The Frank Stinchfield Award The Impact of Socioeconomic Factors on Outcome After THA A Prospective, Randomized Study

Starkville Orthopedic Clinic, Starkville, MS, USA.
Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research (Impact Factor: 2.77). 02/2011; 469(2):339-47. DOI: 10.1007/s11999-010-1519-x
Source: PubMed


Background Most studies of total hip arthroplasty (THA) focus on the effect of the type of implant on the clinical result. Relatively little data are available on the impact of the patient's preoperative status and socioeconomic factors on the clinical results following THA. Questions/purposes We determined the relative importance of patient preoperative and socioeconomic status compared to implant and technique factors in predicting patient outcome as reflected by scores on commonly utilized rating scales (eg, Harris Hip Score, WOMAC, SF-12, degree of patient satisfaction, or presence or severity of thigh pain) following cementless THA. Methods All patients during the study period were offered enrollment in a prospective, randomized study to receive either a titanium, tapered, proximally coated stem; or a Co-Cr, cylindrical, extensively coated stem; 102 patients were enrolled. We collected detailed patient data preoperatively including diagnosis, age, gender, insurance status, medical comorbidities, tobacco and alcohol use, household income, educational level, and history of treatment for lumbar spine pathology. Clinical evaluation included Harris Hip Score, SF-12, WOMAC, pain drawing, and UCLA activity rating and satisfaction questionnaire. Implant factors included stem type, stem size, fit in the canal, and stem-bone stiffness ratios. Minimum 2 year followup was obtained in 95% of the enrolled patients (102 patients). Results Patient demographics and preoperative status were more important than implant factors in predicting the presence of thigh pain, dissatisfaction, and a low hip score. The most predictive factors were ethnicity, educational level, poverty level, income, and a low preoperative WOMAC score or preoperative SF-12 mental component score. No implant parameter correlated with outcome or satisfaction. Conclusion Socioeconomic factors and preoperative status have more impact on the clinical outcome of cementless THA than implant related factors.

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    • "There is conflicting evidence about the effect of socioeconomic status on outcomes following knee replacement with some studies reporting deprivation to be strongly associated with poorer postoperative outcomes [3] [5] [7] [8] while others report no association [9] [10] [11]. However, apart from one US study of hip replacement patients [12], previous studies failed to control for multiple implants, surgeons and different surgical techniques. Furthermore, there are no studies which report the influence of socioeconomic deprivation on postoperative outcomes following unicompartmental knee replacement. "
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    ABSTRACT: This study investigated the effect of socioeconomic deprivation on preoperative disease and outcome following unicompartmental knee replacement (UKR). 307 Oxford UKRs implanted between 2008 and 2013 under the care of one surgeon using the same surgical technique were analysed. Deprivation was quantified using the Northern Ireland Multiple Deprivation Measure. Preoperative disease severity and postoperative outcome were measured using the Oxford Knee Score (OKS). There was no difference in preoperative OKS between deprivation groups. Preoperative knee range of motion (ROM) was significantly reduced in more deprived patients with 10° less ROM than least deprived patients. Postoperatively there was no difference in OKS improvement between deprivation groups (p=0.46), with improvements of 19.5 and 21.0 units in the most and least deprived groups respectively. There was no significant association between deprivation and OKS improvement on unadjusted or adjusted analysis. Preoperative OKS, Short Form 12 mental component score and length of stay were significant independent predictors of OKS improvement. A significantly lower proportion of the most deprived group (15%) reported being able to walk an unlimited distance compared to the least deprived group (41%) one year postoperatively. More deprived patients can achieve similar improvements in OKS to less deprived patients following UKR. 2b - retrospective cohort study of prognosis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2015 · The Knee
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    • "A study based in Scotland by Clement et al. reported similar findings [11]. In a smaller study Allen-Butler et al. [10] conducted a secondary analysis of a prospective randomized study originally comparing 2 different hip stems. They also concluded that individual socioeconomic parameters such as education level, household income, as well as being African American were associated with lower Harris Hip Scores up to 2 years post THR [10]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Background We sought to determine whether socio-economic status (SES) is an independent predictor of outcome following total knee (TKR) and hip (THR) replacement in Australians. Methods In this prospective cohort study, we included patients undergoing TKR and THR in a public hospital in whom baseline and 12-month follow-up data were available. SES was determined using the Australian Bureau of Statistics ‘Index of Relative Advantage and Disadvantage’. Other independent variables included patients’ demographics, comorbidities and procedure-related variables. Outcome measures were the International Knee Society Score and Harris Hip Score pain and function subscales, and the Short Form Health Survey (SF-12) physical and mental component scores. Results Among 1,016 patients undergoing TKR and 835 patients undergoing THR, in multiple regression analysis, SES score was not independently associated with pain and functional outcomes. Female sex, older age, being a non-English speaker, higher body mass index and presence of comorbidities were associated with greater post-operative pain and poorer functional outcomes following arthroplasty. Better baseline function, physical and mental health, and lower baseline level of pain were associated with better outcomes at 12 months. In univariate analysis, for TKR, the improvement in SF-12 mental health score post arthroplasty was greater in patients of lower SES (3.8 ± 12.9 versus 1.5 ± 12.2, p = 0.008), with a statistically significant inverse association between SES score and post-operative SF-12 mental health score in linear regression analysis (coefficient−0.28, 95% CI: −0.52 to −0.04, p = 0.02). Conclusions When adjustments are made for other covariates, SES is not an independent predictor of pain and functional outcome following large joint arthroplasty in Australian patients. However, relative to baseline, patients in lower socioeconomic groups are likely to have greater mental health benefits with TKR than more privileged patients. Large joint arthroplasty should be made accessible to patients of all SES.
    Full-text · Article · May 2014 · BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders
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    • "Another interesting finding from our study was that patients in the lowest income category were twice as likely than those in the highest income category to report a 'better' improvement in the index knee function 2 years after primary TKA. This finding should not be surprising at all considering that those in the lower income categories have worse preoperative functional status [18,20,53], but similar postoperative function after TKA [18,53], than those in the higher categories. Since those with a lower income have worse scores preoperatively, they have a much greater chance to improve their knee function, compared to those on a higher income. "
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    ABSTRACT: Background To assess whether income is associated with patient-reported outcomes (PROs) after primary total knee arthroplasty (TKA). Methods We used prospectively collected data from the Mayo Clinic Total Joint Registry to assess the association of income with index knee functional improvement, moderate to severe pain and moderate to severe activity limitation at 2-year and 5-year follow-up after primary TKA using multivariable-adjusted logistic regression analyses. Results There were 7, 139 primary TKAs at 2 years and 4, 234 at 5 years. In multivariable-adjusted analyses, at 2-year follow-up, compared to income > US$45, 000, lower incomes of ≤ US$35, 000 and > US$35, 000 to 45, 000 were associated (1) significantly with moderate to severe pain with an odds ratio (OR) 0.61 (95% CI 0.40 to 0.94) (P = 0.02) and 0.68 (95% CI 0.49 to 0.94) (P = 0.02); and (2) trended towards significance for moderate to severe activity limitation with OR 0.78 (95% CI 0.60 to 1.02) (P = 0.07) and no significant association with OR 0.96 (95% CI 0.78 to 1.20) (P = 0.75), respectively. At 5 years, odds were not statistically significantly different by income, although numerically they favored lower income. In multivariable-adjusted analyses, overall improvement in knee function was rated as 'better' slightly more often at 2 years by patients with income in the ≤ US$35, 000 range compared to patients with income > US$45, 000, with an OR 1.9 (95% CI 1.0 to 3.6) (P = 0.06). Conclusions We found that patients with lower income had better pain outcomes compared to patients with higher income. There was more improvement in knee function, and a trend towards less overall activity limitation after primary TKA in lower income patients compared to those with higher incomes. Insights into mediators of these relationships need to be investigated to understand how income influences outcomes after TKA.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2013 · BMC Medicine
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