominent function within organizations and social entities, and research suggests more active leadership tends to be more effective. However, research is also emerging to suggest that more active leadership can place stressful demands on leaders that can jeopardize their well-being and eventual effectiveness. This paper draws from research on job demands, job resources, and stress coping to outline an applied framework of leader strain management. The model explains how leadership demands (i.e., the challenges/hindrances leaders face) can influence leader strains (i.e., negative implications of the demands), and how leader resources (i.e., tangible/intangible assets) can be leveraged through coping activities to resolve demands or reduce strains. The paper proposes five guidelines for leaders seeking to balance effectively engaging their leadership responsibilities with maintaining their well-being and sustaining their effectiveness over time. First, leaders are encouraged to develop efficient strategies for managing their demands. Second, leaders are encouraged to engage active leadership behaviors to develop sustainable resources and capabilities for their followers. Third, leaders are encouraged to manage non-leadership demands and resources through task crafting. Fourth, leaders are encouraged to manage their relationships in a mindful way. Finally, leaders are encouraged to cognitively mitigate intractable hindering demands.
... Networking ability is an aspect of political skill by which individuals develop social relationships they can use to their advantage (Ferris et al., 2005). Supervisors that are perceived to have a high networking ability should be viewed as being well positioned within the social network of the organization (Ng & Feldman, 2010b;Venkataramani, Green, & Schleicher, 2010). Thus, when the supervisor is perceived to have a high networking ability, employees should perceive him or her as being able to mobilize resources (e.g., information, influence, alliances; Ferris et al., 2005; see also Seibert, Kraimer, & Liden, 2001) that will facilitate career attainment in the organization. ...
Article
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This paper introduces the construct of commitment to organizational career (COC). Conceptualized as a specific form of goal commitment, COC reflects an individual's commitment to the goal of pursuing a long and successful career in an organization. We developed a 5‐item measure of COC and examined its validity and reliability in four studies involving employees from diverse organizations and occupations (Ns = 312, 187, 199, 309). We explore COC's distinctiveness from related constructs, including organizational commitment components (i.e., affective, normative, and continuance subdimensions) and career commitment, as well as its ability to predict turnover intention and voluntary turnover. Finally, we examine COC's antecedents and specify boundary conditions to its relationship to turnover. Overall, results support the reliability and validity of the COC measure. We discuss how COC contributes to generate promising research avenues for the career and commitment literatures. Practitioner points • We introduce the commitment to organizational career (COC) construct. • Four studies provide reliability and validity evidence for a COC measure that can be used in future research. • COC adds to the career and commitment literatures and directs attention to organizational career goals as a common ground linking individuals’ and organizations’ interests. • This common ground may provide a basis for both parties to build mutually beneficial relationships.
... LLX provides leaders with approval and support of higher-level managers and, thus also, legitimacy and credibility that is typically associated with organizational status. Also, leaders with high LLX generally have greater access to resources and opportunities that can be instrumental for subordinates (Liu et al., 2013;Tangirala et al., 2007;Venkataramani, Green, & Schleicher, 2010;Zhou et al., 2012). ...
... We also did not limit the number of advice sources for any coworker. Based on coworker's response, we then measured network indegree centrality (Freeman, 1979) using UCINET 6.347, consistent with recent trend in network studies (Bono & Anderson, 2005;Mehra et al., 2006) we captured the extent to which focal employee is sought to discuss organizational matters (Venkataramani et al., 2010). Higher within group response rate is required to measure indegree centrality because with low response rate we cannot firmly say that the results represent the actual centrality of the group (Costenbader & Valente, 2003). ...
Article
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This study examined peers’ perceived central network position with supervisors’ rated individual creativity. Employing three sources of data collection technique consist of 286 employees, subordinate-colleague dyads, and their respective 40 supervisors. We collected data from the employees working at controlling offices of a private commercial bank and analyzed proposed hypothesis with hierarchical analysis technique using random coefficient regression with Mplus 7.0. Employees of our sample were working in groups of 6-9 members per workgroup. Overall employees of these work groups represent higher hierarchical level employees of the bank. We examined that, network centrality is related with individual creativity directly and via mediation of knowledge integration; network cost moderated the relationship between network centrality and individual creativity and knowledge integration, however, knowledge integration mediated the relationship between the interaction of network centrality and network cost and individual creativity. Our results revealed that knowledge integration is a consequence of central network positions while network cost negatively affect creativity of centrally positioned employee. Centrally positioned employee can attenuate the negative effects of network cost by integrating knowledge available to him/her due to privileged central network position. We contributed to literature by introducing knowledge integration as a novel predictor of network centrality, network position can have both benefits and costs attached at the same time, and network position holders can enjoy knowledge benefits only when he/she has less network cost.
... For instance, researchers have studied the link between the leader's LMX quality with his/her own boss, and its implications on the employees the leader leads (Erdogan & Bauer, 2015). The relationship between leaders and their own bosses is referred to as the leader-leader exchange (LLX) and it has been found that leaders with high LLX relationship with their bossed are in a better position to develop high-quality exchanges with their subordinates (Venkataramani, Green, & Schleicher, 2010). ...
Article
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Leader-member exchange (LMX) describes how the quality of relationship between leaders and their followers can impact significant leaders and follower’s attitudes and behaviours. LMX theory is premised on the assumption that the kind of relationships which leaders have developed with their subordinates is the basis for grasping and explaining the manner in which leaders influence employees. The quality of LMX relationships has significant import on organization outcomes. The objective of this paper was to present a theoretical review of the concept of leader-member exchange and its implications on selected organization outcomes. From our theoretical review of extant literature, high quality LMX relationship has been found to significantly lead to high level job satisfaction, high level organizational commitment, low level of job stress, high exhibition of organizational citizenship behavior, high level of motivation, low intention to quit, less burnout, high productivity and a host of other organizational outcomes.
... It is designed to analyze data collected from an individual who forms multiple relationships (dependent dyads) in a team. Adopting this method, Venkataramani, Green, and Schleicher (2010) for example asked team members to list the extent to which they sought advice from different supervisors and looked at how their network centrality shaped leader-member exchange and members' work attitudes. A similar approach focusing on network centrality in feedback seeking could further unravel feedback seeking and feedback giving dynamics. ...
Preprint
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Companies are increasingly moving toward more fluidity and flexibility in performance management. The trend to “unstructure” feedback processes has led to a renewed interest in evidence-based guidelines on how to organize feedback in organizations differently. Unfortunately, there remains a dearth of knowledge on two fundamental properties of feedback processes as they are now being advanced in organizations. First, feedback is dyadic in that both employee and supervisor are active agents in a feedback exchange. Second, feedback is dynamic with feedback conversations being connected in time to previous and future conversations. Drawing on conceptual and methodological advances in studying dyadic and dynamic processes, we systematically address previously unexplored research areas and paint a more complete picture of how informal feedback exchanges in organizations unfold over time. In doing so, we bring together the feedback-seeking, feedback-giving, and feedback environment literature to advance a dyadic and dynamic perspective on feedback processes in organizations.
... We then calculated each employee's indegree centrality (Freeman, 1979), or the frequency with which other employees seek advice from a focal person, using UCINET 6.347 (Borgatti, Everett, & Freeman, 2002). Our choice of indegree centrality is in line with recent studies on networks (e.g., Bono & Anderson, 2005;Mehra, Dixon, Brass, & Robertson, 2006) and captures the extent to which a focal employee is sought after by coworkers to discuss organizational matters (Venkataramani et al., 2010). Indegree centrality is computed on the basis of a focal employee's coworkers' responses. ...
... According to social exchange theory, reciprocity is a core belief between a leader and a subordinate (Cropanzano & Mitchell, 2005). When subordinates perceive high-quality LMX, they often feel they are trusted and liked by their leaders (Graen & Uhl-Bien, 1995;Venkataramani, Green, & Schleicher, 2010). In response to high LMX, subordinates often work harder and engage in less deviance (El Akremi, Vandenberghe, & Camerman, 2010;Gerstner & Day, 1997). ...
Article
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Extant research has uniformly demonstrated that leader humility is beneficial for subordinates, teams, and even organizations. Drawing upon attribution theory, we challenge this prevailing conclusion by identifying a potential dark side of leader humility and suggesting that leader humility can be a mixed blessing. We propose that the effects of leader humility hinge on subordinates' attributions of such humble behavior. On the one hand, when subordinates attribute leader humility in a self-serving way, leader humility is positively associated with subordinate psychological entitlement, which in turn increases workplace deviance. On the other hand, when subordinates do not attribute leader humility in a self-serving way, leader humility is positively associated with leader-member exchange, which in turn decreases workplace deviance. We found support for our hypotheses across a field study and an experiment. Taken together, our findings reveal the perils and benefits of leader humility and the importance of examining subordinate attributions in this unique leadership process. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).
... Leader-Member Exchange (LMX) theory (Graen & Uhl-Bien, 1995) is arguably one of the most established frameworks for understanding leadership effectiveness (Dinh et al., 2014;Gottfredson & Aguinis, 2016). Originally built on vertical dyad linkage theory (VDL, Dansereau et al., 1975) to understand the leader-follower dyad, it has in recent decades been widely extended to account for relationships such as those between colleagues (team-member exchange, TMX; see Seers, 1989) or a leader and his/her supervisor (leader-leader exchange, LLX; see Liu et al., 2013;Tangirala et al., 2007;Venkataramani et al., 2010;Zhou et al., 2012). With the present study, we argue for another extension: namely, to situations where employees report to two leaders, which is a reality in many bigger organizations. ...
Article
While strategic management theories have heavily engaged with the reality of matrix organizations, leadership theories that actually focus on the people working within such arrangements are missing. We argue that (a) followers perceive dual leadership effectiveness to be more than the sum of each leader's effectiveness, (b) a core detriment to perceived dual leadership effectiveness is role conflict experienced by the follower, and (c) Leader-Member Exchange (LMX) needs to be theoretically extended to the triadic level to capture the influence of dual leadership. Specifically, followers’ role conflict and leadership effectiveness perceptions are driven not only by how they perceive their LMX relationships with both leaders, but also how they perceive the relationship quality between their leaders (dual leadership exchange, DLX). As such, even though higher LMX is still better than lower LMX, having a similar exchange relationship with both leaders reduces employees’ role conflict and, by extension, heightens dual leadership effectiveness. Additionally, we reason that when employees lack a good relationship with one of the leaders, higher DLX can act as a substitute. We find support for our hypotheses by applying polynomial regression analyses to a dataset of 111 managers from a matrix organization who report to both a regional and business unit leader.
... As stated by (Graen & Uhl-Bien, 1995) ,the low quality LMX is labeled with low level of mutual trust and fulfillment of organizational obligations, under this situation followers only perform those duties which are more of formal in nature whereas under high quality of LMX an employee is motivated and ready to put more efforts and go beyond his normal duties mentioned in his job description. Existing research has shown that the good quality of LMX is linked with many organizational and individual outcomes (Dulac et al., 2008;Venkataramani et al., 2010). According to (Liden, et al., 2006) it is been seen that leaders only develop quality relation with some employees. ...
... In terms of the leader, cues include leader status, power, and accessibility. Leaders' status and power are expected to increase the value and importance of having a good relationship with the leader, making leadership differentiation more salient and increasing its social impact (Latané, 1981;Yukl & Falbe, 1991;Venkataramani, Green, & Schleicher, 2010). As leaders have more status and become more powerful they can provide more resources to their employees (Wilson et al., 2010), broker higher quality co-worker relationships (Sherony & Green, 2002), and better sponsor the employee within the organization (Sparrowe & Liden, 1997;2005). ...
Article
The paper integrates the literature on group faultlines and leadership differentiation to introduce and define the concept of leadership faultlines, or the social divide between the leader’s in-group and out-group(s) within a specified collective. The leadership faultline construct has dimensions of leadership faultline activation, fairness of leadership differentiation, and leadership faultline strength. Leadership faultlines are expected to predict mechanisms of subgroup binding and polarizing. Subgroup binding is proposed to promote subgroup insulation and sub group polarizing is proposed to harm group coordination. Four group configurations of binding and polarizing are then explained with subsequent managerial implications presented. Theoretical implications and suggestions for future research are provided.
... Step 2 norms (Kang et al., 2018), or pay less attention to peers' behaviours because there may be little demand for them to pursue a higher status through interactions with peers (Venkataramani et al., 2010). The potential opposite effects of network centrality may result in a non-significant moderating effect. ...
Article
Customers have become co-creators of value in software development and improvement. The intensifying integration of social networks and online communities requires an understanding of social influence on user participation. Drawing upon social capital theory, we studied the influence of peers and network position on user participation in a firm-hosted software community. Based on an analysis of longitudinal data on the knowledge seeking and knowledge contribution behaviours of 2,192 users, we found that an individual’s quantity of friends’ participation is positively related to his or her participation. The source credibility from expert friends’ participation negatively affects user participation. We especially found that network centrality which depicts an individual’s relative position in the network significantly moderates the effects of peers. Interestingly, closeness centrality and betweenness centrality exert different moderating effects on the peer effects. Closeness centrality strengthens the influence of friends’ participation on knowledge seeking but has no effect on knowledge contribution. Betweenness centrality does not affect the effects of friends’ participation. The effects of source credibility from expert friends are weaker for users with lower closeness centrality and higher betweenness centrality. This study yields a better understanding of social influence on user participation and provides insights for software community managers.
... Finally, a decrease in voluntary behavior of helping was found towards coworkers because of higher levels of envy. Venkataramani, Green, and Schleicher (2010) researched upon the effects on member's work attitudes because of leaders' social network ties. The researchers used variables that were social ties, leader-member exchange, turnover intentions, and employees' job satisfaction. ...
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The aim of this study was to analyze whether the impact of socialization on new employees’ reputation is positive or negative. To aware the potential employees about factors that can help in bringing out constructive rapport in the professional life, it was important to explore the importance of socialization and forming association in the organization. Variables studied were socialization, grouping, relationship with other employees, and new employees’ reputation. A sample size of 250 respondents was taken for data screening to carry out this research through simple random sampling technique. This was correlative research and multiple linear regression analysis was used to check the impact of independent variables on employee’s reputation. It was a quantitative as well as qualitative research and data was collected by distributing questionnaires. The result suggested that socialization and association with your colleagues play a vital role in creating good reputation while grouping will not be that helpful. The employees can be social and perform team building attitude rather than forming a group. The study tells about the importance and the level of overall socialization an employee must pursue to get promotion. The balanced socialization can help employee in building up rapport when he is a new entrant in any organization.
... Although the bystander effect is empirically well established, reviews have noted that research needs to make conceptual advances by explicating its boundary conditions (Fischer et al., 2011). We draw on recent scholarship that has indicated that employees pay careful attention to the nature of relationships among their peers and leaders when deciding on their own actions (e.g., Venkataramani, Green, & Schleicher, 2010) to highlight how the average LMX that fellow observers (peers) have with the target of voice (manager) can influence the extent to which the focal actor (employee) feels a responsibility to speak up on topics of common knowledge in the observer group. In making this case, we underscore how behaviors potentially subject to bystander effects are influenced by the pattern of relationships in the social environment in which they occur. ...
... The current model of embeddedness and commitment could help explain the influence processes involved in strategic leadership (Varella, Javidan, & Waldman, 2012), sponsorship (Sparrowe & Liden, 2005;Venkataramani, Green, & Schleicher, 2010), and surrogacy (Galvin, Balkundi, & Waldman, 2010). Leaders must influence followers through formal and informal channels to affect change. ...
Article
We draw on concepts of embeddedness and commitment to explain people's susceptibility to social influence from their personal network. Using two samples and multiple methods (experimental manipulation, social network inventories, and surveys) we assess whether embeddedness in one's social network (i.e., advice centrality) affects susceptibility to social influence, via commitment to one's personal network. We extend concepts of affective, normative, and instrumental commitment to an individual’s personal network for this purpose. In Study 1, we experimentally manipulate normative social information and find that central members are more likely to conform to social influence, according to mechanisms of psychological affective and instrumental network commitment. Study 2 tests the robustness of our generalized predictions by considering how advice centrality relates to one’s aggregate dyadic network commitments and perceived social influence. Study 2 results indicate that advice centrality positively relates to perceived social influence through relational affective, normative, and instrumental network commitment.
... peers (Hogan, 1996;Hogan & Holland, 2003). Members who are frequently targeted for task-related advice accumulate task-related knowledge so they gain confidence in their ability to solve problems (Baldwin, Bedell, & Johnson, 1997) and comparatively high influence, central positions (Brass & Krackhardt, 1999;Foti & Hauenstein, 2007), higher status, and power (Venkataramani, Green, & Schleicher, 2010). As valued resources for teammates (Sparrowe et al., 2001;Wolff, Pescosolido, & Druskat, 2002), they ultimately emerge as informal team leaders. ...
Article
Drawing upon socioanalytic theory of personality, we hypothesize and test inverted U-shaped relationships between team members' assertiveness and warmth (labeled as the "getting ahead" and "getting along" facets of extraversion) and peers' reactions (i.e., advice seeking by peers and peer liking, respectively) that, in turn, predict members' emergence as informal leaders in self-managed teams. Integrating research on prosocial motivation, we also examine whether prosocially motivated members have more enhanced positive curvilinear influences of assertiveness and warmth on peer reactions. Based on 223 members in 69 student project teams (Study 1) and 337 employees in 79 self-managed work teams (Study 2), we found support for the inverted U-shaped relationships between assertiveness and advice seeking by peers, and between warmth and peer liking. Further, prosocial motivation enhances the inverted U-shaped effect of assertiveness in Study 2 and those effects of warmth in both studies. Advice seeking by peers and peer liking, in turn, were positively related to leadership emergence in both studies. Our findings have important theoretical and practical implications for dispositional and motivational factors that shape peer reactions and facilitate leadership emergence in teams.
... Networking assumes the ability to develop and maintain an informal relationship with others to create a work oriented community for getting permission on resource uses, increasing shared benefits (Wolff and Moser, 2009) receiving assistance and relaxations which can increase individual's worth and draws attention of other persons to the system (Taylor, 2006). Effective networking skill is beneficial to expand both individual and professional chances, gather more information, perform more activities, increase remuneration, involve in a group (Singh et al., 2006;Wolff and Moser, 2009), acquire the leadership quality (Venkataramani et al., 2010) and deliver effective occupational effort (Yeung, 2006). Networking skills include traits of experiencing program arrangements and serving community voluntarily. ...
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Presently, organisations are emphasising on employees' soft skills to gain a competitive advantage. This study aims to explore the awareness level and practices of soft skills among managers and non-managerial employees in the telecom industry of Bangladesh. It also attempts to measure the correlation among various skills, discover the central role player in developing soft skills and identify the availability of training facilities in the workplace to improve those skills. A structured questionnaire has been administered to collect data from 75 respondents of five telecom companies with adopting a convenience sampling method. The quantitative approach has been followed to complete this paper. Collected data have been analysed through descriptive statistics: mean score, ANOVA and correlation analysis. The result reveals that respondents are well aware of soft skills and they are practicing the maximum number of contents in a similar way except effective action taking ability, integrity, experience in organising programs and being friendly. The study also discovers significant and positive relationships among several of soft skills. Moreover, self-motivation plays the central role to develop employees' soft skills which later organisations try to enrich through training. Findings would be beneficial for enhancing employees' soft skills practices to achieve competency.
... Although the bystander effect is empirically well established, reviews have noted that research needs to make conceptual advances by explicating its boundary conditions (Fischer et al., 2011). We draw on recent scholarship that has indicated that employees pay careful attention to the nature of relationships among their peers and leaders when deciding on their own actions (e.g., Venkataramani, Green, & Schleicher, 2010) to highlight how the average LMX that fellow observers (peers) have with the target of voice (manager) can influence the extent to which the focal actor (employee) feels a responsibility to speak up on topics of common knowledge in the observer group. In making this case, we underscore how behaviors potentially subject to bystander effects are influenced by the pattern of relationships in the social environment in which they occur. ...
Article
Employees often remain silent rather than speak up to managers with work-related ideas, concerns, and opinions. As a result, managers can remain in the dark about issues that are otherwise well known to, or universally understood by, frontline employees. We propose a previously unexplored explanation for this phenomenon: Voice is prone to bystander effects, such that the more certain information is shared among employees, the less any particular employee feels individually responsible for bringing up that information with managers. We theorize that such bystander effects are especially likely to occur when peers of focal employees, on average, enjoy high quality relationships with managers and thereby have adequate relational access to voice up the hierarchy. Using a correlational study involving managers and employees working in teams in a Fortune 500 company, and two experimental studies (a laboratory study involving undergraduate students working in a hierarchical setting, and a scenario study with a sample of U.S.-based workers), we provide evidence for our conceptual model. We discuss the theoretical and managerial implications of our findings.
... Conclusions are made as to the nature of the user or node. Westaby et al. quotes research drawing from disciplines such as Applied Psychology and Management Sciences, showing how centrality relates to 1) power, 2) performance, 3) charismatic leadership and 4) perceived status in an organisation (Kameda, Ohtsubo, & Takezawa, 1997), (Ahuja, Galletta, & Carley, 2003), (Borgatti, Brass, & Labianca, 2009), (Balkundi, Kilduff, & Harrison, 2011) (Venkataramani, Green, & Schleicher, 2010). Considering these criteria, it is reasonable to argue that the reputation of an organisation strongly influences its network centrality. ...
Thesis
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This study examines the way social media changes the way documentaries are developed, produced and distributed. I want to investigate how web 2.0 technologies disrupt the documentary sector and the way producers navigate the social media ecology. Research exposed an industry in transformation. New roles, like the Producer for Marketing and Distribution (PMD), the Impact Producer (IP) and a participant-centric mode of documentary filmmaking are revealed. The way users connect via social media has changed the way people interact with each other at work. A balanced real- and virtual world network approach makes a strong and highly central network position for a documentary project possible. Emotional contagion and an authentic online presence create value for a films social media campaign. Both are crucial factors to the mobile multi-device audience expecting a credible social media experience. Research suggests that users accept the risks associated with the way their data is exploited by social networks as long as the user’s social media experience is not diminished. The concept of the Global Digital Family is revealed when reappraising social media. I suggest further research into the problem of online authenticity. Kozinets’ ideas on Gemeinschafts-type engagement (Kozinets, 2015) shed light on the phenomenon. But exactly when something is perceived as authentic online is still not entirely clear and should be investigated further. I also recommend that the PMD is formally accredited to encourage industry recognition.
... Because differentiation determines the resources and rewards received from the supervisor and the relative standing of individuals in the group, individuals compare their actual leader-member exchange (LMX) level with average leader-subordinate LMX in the group (Tse et al., 2018;Zhao et al., 2019). While research on leadermember exchange has flourished over the past several decades (see the recent review by Martin et al., 2016), it has largely focused on examining how dyadic LMX affects individual-level outcomes, thus neglecting the social context in which LMX relationships are embedded (Venkataramani et al., 2010). This oversight is surprising, given that teamwork structures are prevalent in most organizations, and that social comparison is integral to organizational life (Buunk & Gibbons, 2007). ...
Article
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This study examines how, why and when relative leader–member exchange (RLMX) influences absenteeism through the mediating effect of feelings of vigor, and the moderating role of unit-level leader–member exchange differentiation (LMX differentiation). Data collected from a Swiss retailer sample of 486 employees within 52 stores shows that RLMX is positively related to feelings of vigor, whereas feelings of vigor are negatively related to absenteeism. Also, RLMX has a stronger positive effect on vigor when LMX differentiation in the unit is high, and on absenteeism when differentiation in the unit is low. However, we found no evidence that the indirect influence of RLMX on absenteeism through feelings of vigor is moderated by unit-level LMX differentiation. The implications of these findings for research on LMX are discussed.
... Thus, more prototypical group members come into contact with larger numbers of ingroup members, and these ingroup members are more motivated to share their orientations. Their network centrality (Wölfer et al., 2015) facilitates intragroup influence (e.g., Kameda et al., 1997;Venkataramani et al., 2010). Taken together, these considerations also make it more likely that prototypical group members get nominated and selected for leadership positions (e.g., Hogg & van Knippenberg, 2003), which potentially increase their capacity to influence other group members and their emotions still further. ...
Article
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Emotions carry consequences that extend beyond any single individual. Another person's anger, love, or hate is difficult to ignore even when it is not directed at us. When someone nearby is delighted or distressed about anything, their emotion seems to carry a gravitational pull that draws us in. Why are other people's emotions so compelling? How do they achieve their social effects? My book Heart to Heart presents an integrative approach to the underlying processes based on the idea of relation alignment-the mutual positioning of two or more interacting individuals who are oriented to a person , object, or event from similar or different angles. Emotions serve to calibrate those individuals' respective orientations to what is happening, either by conveying appraisals and action tendencies from person to person or by providing a dynamic stream of bodily nudges and implicit attentional cues to which other people's orientations adjust in real time. The relation-alignment approach is best understood as an alternative to traditional single-minded analyses of emotional functioning, which see social effects as necessarily secondary to more fundamental individual processes. The next section of this article compares and contrasts these two approaches. Subsequent sections set out the verbal and nonverbal channels along which emotions operate between people, and the implications of the relation-alignment approach for our understanding of emotion's interpersonal and intragroup effects and social-regulatory functions.
... There may be an important opportunity to link work on leader characteristics with the behavioral and relational scholarship on creative leadership. Assembling the findings from all three approaches for studying leadership precipitating creativity, it is plausible that leaders' characteristics determine the style of leadership they engage in (e.g., Judge et al., 2002), and their nature and their networks could further precipitate leader-follower relationship quality (Venkataramani et al., 2010), with those outcomes helping to promote creativity. A fully integrated model might suggest that leader characteristics determine a leader's style, which affects the quality and nature of that leader's relationships with followers, with resultant effects on outcomes like creativity. ...
Chapter
Because leadership and creativity represent two of the most popular topics in the fields of management and organizational behavior, it should not be surprising that a large body of literature has emerged in which the two are jointly examined. Leadership is a commonly studied independent variable, whereas creativity is an outcome of paramount importance for organizations, and the two are also theoretically connected in several ways, suggesting that leadership could precipitate followers’ creative outcomes. This relationship pattern, called “creative leadership,” is the most common way leadership and creativity interact in the extant scholarship. Most of the existing work has focused on “facilitating” creative leadership, in which followers (but not leaders) generate creative outputs, often as a result of leadership behaviors and styles, relationships, or the characteristics of their leader. This work generally finds that positive leadership precipitates positive creative outcomes, although some findings have emerged suggesting that considerable nuance may exist in these relationships, a promising area for future research. Much less scholarship has examined how leaders might direct others to implement their own creative visions, or how leaders might integrate their own creative efforts with those of their followers to enhance overall creativity. Research on these forms of creative leadership is often limited to specific creativity-relevant industries, such the culinary field and the arts, but there is opportunity to examine how they might operate in more general organizational fields. Other phenomena linking leadership and creativity are plausible but less understood. For instance, leaders may assemble creative contexts, engage in unconventional behavior, or emerge as leaders regardless of their hierarchical positions. Least explored of all is the idea of an opposite causal order—that of creativity affecting leadership, such that creative acts or experiences by an organizational member might drive or alter leadership emerging from themselves, their managers, or their followers. After review of the extant literature in these areas, potential topics for future scholarship are identified within and among the different research streams.
... Garcia-Lorenzo, 2006;Gibson, Hardy III & Buckley, 2014), and leadership (e.g. Venkataramani, Green & Schleicher, 2010). As a result, professional networking is known by various terms, various definitions, and various activities that constitute professional networking. ...
Thesis
Professional social networking sites (SNS) have become a vital part of modern days professional lives. They are a convenient way to receive information about job offers, work-related content, and to connect with other professionals independent of time and space. Research in the field of social capital has shown that a network of people can give access to information, influence, and solidarity which positively affect both subjective and objective career outcomes. Moreover, research has shown that a diverse network is most beneficial as it gives access to non-redundant information, new perspectives, and new ideas. Yet, most professional SNS users are mainly connected with others from their direct work environments such as colleagues and university friends. For one thing, this is because of the homophily principle which states that people tend to surround themselves with others who are similar to them. On the other hand, contact recommender systems of professional SNS support connecting with similar others as contact recommendations are usually based on similarity. The cumulative dissertation, therefore, was set out to investigate the technological and the human side of professional online networking to gain evidence on how to encourage professional SNS users to build more diverse business networks. The dissertation consists of four research articles answering the following four research questions: 1. Is there a difference between offline and online professional networking in terms of intensity and in terms of influence factors? 2. How do basic technological features and functions (e.g. diverse contact recommendations) influence professional online networking? 3. How do different information designs of contact recommendations influence professional online networking? 4. How does diverse online networking influence people’s social identification with their online business networks? In summary, the four research articles show that people’s online networking is mainly driven by cognitive factors, more specifically, people’s knowledge about the benefits of (diverse) networking. When people know about the benefits of networking and the benefits of diverse networking, they network more and more diverse. This can be addressed in the design of contact recommendations by displaying an explanation why someone is recommended thereby hinting at the benefits of networking in general and at the benefits of diversity. Moreover, this can be addressed by presenting contact recommendations emphasizing dissimilarity information in contrast to similarity information. Both different types of explanations and different types of information weaken the homophily principle and encourage people to network more diverse. Besides, basic technological functions influence online networking. When people are presented with a more diverse set of contact recommendations to choose from, they do not network less but consequently, end up with a more diverse business network. Furthermore, the negative affective influence of anxiety towards unknown people is different for offline than for online networking. In line with the social compensation hypothesis, in online settings, the negative influence is weaker than it is in offline settings. When only looking at online settings we see that higher levels of anxiety still reduce the number of people connected with but not the diversity of the resulting networks. Hence, people do not feel less anxiety when connecting with similar others than when connecting with dissimilar others. Finally, returning to the side of the user we see that more diverse online networking leads to a reduction of social identification with people’s online business networks. Diverse online networking reduces social identification with the network and as a result the willingness to support the network. Hence, diverse online networking compromises the benefits a network provides. Yet, in the absence of similarity, there is also evidence that people attribute others in their online networks with characteristics of their own to perceive them as similar. Shared characteristics function as a reason to identify and compensate for the lack of formal similarity when business networks become more diverse. Moreover, the specific features and functions of professional SNS besides contact recommendations can compensate for the lack of identification.
Article
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Relationships with leaders do not happen in isolation from the relationships one has with one’s peers. Therefore, we examine the influence of leader‒member exchange on follower job performance in light of the larger social networks in which followers are embedded. Testing multilevel models with data that were gathered using questionnaires from a sample of 240 nurses and 20 supervisors working at four Dutch hospitals revealed that a positive relationship exists between leader‒member exchange and follower job performance when follower workflow network centrality and/or follower friendship network centrality are high but not when they are both low. The results of this study show how the different follower relationships with the supervisor and colleagues intertwine in explaining follower job performance and suggest that the larger network in which followers are embedded within their work teams is important for explaining variations in the results regarding the relationship between leader‒member exchange and follower job performance. Our study indicates that leaders should have an eye for the network position of their followers when developing high quality leader‒member exchange relationships. For followers, a good relationship with their leader is important, but its value depends on their relationships with colleagues.
Article
Employees’ positive word of mouth (WOM) about hotel brands has a profound impact on customer choice and hotel effectiveness. On the basis of social identity theory and social information processing theory, we posit a moderated mediation model wherein hotel supervisors’ organizational identification (OI) increases their subordinates’ engagement in positive WOM behavior by enhancing subordinates’ OI. This relationship is moderated by supervisors’ upward-exchange relationships with their bosses (i.e., leader–leader exchange). Data from a two-wave survey conducted in a hotel in China indicate that employees working under supervisors with high levels of OI better identify with the hotel and engage in more positive WOM behavior. This is particularly the case when supervisors engage in high-quality leader–leader exchange and are well connected with their bosses. The article concludes with theoretical and practical implications highlighting the importance of cultivating employees’ organizational identification and positive WOM behavior in the hospitality sector.
Article
Although there has been a notable increase in research on the effect of social relationships on turnover across different disciplines, including management, sociology, communication, applied psychology, corporate strategy, and economics over the past two decades, this stream of research has not been complied into a thorough and theoretically insightful review. In this article, we review and integrate the literature on social relationships and turnover by (a) defining social relationships broadly; (b) taking an interdisciplinary approach; (c) examining relational components embedded in turnover theories; (d) summarizing findings on the association between behavioral, structural, and psychological features of social relationships and turnover; (e) explaining how the findings can contribute to extant turnover theories; (f) discussing operationalizations of social relationships; (g) identifying limitations of prior research and theories; and (h) providing directions for future research. Our review charts what is known and unknown about the association between social relationships and turnover with the goal of laying out a path for moving forward.
Article
Individuals are always sensitive to their relative standing in interpersonal comparison processes of leader–member exchanges (LMXs) in teams. Little research, however, has investigated whether coworkers with a higher LMX influence the emotional and behavioral reactions of individuals with a lower LMX in different dyads. Drawing on social comparison theory and the symbolic model of procedural justice (PJ) climate, we conducted 2 independent studies—an experimental study focusing on the self-perceived upward LMX comparison (i.e., an individual perceives that a coworker's LMX is higher than the LMX that he or she has with the supervisor; N = 203; Study 1: American working adults) and a field survey study focusing on the other-perceived downward LMX comparison (i.e., a coworker perceives that his or her own LMX is higher than the LMX that the individual has with the supervisor; N = 177; Study 2: Chinese software engineers). Results from these studies consistently revealed that a coworker's higher LMX elicits an individual's hostile emotions when the PJ climate is low but that this relationship is buffered when the PJ climate is high. Results of both studies also showed that the coworker's higher LMX arouses the individual to direct harmful behavior toward that coworker (via the individual's feelings of hostility) when the PJ climate is low but not when it is high.
Article
Purpose This paper aims to extend the argument of DeNisi & Smith Sockbeson, who called to bridge the gap between feedback-seeking and feedback-giving research. The paper pushes their argument further by suggesting that future feedback research should systematically adopt a dyadic and dynamic approach to enhance the understanding of feedback episodes. Design/methodology/approach This paper reviews previous empirical work in the feedback domain and develops conceptual arguments for linking feedback-seeking and feedback intervention research. Findings Drawing upon previous work, the authors conclude that the current depiction of feedback processes in the literature might have been overly static and one-sided. Furthermore, it is argued that feedback research might have not kept up to date with recent conceptual and methodological developments in dyadic organizational behavior research. Research limitations/implications This paper builds on the argument of DeNisi & Smith Sockbeson, in turn contributing to a more complete picture of how feedback processes unfold in organizations. While this paper profiles a few studies that have begun to bridge the disconnect between feedback-seeking and feedback-giving research, one of its limitations is that it does not adopt a systematic approach in reviewing all potential methodologies. Originality/value This paper provides a first step toward studying feedback episodes as dyadic and dynamic processes. In doing so it helps solving one of the long-standing puzzles in management research namely why feedback interventions are sometimes detrimental to performance.
Article
Although a great deal of knowledge has accumulated about dyadic relationships (i.e., leader–member exchange (LMX) or team–member exchange (TMX)) within a team, employee behaviours that involve triadic relationships among focal employees, leaders, and teammates have seldom been investigated. Using balance theory, which describes triadic relationships from a power dependence perspective, in the current study, we explore how the interplay of LMX, TMX, and peers’ LMX jointly impacts employees’ feedback‐seeking behaviour (FSB) and subsequent job performance. By conducting a multilevel moderated polynomial regression on three‐wave, multi‐source data from 147 team members and their leaders (from 45 work teams), we found that the incongruence between LMX and TMX facilitates FSB when peers’ LMX or task interdependence is high. We also found an asymmetrical incongruence effect concerning the way in which individuals are more likely to seek feedback when LMX is worse than TMX, compared with when LMX is better than TMX. This differential effect is stronger when peers’ LMX or task interdependence is high. The interplay of LMX, TMX, peers’ LMX, and task interdependence eventually has an indirect effect on job performance through FSB. The results from a follow‐up study of 270 employees from 77 teams further confirm our predictions about the mechanism of balance theory. Specifically, the results indicate that when peers’ LMX is high, the incongruence between LMX and TMX decreases employees’ psychological safety. Practitioner points • Our study highlights the importance of studying the triadic (LMX, TMX, and peers’ LMX) rather than dyadic relationships in a work team. • This study demonstrates that imbalanced relationship triads can influence employees in a positive way (i.e., motivate employees to conduct more change‐oriented proactive behaviours). • Our study’s findings show that feedback‐seeking behaviour is important in promoting job performance when it aims at changing the imbalanced social environment. • Our findings suggest practitioners should pay more attention to the role of task interdependence, which changes the power dependence structure of workplace relationships.
Article
The present study proposed that, unlike prior leader–member exchange (LMX) research which often implicitly assumed that each leader develops equal-quality relationships with their supervisors (leader’s LMX; LLX), every leader develops different relationships with their supervisors and, in turn, receive different amounts of resources. Moreover, these differentiated relationships with superiors will influence how leader–member relationship quality affects team members’ voice and creativity. We adopted a multi-temporal (three wave) and multi-source (leaders and employees) research design. Hypotheses were tested on a sample of 227 bank employees working in 52 departments. Results of the hierarchical linear modeling (HLM) analysis showed that LLX moderates the relationship between LMX and team members’ voice behavior and creative performance. Strengths, limitations, practical implications, and directions for future research are discussed.
Article
Résumé La relation entre l’engagement affectif des employés envers leur superviseur et la recherche de feedback négatif est peu explorée dans la littérature. De plus, le rôle des caractéristiques propres au contexte de cette relation est méconnu. Dans cet article, nous examinons la relation entre engagement (affectif) envers le supérieur et recherche de feedback négatif en utilisant des données obtenues auprès d’un échantillon de 250 répondants provenant d’organisations actives dans le secteur des services. Trois variables modératrices liées au statut du supérieur sont mesurées : l’inadéquation de valeurs supérieur-organisation, la capacité de réseautage du supérieur, et le statut organisationnel perçu du supérieur. L’analyse des données par régression multiple modérée démontre que l’engagement envers le supérieur est positivement associé à la recherche de feedback négatif et que cette relation est amplifiée lorsque le supérieur est perçu comme ayant une faible inadéquation de valeurs avec l’organisation ou une capacité de réseautage faible. En revanche, le statut organisationnel perçu du supérieur n’exerce pas d’effet modérateur. Nous discutons la portée de ces résultats pour la recherche sur la sollicitation de feedback en contexte de travail.
Article
This article examines the importance of leadership in the context of the internal audit function (IAF). We investigate the influence of the Chief Audit Executive’s (CAE) leadership in enabling the IAF to become a strategic player in corporate governance (CG). Using the responses of 804 CAEs from the Anglosphere countries and South Africa, we find that strong CAE leadership skills and the existence of a leadership training program are significantly and positively associated with IAF involvement in CG processes. This provides support for the argument that CAEs with strong leadership skills help the IAF to move from a behind-the-scenes player to a key actor in the improvement of CG practices, increasing the IAF’s organizational relevance. We also find that the use of a risk-based audit plan, the existence of a quality assurance and improvement program (QAIP), activity type (consulting vs. assurance), and IAF size are also positively associated with IAF involvement in CG. These findings suggest that IAF activity characteristics also have significant implications for this function’s stronger involvement in the CG space.
Book
Do emotions happen inside separate hearts and minds, or do they operate across the spaces between individuals? This book focuses on how emotions affect other people by changing their orientation to what happens in the social world. It provides the first sustained attempt to bring together literature on emotion's social effects in dyads and groups, and on how people regulate their emotions in order to exploit these effects in their home and work lives. The chapters present state-of-the-art reviews of topics such as emotion contagion, social appraisal and emotional labour. The book then develops an innovative and integrative approach to the social psychology of emotion based on the idea of relation alignment. The implications not only stretch beyond face-to-face interactions into the wider interpersonal, institutional and cultural environment, but also penetrate the supposed depths of personal experience, making us rethink some of our strongly held presuppositions about how emotions work.
Article
This study examines charismatic attributions among peers within the informal leadership emergence process. We built and tested the theory with a longitudinal sample of 123 teams. Using an identity negotiation framework, we examined the processes by which individuals came to be perceived as charismatic by both teammates and themselves. We found that individuals engaged in self-verification, which caused their teammates to perceive them as they perceived themselves, while the collective team engaged in appraisal and influenced individual teammates to perceive themselves as the team did. Our findings suggest that these processes are stronger when initial perceptual differences are high and when the identity negotiation process aims at yielding a highly charismatic identity or reputation.
Article
The question of agency has been neglected in social network research, in part because the structural approach to social relations removes consideration of individual volition and action. But recent emphasis on purposive individuals has reignited interest in agency across a range of social network research topics. Our paper provides a brief history of social network agency and an emergent framework based on a thorough review of research published since 2004. This organizing framework distinguishes between an ontology of dualism (actors and social relations as separate domains) and an ontology of duality (actors and social relations as a mutually constituted) at both the individual level and at the social network level. The resulting four perspectives on network agency comprise individual advantage, embeddedness, micro-foundations, and structuration. In conclusion, we address current debates and future directions relating to sources of action and the locus of identity.
Article
The innovation literature is rife with references to the importance of creativity, but idea implementation has largely been ignored. Several recent studies take an individual‐centric perspective but neglect the team‐level idea conversion process. To enhance the understanding of idea implementation as an important process of innovation, this study drew on the social capital perspective and proposed a team‐level mediated moderation model. Data was collected from 63 teams in China. The empirical analyses showed that the leader–leader exchange relationship (LLX) moderates the relationship between idea generation and implementation, and team efficacy mediates the moderating effect of LLX on the idea generation–implementation association. According to these findings, we discuss theoretical and practical implications. Finally, we put forward directions for future research.
Article
Teammates’ perceptions of person‐focused interpersonal citizenship behavior (ICB) are important for effective teamwork, and a member's emotion suppression may critically influence others’ respective perceptions. The existing research is inconclusive, however, whether emotion suppression is helpful or harmful in this regard. This ambiguity hampers our understanding of the development of ICB perceptions within work teams, and it creates uncertainty as to whether members’ emotion suppression is beneficial or detrimental for themselves and the overall team. Hence, we examine a model that specifies important boundary conditions for the emotion suppression–ICB perception linkage. We illustrate a three‐way interactive relation across two studies, such that a member's emotion suppression is positively or negatively associated with a teammate's person‐focused ICB perceptions, depending on both the dyadic interaction context (i.e., relationship conflict) and the overall team context (i.e., goal interdependence). Beyond creating new knowledge on the origins of ICB perceptions, these results reconcile prior, seemingly contradictory perspectives on the role of emotion suppression by explicating when this emotion regulation strategy appears as either “faking in good faith” or “faking in bad faith.” Moreover, reiterating our findings’ relevance, we link others’ ICB perceptions with members’ receipt of ICB from their teammates as well as team performance.
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Industrial Relations scholars have argued that labor‐management partnerships influence union leaders' communication patterns within organizations. To date, however, these arguments have lacked theoretical clarity, as well as strong empirical support. We address this gap by developing and testing hypotheses that concern how the emergence of labor‐management partnerships shape union leaders' communication patterns within and between worksites (Study 1), as well as how these communications patterns associate with frontline workers' attitudes about their jobs and their union leader (Study 2). We test our hypotheses using multi‐source, multi‐year data from the context of U.S. public schools.
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Leaders’ positions as external brokers in organizational networks—those acting as a bridge between individuals outside the boundaries of their team—can enhance or constrain their effectiveness. Yet, whereas extant research on network brokerage views it as a private good whose benefits accrue directly to the broker, recent research suggests brokering between external communities can serve as both a public good as well as a public liability that can spillover to team members. We integrate network leadership theory with the externalities of network brokerage perspective to examine the countervailing effects of leaders’ external brokerage in an information network with peer leaders and executives on team performance. In a sample of 465 team members in 80 teams distributed across 10 sister companies within one conglomerate, we used multilevel structural equation modeling to test our hypotheses. On one hand, we found that leader external brokerage was positively associated with team performance through team members’ perceptions of organizational support; on the other hand, we found that leader brokerage is detrimental to team performance by compromising leaders’ commitment to their teams. Our results suggest that, while leaders are encouraged to forge connections outside their team to harvest social capital benefits, there are both public benefits and liabilities of team leaders’ external networks that can impact team performance.
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Integrating two social cognition‐based theories: social cognitive theory and implicit leadership theory, we propose that leader prototypicality perceptions are important boundary conditions for the effects of leader‐leader exchange (LLX) on team performance through the mediating roles of team leaders’ and team members’ efficacy beliefs. Using time‐lagged, three‐source data from 231 retail store teams, we found that perceived superior prototypicality enhanced the relationship between LLX and team leader self‐efficacy and that perceived team leader prototypicality strengthened the relationship between LLX and team collective efficacy. Moreover, LLX was indirectly and positively related to team performance through the mediating role of team collective efficacy only when team members’ perceptions of team leader group prototypicality were high. Our findings provide a deeper understanding of the role of LLX on team‐ and leader‐level outcomes and they further illuminate the key team processes that bridge the links and important contingencies for the team effects of LLX.
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Leadership research has privileged leaders' active role in shaping leader–follower interactions, whereas much less attention has been given to how followers interact with leaders. We propose that leader–member exchange (LMX) mediates the relationship between followership and employee behaviors. We also suggest that top management openness (TMO) moderates these relationships. With a sample of 769 supervisor–subordinate dyads, we examined the role of followership and contextual variables on LMX and outcomes. We found that LMX mediates the relationship between proactive followership and voice and that this relationship was significant only when TMO was high. These findings suggest that followers play an active role in the leadership process and that to stimulate voice one should consider two levels of analysis: followers and leaders.
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In this study, I propose supervisors’ upward leader–leader exchange relationships as an important boundary condition for the relationship between average leader–member exchange (LMX) relationships and a climate for innovation support at the group level. Specifically, I argue that the effect of resource spillover to poor-LMX subordinates within a work group is an important mechanism that leads to the development of a climate that supports innovation. I test the hypothesized moderated-mediation model by using multisource and multiwave data collected from 590 employees and 75 supervisors. The findings indicate that the indirect effect of team LMX relationships on team effectiveness via a climate for innovation support is more positive under high conditions of leader–leader exchange, whereas the effect is less positive under low conditions of leader–leader exchange. Implications and limitations relevant to developing research around LMX and innovation are addressed.
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This longitudinal study examines the development of leader-member-exchange (LMX) relationships via a model that extends and tests ideas presented but not yet fully tested in past theoretical models. New subordinates (n = 205) and their supervisors (n = 112) provided data that were used to test hypotheses stating that dyadic gender and personality similarity, member performance, and leader delegation would be incrementally and cumulatively related to LMX development. Support was found for relationships between the quality of leader-member exchange and positive affectivity similarity, performance, and delegation, but not for a relationship with gender similarity. In addition, it appears that good member performance may precede leader delegation.
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Following a review of literature on the leader-member exchange model of leadership, the model's methodological and theoretical problems are discussed. First, it is argued that leader-member exchange is a multidimensional construct and should be measured accordingly. Second, it is noted that the leader-member exchange developmental process has not been fully explicated. In addressing these problems, a three dimensional conceptualization of the leader-member exchange construct is proposed and a model of the leader-member exchange developmental process is presented.
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Theory supporting the key premise of the leader-member exchange (LMX) approach to leadership, that leaders differentiate between subordinates, has not been fully developed. We address this deficiency by (a) returning LMX research to its historical roots in exchange processes by introducing a framework for understanding relationship quality that is based on reciprocity, and (b) extending the traditional domain of LMX research beyond the formal leader-subordinate relationship in order to offer a more complete explanation of the differentiation process. We employ insights derived from social network analysis to describe how social structure facilitates the exchange processes through which leaders assist in incorporating some members into the inner life of an organization but exclude others.
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In this paper, we review and analyze the emerging network paradigm in organizational research. We begin with a conventional review of recent research organized around recognized research streams. Next, we analyze this research, developing a set of dimensions along which network studies vary, including direction of causality, levels of analysis, explanatory goals, and explanatory mechanisms. We use the latter two dimensions to construct a 2-by-2 table cross-classifying studies of network consequences into four canonical types: structural social capital, social access to resources, contagion, and environmental shaping. We note the rise in popularity of studies with a greater sense of agency than was traditional in network research.
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Multilevel models are becoming increasingly used in applied educational social and economic research for the analysis of hierarchically nested data. In these random coefficient regression models the parameters are allowed to differ over the groups in which the observations are nested. For computational ease in deriving parameter estimates, predictors are often centered around the mean. In nested or grouped data, the option of centering around the grand mean is extended with an option to center within groups or contexts. Both are statistically sound ways to improve parameter estimation. In this article we study the effects of these two different ways of centering, in comparison to the use of raw scores, on the parameter estimates in random coefficient models. The conclusion is that centering around the group mean amounts to fitting a different model from that obtained by centering around the grand mean or by using raw scores. The choice between the two options for centering can only be made on a theoretical basis. Based on this study, we conclude that centering rules valid for simple models, such as the fixed coefficients regression model. are no longer applicable to more complicated models, such as the random coefficient model. We think researchers should be made aware of the consequences of the choice of particular centering options.
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This study describes the construction and initial validation of a scale that measures four indirect impression management tactics identified by Cialdini (1989). The scale measures the connection-focused tactics of Boasting, Blurring, Blaring, and Burying. The scale development consisted of the multiple stage process identified by Hinkin (1998). Stage 1 included holding three separate focus groups to generate the initial items. Stages 2 and 3 included two data collections to first explore and then confirm the factor structure of the impression management by association scale. A final data collection in Stage 4 assessed the convergent and discriminant validity of the impression management by association scale. Overall, the impression management by association scale satisfactorily represented the four factors conceptualized by Cialdini (1989), although more refinement is needed to better distinguish the Burying from the Blaring factor.
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We hypothesized that positive and negative affect would interact with ability information in predicting exchange quality ratings of leaders and group members in a laboratory study. Ninety-six undergraduates completed a measure of cognitive ability, as well as a measure of positive-and negative-trait affect before participating in several group exercises. Exchange quality ratings collected from emergent leaders were best predicted by the interaction of member ability and negative affect. Specifically, there was a positive relationship between ability and exchange quality for those members with low negative affect, but no relationship for those with high negative affect. Exchange quality ratings gathered from group members (i.e., nonleaders) were best predicted only from leaders' positive-affect scores. Discussion centers on the particular role that affect plays in initial exchange quality judgments, as well as practical implications and generalizability issues.
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Employees develop exchange relationships both with organizations and immediate superiors, as evidenced by research on perceived organizational support (POS) and leader-member exchange (LMX), respectively. Despite conceptual similarities between these two constructs, theoretical development and research has proceeded independently. In an attempt to integrate these literatures, we developed and tested a model of the antecedents and consequences of POS and LMX, based on social exchange theory. Results indicated that POS and LMX have unique antecedents and are differentially related to outcome variables, providing support for the importance of both types of exchanges.
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We challenge the claimed incommensurability of individualism and structuralism by showing how a cognitive theory can guide the use of structural methods. According to balance theory, there is a strain toward cognitive balance in observers' perceptions of friendship relations. Thus, we found, as predicted, that being perceived to have a prominent friend in an organization boosted an individual's reputation as a good performer, but that actually having such a friend (as assessed by conventional structural methods] had no effect. Bringing individual perceptions back into structural analysis enhances, rather than detracts from, the effectiveness of a structural approach.
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This study explored the relationships between potential organizational power, viewed as structural position, and the use of power through behavioral tactics. Results indicate that structural position, measured as an individual's network centrality and level in the organizational hierarchy, and behavior-use of assertiveness, ingratiation, exchange, upward appeal, rationality, and coalition formation-relate independently and significantly to others' perceptions of the individual's power. In addition, structure partially mediated the relationship between behavior and power, and the behavioral strategies partially mediated the structure-power relationship. Significant interaction effects were also found.
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This research examined the relationships between structural positions and influence at the individual level of analysis. The structure of the organization was conceptualized from a social network perspective. Measures of the relative positions of employees within workflow, communication, and friendship networks were strongly related to perceptions of influence by both supervisors and non-supervisors and to promotions to the supervisory level. Measures included criticality, transaction alternatives, and centrality (access and control) in the networks and in such reference groups as the dominant coalition. A comparison of boundary-spanning and technical-core personnel indicated that contacts beyond the normal work requirements are particularly important for technical core personnel to acquire influence. Overall, the results provide support for a structural perspective on intraorganizational influence.
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The leader–member exchange (LMX) literature is reviewed using meta-analysis. Relationships between LMX and its correlates are examined, as are issues related to the LMX construct, including measurement and leader–member agreement. Results suggest significant relationships between LMX and job performance, satisfaction with supervision, overall satisfaction, commitment, role conflict, role clarity, member competence, and turnover intentions. The relationship between LMX and actual turnover was not significant. Leader and member LMX perceptions were only moderately related. Partial support was found for measurement instrument and perspective (i.e., leader vs. member) as moderators of the relationships between LMX and its correlates. Meta-analysis showed that the LMX7 (7-item LMX) measure has the soundest psychometric properties of all instruments and that LMX is congruent with numerous empirical relationships associated with transformational leadership. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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During a 1-yr period, 20 of 48 systems analysts and computer programmers of the information systems department of a large public utility terminated their employment. As hypothesized, leader–member exchange was an effective predictor of employee turnover. However, the overall style of a leader (i.e., average leadership style) was no more helpful than the base rate in predicting turnover. Implications for the role of leadership in the employee withdrawal process are discussed. (19 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Social influence in consensus formation was examined using a notion of sociocognitive network. Given the robustness of shared information in determining group decisions, the authors propose the concept of a sociocognitive network that captures the degree of members' knowledge-sharing prior to group interaction. A link connecting a given pair of members represents the amount of information that the pair shares before interaction. As in a regular social network, a member's status can be defined by the centrality in the network; the more information a member shares with others, the more cognitively central the member is in the group. The authors hypothesized that a cognitively central member would acquire pivotal power in a group and exert more influence on consensus than would peripheral members, independently of the member's preference majority or minority status. The results of two studies supported these predictions. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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This longitudinal study examined hypothesized moderating effects of role development on the link between unmet expectations and socialization outcomes. Data were collected from 248 new hires before organizational entry and at an average of 4 weeks after entry. Three role expectations, conflict, clarity, and acceptance, were measured at both data collections. Two role development constructs, leader-member exchange (LMX) and team-member exchange (TMX), and three socialization outcomes, organizational commitment, turnover intention, and job satisfaction, were measured after entry. Results showed that met expectations, LMX, and TMX were significant predictors of all outcomes. In addition, LMX and TMX significantly moderated several relationships, such that favorable role development relationships with supervisors or work groups ameliorated the negative effects of unmet expectations. Research and applied implications are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Investigated the 1st 6 mo that 166 newly hired employees and their immediate supervisors worked together. Expectations, perceived similarity, liking, demographic similarity, and performance were examined as determinants of leader–member exchanges (LMXs). Leader and member expectations of each other assessed in the 1st 5 days in the life of the dyad predicted LMXs at 2 wks and at 6 wks following the 1st day of the dyads' existence. Member expectations of leaders also predicted LMXs at 6 mo. Following nearly the same pattern, perceived similarity and liking from both the leaders' and members' perspectives predicted LMXs at most time periods. Demographic similarity between leaders and members had no significant effects on LMX development, and subordinate performance ratings were relatively less important in predicting LMX than were affective variables. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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A field study involving 190 employees in 38 work groups representing five diverse organizations provided evidence that social networks, as defined in terms of both positive and negative relations, are related to both individual and group performance. As hypothesized, individual job performance was positively related to centrality in advice networks and negatively related to centrality in hindrance networks composed of relationships tending to thwart task behaviors. Hindrance network density was significantly and negatively related to group performance.
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Although popular management wisdom has suggested that telecommuting enhances job satisfaction, research has found both positive and negative relationships. In this study, the authors attempt to resolve these inconsistent findings by hypothesizing a curvilinear, inverted U-shaped relationship between the extent of telecommuting and job satisfaction. Using hierarchical regression analysis on a sample of 321 professional-level employees, their findings suggest a curvilinear link between extent of telecommuting and job satisfaction, with satisfaction appearing to plateau at more extensive levels of telecommuting. In addition, task interdependence and job discretion moderated this link, suggesting that some job attributes play an important, contingent role.
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This paper examines how the structure and content of individuals' networks on the job affect intraorganizational mobility. Consistent with prior research, we find that mobility is enhanced by having large, dense networks of informal ties for acquiring information and resources. However, studies of networks and organizational careers have overlooked the importance of informal ties in transmitting social identity and normative expectations within organizations, which is facilitated by networks with the opposite features: smaller size and greater density. We use this argument as the basis for developing a typology of network contents, and we document this interaction between network structure and content in analyses of mobility among employees of a high technology firm. We also show how the effects of tie duration on mobility vary across types of network ties. The implications of these findings for theory and research on networks and organizational mobility are discussed.
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The use of an alternative to the research strategies employed for the past 20 yrs and more to investigate leadership produced results which question the traditional models and open new avenues for empirical exploration. Approaching leadership as an exchange relationship which develops within the vertical dyad over time during role making activities, this longitudinal study found that the degree of latitude that a superior granted to a member to negotiate his role was predictive of subsequent behavior on the part of both superior and member. Contrary to traditional views of leadership, superiors typically employed both leadership and supervision techniques within their units. With a select subset of their members, superiors developed leadership exchanges (influence without authority), and with others, superiors developed only supervision relationships (influence based primarily upon authority). Some of the many implications of these findings are discussed.
Article
• Two studies with 480 undergraduates examined the impression-management techniques of basking and blasting. These techniques were characterized as indirect rather than direct tactics of self-presentation because they can be seen to influence one's image in the eyes of observers, not through the direct presentation of information about oneself but rather through the presentation of positive or negative information about something with which one is merely associated. In both experiments, it was found that after experiencing a visible personal failure, Ss enhanced the asserted quality of their home university (basking) and devalued the asserted quality of a rival university (blasting). Exp II showed that conditions designed to produce increasing levels of image damage resulted in increasing amounts of subsequent basking and blasting. It is suggested that because of a tendency within observers for cognitive balance, individuals highly desirous of increased public prestige arrange to be positively connected with positive things and negatively connected with negative things in the observers' eyes. (14 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved) • Two studies with 480 undergraduates examined the impression-management techniques of basking and blasting. These techniques were characterized as indirect rather than direct tactics of self-presentation because they can be seen to influence one's image in the eyes of observers, not through the direct presentation of information about oneself but rather through the presentation of positive or negative information about something with which one is merely associated. In both experiments, it was found that after experiencing a visible personal failure, Ss enhanced the asserted quality of their home university (basking) and devalued the asserted quality of a rival university (blasting). Exp II showed that conditions designed to produce increasing levels of image damage resulted in increasing amounts of subsequent basking and blasting. It is suggested that because of a tendency within observers for cognitive balance, individuals highly desirous of increased public prestige arrange to be positively connected with positive things and negatively connected with negative things in the observers' eyes. (14 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Studies that combine moderation and mediation are prevalent in basic and applied psychology research. Typically, these studies are framed in terms of moderated mediation or mediated moderation, both of which involve similar analytical approaches. Unfortunately, these approaches have important shortcomings that conceal the nature of the moderated and the mediated effects under investigation. This article presents a general analytical framework for combining moderation and mediation that integrates moderated regression analysis and path analysis. This framework clarifies how moderator variables influence the paths that constitute the direct, indirect, and total effects of mediated models. The authors empirically illustrate this framework and give step-by-step instructions for estimation and interpretation. They summarize the advantages of their framework over current approaches, explain how it subsumes moderated mediation and mediated moderation, and describe how it can accommodate additional moderator and mediator variables, curvilinear relationships, and structural equation models with latent variables.
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Interest in the problem of method biases has a long history in the behavioral sciences. Despite this, a comprehensive summary of the potential sources of method biases and how to control for them does not exist. Therefore, the purpose of this article is to examine the extent to which method biases influence behavioral research results, identify potential sources of method biases, discuss the cognitive processes through which method biases influence responses to measures, evaluate the many different procedural and statistical techniques that can be used to control method biases, and provide recommendations for how to select appropriate procedural and statistical remedies for different types of research settings.
Chapter
The communication network imposed on the group influences its problem-solving efficiency, communication activity, organizational development, and member satisfaction. This chapter provides an overview of the communication networks, methodology employed in the research on communication networks and considers some of the structural properties of these networks, and outlines the major findings of experimental investigations of the effects of networks on group process. The major network difference is between centralized and decentralized networks. The direction and magnitude of the effects are modified by the following variables: kind of task, noise, information distribution, member personality, reinforcement, and the kind of prior experience the members have had in networks. The variable having the most pronounced effect is the kind of task the group must perform. Centralized networks are generally more efficient when the task requires merely the collection of information in one place, and decentralized networks are more efficient when further operations must be performed on the information before the task can be completed. The experiments discussed in the chapter, presents a great deal about the effects of communication networks, but the precise nature of many of the relationships among variables still remains unclear, and needs much clarification, such as network characteristics, kind of task, and group composition. The communication network studies have provided a great deal of information regarding structural effects upon group behavior. However, much more remains to be done.
Article
Prior research has shown that individuals try to manage their public images indirectly by announcing their (sometimes trivial) connections with successful rather than unsuccessful others, thereby basking in the reflected glory of another's success and avoiding the shadow of another's failure. The present research indicates that such attempts at impression management through association are substantially more varied and sophisticated than previously considered. Ss learned privately that they shared a birth date with an individual who had been described in favorable or unfavorable terms. Depending on the experimental condition, Ss announced or suppressed this connection strategically to achieve the image management goals of either modesty or compensatory favorable self-presentation. In all, for purposes of self-presentation, our subjects treated the characteristics of a superficially connected other as if they were positive or negative features of themselves. Theoretical implications are discussed.
Article
Literature on declining organizations focuses on two indicators of decreasing size-loss of financial resources and work force reduction. This effort to integrate the decline and size literatures combines psychological and sociological perspectives to distinguish between the effects of these two variables. Following the psychological threat-rigidity thesis, loss of financial resources is proposed to cause mechanistic shifts in organizational structures and jobs. We advance a more complex model about the influence of work force reduction that combines psychological and sociological perspectives. In the short term, the threat provoked by work force reduction brings about mechanistic shifts in structures and jobs. In the long term, however, the threat wanes and, following sociological theory, a second set of shifts occurs, in which less mechanistic means of coordination and control are used for the smaller work force.
Article
We examine the extent to which executives' boundary spanning relations inside and outside their industry affect organizational strategy and performance. We posit that the informational and social influences of external ties will be reflected in the degree to which the organization's strategy conforms to or deviates from the central tendencies of its industry and that the alignment of executives' external ties with the firm's strategy will be beneficial to firm performance. Using a multiyear sample of firms in the branded foods and computer industries, we find that executives' intraindustry ties are related to strategic conformity, that extraindustry ties are associated with the adoption of deviant strategies, and that alignment of executives' external ties with the informational requirements of the firm's strategy enhances organizational performance. Our results also show that a unique or differentiated strategy is not universally advantageous and that the benefits accruing from strategic conformity are especially strong in the more uncertain computer industry.
Article
Likert's (1961) notions about the contribution of linking-pin positions to the job situation of lower participants were investigated over a ten-month span. A panel of 103 managerial dyads employed in service organizations were assessed at different times regarding the quality of their upward linking pin - the perceived effectiveness of the leader-member exchange between the incumbents of linking-pin positions with their immediate superior - and the behavior, attitudes, and treatment of the lower participants. Based on a measure of linking-pin quality, the 103 dyads were dichotomized into 51 lower and 52 higher dyads. The quality of linking pins showed differences in the behavior, attitudes, and treatment of lower participants. The results, taken as a whole, are compatible with a model that views dyadic exchange relationships as part of an understructure of managerial processes. Differences between the present findings and those of an earlier investigation, however, suggest that the state of the system may determine where resources become invested.
Article
This paper examines the relationship between leadership and formal and informal organizational structures. Focusing on dyads as the unit of analysis, we explore the effects of friendship and two kinds of formal ties on the presence or absence of leadership relations in three organizational settings. The ways in which formal and informal structures affect respect relations vary along a continuum for the three organizations from least to most hierarchical. Respect relations are predicted strongly by informal ties in the participatory organization, weakly in the professional organization, and not at all in the hierarchical organization. The pattern for formal ties is the opposite: formal reporting relations predict respect relations most strongly in the hierarchical organization, less strongly in the professional organization, and least strongly in the participatory organization. We also find that respect relations are affected differently by the combination of formal and informal social structures in the three organizations. We conclude by discussing the implications of these results for research on leadership.
Chapter
This is a review of argument and evidence on the connection between social networks and social capital. My summary points are three: (1) Research and theory will better cumulate across studies if we focus an the network mechanisms responsible for social capital effects rather than trying to integrate across metaphors of social capital loosely tied to distant empirical indicators. (2) There is an impressive diversity of empirical evidence showing that social capital is more a function of brokerage across structural holes than closure within a network, bur there are contingency factors. (3) The two leading network mechanisms can be brought together in a productive way within a more general model of social capital. Structural holes are the source of value added, but network closure can be essential to realizing the value buried in the holes.
Article
The present study was an empirical analysis designed to measure the social networks of master of business administration (M.B.A.) students and the networks' relationships to attitudinal and performance outcomes. Results from 250 students indicated that centrality in friendship, communication, and adversarial networks affected both student attitudes and grades. Moreover, an analysis of 62 assigned teams showed that relationships within and between teams also had significant effects on student perceptions of team effectiveness and objective team performance. Implications for student networks and suggestions for future research are discussed.
An empirical test was made of the hypothesis that, like foremen and middle managers, executives in a hierarchical organization are men-in-the-middle regarding the conflicting evaluations of their behaviors by their superiors and by their members. Specifically, the superiors were hypothesized to evaluate highly the executive's structuring of his unit's activities, his dominance over his unit, and his superior influence over the functioning of his unit. In contrast, the executive's people were hypothesized as evaluating highly less structuring, less dominance, more considerate behavior, and more influence of the members on unit operations. Results showed that although leadership style tended to be evaluated somewhat differently by superiors and unit members, the over-all situation was one of agreement between these two sources.
Article
The convergent and discriminant validity of a short (6-item) new leader-member exchange scale (LMX-6) was investigated using hierarchically-nested maximum likelihood confirmatory factor analyses. Using data from a sample of 221 MBA students, the validity of the new scale was confirmed by its high and significant loadings on a leader-member exchange factor and by the superiority of a model with a separate leader-member exchange factor over all other rival models. Directions for future research are briefly discussed.
Article
A survey of 183 nurses at two hospitals tested for replication and extensions of previous work on Pelz Effects, defined as the moderating effect of leaders' upward influence on the relationship between leaders' behavior and group members' attitudes. Moderated regressions indicated the Pelz Effect was significantly related to group members'sense of control within the organization, and this result remained significant even after two measures of dispositional internal control were extracted from the regression. The Pelz Effect was also significantly related to members'perceptions of support and cooperation within their work groups. The magnitude of the Pelz Effect was greater for employees with high rather than low job autonomy -a conclusion exactly opposite to previous results. Self-monitoring scores moderated the Pelz Effect only with respect to the dependent variable of work-group support, but the direction of this effect supported prior work that argued low self-monitoring can neutralize the impact of a leader's behavior.
Article
A field study was conducted to examine the relationship between leader-member exchange (LMX) and two types of employee behavior: citizenship behavior and impression management. One form of citizenship behavior, altruism, and one form of impression management, other-focused were significantly related to LMX. Implications of the results are discussed.
Article
Exchange theory has the virtue of bringing both power and equity together in a single analytic framework. However, exchange theory has focused largely upon analysis of the dyad, while power and justice are fundamentally social structural phenomena. First, we contrast economic with sociological analysis of dyadic exchange. We conclude that (a) power and equity from social exchange theory carry us beyond economic theory of dyadic exchange; yet (b) for power and equity to be studied effectively, analysis of systems larger than the dyad is needed. Second, we introduce exchange networks to extend power and equity analysis into more macroscopic n-person social structures. Third, a laboratory method is reported for controlled study of exchange networks as bargaining structures. Finally, we present findings which show that (a) power is an attribute of position in a network structure observable in the occupant's behavior, even though the occupant does not know what position or what amount of power s/he possesses; (b) equity or justice concerns constrain the use of that power; (c) emergent interpersonal commitments impede the use of power; and (d) when power is unequally distributed among actors in a network, females form stronger commitments to their exchange partners than do males. In conclusion, we discuss the importance of commitment in distinguishing between economic and social exchange theory.
Article
Leadership research has recently begun to emphasize the importance of examining the level of analysis (e.g., individual, dyad, group, organization) at which phenomena are hypothesized to occur. Unfortunately, however, it is still not commonplace for theory to clearly specify, and for investigations to directly test, expected and rival level-of-analysis effects. This article first selectively reviews a cross-section of theories, models, and approaches in leadership, showing generally poor alignment between theory and the level of analysis actually used in its testing. A multiple levels of analysis investigation of the Leader–Member Exchange (LMX) model is next presented. This theory has as its foundation the dyadic relationship between a supervisor and his or her subordinates. Yet, less than 10% of published LMX studies have examined level of analysis—and none has employed dyadic analysis. Using within- and between-entities analysis (WABA) and two different samples, four LMX level-of-analysis representations are tested, which involve monosource data; three of these models are then tested using heterosource data. Overall, good support is found for the LMX approach at the within-groups and between-dyads levels. Implications for aligning theory with appropriate levels of analysis in future research are considered.
Article
A Monte Carlo study examined the statistical performance of single sample and bootstrap methods that can be used to test and form confidence interval estimates of indirect effects in two cluster randomized experimental designs. The designs were similar in that they featured random assignment of clusters to one of two treatment conditions and included a single intervening variable and outcome, but they differed in whether the mediator was measured at the participant or site level. A bias-corrected bootstrap had the best statistical performance for each design and was closely followed by the empirical-Mtest, either of which is recommended for testing and estimating indirect effects in multilevel designs. In addition, consistent with previous research, the commonly used z test had relatively poor performance.
Article
Contemporary social exchange researchers have largely ignored how variations in the value of exchange affect power relations, concentrating instead on effects of the structure of exchange, particularly the size and shape of exchange networks. In this article, we show that value, when conceptualized and studied as a dimension of actors' alternative exchange relations, has strong and systematic effects on actors' use of power. Results of a laboratory experiment support our hypotheses, showing that an actor's power over another increases with the value of that actor's exchange with alternative partners. The effects of value on power use are comparable in strength to the effects of the availability of alternatives, and they are remarkably robust, holding for both negotiated and reciprocal forms of exchange and for networks in which the availability of alternative partners is both high and low.
Article
In recent studies of the structure of affect, positive and negative affect have consistently emerged as two dominant and relatively independent dimensions. A number of mood scales have been created to measure these factors; however, many existing measures are inadequate, showing low reliability or poor convergent or discriminant validity. To fill the need for reliable and valid Positive Affect and Negative Affect scales that are also brief and easy to administer, we developed two 10-item mood scales that comprise the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS). The scales are shown to be highly internally consistent, largely uncorrelated, and stable at appropriate levels over a 2-month time period. Normative data and factorial and external evidence of convergent and discriminant validity for the scales are also presented. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved)