factors responsible in the triggering and/or worsening of
anxiety and depressive disorders in humans1-3. In recent
years, the impact of social stress on the development of
psychopathologies has been thoroughly investigated in
Chronic social stress is one of the most important
A new approach on stress-related depression & anxiety:
Neuro-Psycho- Physical-Optimization with Radio Electric
Salvatore Rinaldi1,2,3, Vania Fontani1,3, Elena Moretti4, Barbara Rosettani1, Lucia Aravagli1,3, Giorgio Saragò1,3 &
1Rinaldi Fontani Institute, Florence, 2University of Florence, Medical School of Occupational Medicine, Postural
Optimization, 3University of Florence, Master of Neuro Psycho Physical Optimization & 4University of Siena,
Department of Medical Sciences, Applied Biology Section, Italy
Received January 23, 2009
Background & objectives: Chronic social stress is an important factor responsible for the worsening
of depressive disorders in humans. In this study we present the relational Neuro-Psycho-Physical
Optimization (NPPO) with Radio Electric Asymmetric Conveyer (REAC-CRM) as the treatment to
tackle the unconscious dysfunction adjustments carried out by the central nervous system as a response
to environmental stresses.
Methods: Psychological stress was measured in a group of 888 patients using the Psychological Stress
Measure (PSM) test, a self-administered questionnaire. Data were collected immediately before
and after the 4-wk therapy cycle. The detection of anxiety and depression clusters by PSM test has
been based on the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV-TR, APA, 2000)
criteria. Six hundred and eighty eight patients (212 males, 476 females, average PSM test total scores
107.9 ± 23.13) were treated with REAC-CRM therapy; 200 (64 males, 136 females, average PSM test
total scores 107.86 ± 25.80) were treated with “placebo REAC-CRM therapy” and used as control.
Results: This study showed a significant reduction in scores measuring subjective perceptions of stress
in the patients treated with a cycle of REAC-CRM therapy. At the end-point the number of patients
reporting symptoms of stress-related anxiety and depression on the PSM test was significantly reduced
(P<0.001); in the placebo group no significant difference was highlighted.
Interpretation & conclusions: NPPO therapy with a cycle of REAC-CRM was shown to reduce subjective
perceptions of stress measured by the PSM test and in particular, symptoms of stress-related anxiety and
Key words Allostatic load - anxiety - depression - REAC-CRM - stress
preclinical animal studies4,5. It has been hypothesized
that life stress alters the dynamic regulation of the
autonomic, neuroendocrine, and immune systems6,7.
The central nervous system (CNS) is constantly
and unconsciously adapting to accommodate changes
Indian J Med Res 132, August 2010, pp 189-194
190 INDIAN J MED RES, AUGUST 2010
in the environment. Unfortunately this unconscious
process hides from our perception the adaptations
that are detrimental to our health and to our quality
of life. Allostasis is the ability to maintain the
dynamic stability of the physiological systems facing
a constantly changing environment (environmental
stress or allostatic load). The allostatic load8-10 is
constituted by the combined environmental pressures
that, when they can no longer be managed through the
best physiological response, determine the allostatic
state that is the comprehensive result of an altered
physiological response (adaptive dysfunction) to
the allostatic load. The allostatic state is unable to
guarantee the good management of the physiological
systems and therefore the health status and the well-
being of the individual. The therapy to optimize the
response to the allostatic load and the allostatic state
is now available with the Neuro-Psycho-Physical-
Optimization (NPPO) with a medical apparatus named
the Radio Electric Asymmetric Conveyer (REAC)11,12.
in the field of very low power microwaves. The
REAC-CRM, due to the nature of its construction, can
concentrate the signal emitted in the environment on
specific points of the body of the patient to be treated.
The interaction between the field of microwaves
emitted by the instrument and the body of the patient
is different to that produced by exogenous cerebral
stimulation with transcranial magnetic stimulation13,14
and with vagal nerve stimulation which was recently
approved by the Food and Drug Administration for
treatment-resistant major depression15,16. Indeed,
REAC-CRM produces an autogenous signal which,
when suitably transported and concentrated in specific
points of the auricular pavilion, can produce biological
responses. These biological responses have been the
subject of repeated clinical observations over the
years, always showing a general improvement in the
physical-psychological characteristics of the subjects
treated with NPPO17-21.
The REAC-CRM emits a radio frequency (RF)
CNS, the secretion of adrenaline and cortisol hormones
stimulates memory and attention, to let the organism
deal with the environmental stressors. In the case of
chronic stress there is progressive damage to some
structures of the nervous system and in particular there
is an atrophy of the apical dendrite of the neurons of
the hippocampus, of the amygdale and damages to the
dendrite of the neurons of the prefrontal cortex. The
most serious and frequently observed symptoms were
In conditions of acuteness of stress, at a level of the
those of the clusters for mood depression and anxiety.
Anatomic pathological damage to the cerebral cortex
has also been shown in mood disturbances with a
reduction of the glial tissue of the prefrontal cortex22.
whether the use of REAC-CRM was effective in
reducing subjective perceptions of stress measured by a
validated questionnaire, the PSM test23-25 that allows the
precise classification of the subject studied in a stress
well-being scale to accurately assess the effectiveness
of the treatment. In particular the influence on the
symptoms of anxiety and depression, according to the
definition of mixed anxiety and depressive disorder
given by Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of mental
disorders (DSM-IV-TR)26 and correlated to stress
conditions, were considered.
The purpose of the present study was to verify
Material & Methods
Patient selection: Between January 1999 and December
2007, a total of 888 selected subjects, who attended at
Rinaldi-Fontani Institute showing different types of
stress-related symptoms (such as tension headaches,
high blood pressure, migraine headaches, anxious
tremors, colitis, irritable bowel syndrome, bruxism,
neck and back pain, chronic pain syndrome, bronchial
asthma, peptic ulcer disease, skin disorders, insomnia)
gave their consent and were included in the study. No
patients were taking psychotropic medication.
were divided into 2 groups, Group A patients were
given active treatment and patients in Group B were
given placebo treatment. Group A comprised 688
subjects (476 females, average age 42.3 ± 13.7 yr, and
212 males, average age 42.9 ± 15.4 yr) treated with a
cycle of NPPO of “active” REAC-CRM, and Group B
comprised 200 subjects (control group) (136 females,
average age 42.5 ± 16 yr, and 64 males, average age
43.8 ± 16.7 yr), treated with a cycle of NPPO of
The subjects (randomly selected for each group)
in the Primary Register of the Australian New
Zealand Clinical Trial Registry (ANZCTR) (No.
ACTRN12607000429459) and reported in the
International Clinical Trials Registry Platform Search
Portal - WHO.
The clinical trial reported here was registered
Psychological test and psychiatric assessment:
The Psychological Stress Measure (PSM)23-25 was
specifically developed to detect the stress levels in non-
clinical population. The PSM is usually a 49-item self-
report paper and pencil questionnaire but in this study
we used an electronic version to collect and process
the data, and analyze the results. Each item is based
on clusters of stress conditions: loss of self-control,
anxiety, depression, physical pain, hyperactivity and
acceleration. The patient was asked to answer questions
about his/her psychological stress using a 4-point scale
to describe the intensity of his/her psychological stress
condition (very much=4, much=3, little=2, none=1).
The final score is expressed in Total Points (TP,
T=Z*10+50) according to the summary of the results
of each item, and also as a percentile. The Total Points
report normative data in the tables in percentiles and in
T Points (T=Z*10+50). In our study, we used the Total
Points. As the focu s of this study was on anxiety and
depression, the scores obtained from items 6-13-15-29
of the PSM test were specifically used.
properties of validity, reliability, and convergent/
divergent validity. Internal consistency of 0.97 was
demonstrated, as well as test-retest reliabilities of
0.63 over a two-week interval, 0.67 over a one month
interval, and 0.55 over a 6 month interval. Assessment
data were collected at two points in time: immediately
before (t0) and immediately after (t1) the therapy/
placebo cycle of 18 sessions, which took place within
a period of about 4 wk. The PSM scores are correlated
by a factor of 0.68 with behavioural anxiety, and by a
factor of 0.69 with the state of anxiety (P<0.05). On the
basis of this close correlation, we analyzed in particular
the cluster relating to anxiety and depression. Both
group of patients were clinically evaluated at t0 and t1
by a psychiatrist.
The PSM demonstrates sound psychometric
PSM test was based on the Diagnostic and Statistical
Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV-TR, APA, 2000)
criteria for mixed anxiety and depressive disorder
The detection of anxiety and depression clusters by
Description of the Radio Electric Asymmetric
Conveyer (REAC-CRM) and of Neurological-
psycho-physical optimization: The REAC-CRM is
an innovative medical device11,12 aimed at promoting
the Neuro-Psycho-Physical Optimization (well-
being and a reduction in the adaptive dysfunctional
modifications in the nervous system induced by
stress). It is a new medical instrument that uses
the effects produced by the interaction between the
electromagnetic field of the human body (~30-300
GHz, of about 3 mW/m2)27 and that produced by
the instrument (2.4 or 5.8 or 10.5 GHz, measurable
from the emitter about 0.1 mW/m2) which lasts
approximately a few milliseconds. This emission
is dispersed into the environment and it is then
received by a probe (conveyor) placed on the body of
the patient. During the receiving process this probe
(conveyor) allows an interaction between the emitted
electromagnetic field and that of the treated patient.
The target of the process is to allow the CNS to self-
perceive the dysfunctional adjustments occurred,
without the conditioning of the dysfunctional
cognitive filters that maintain the-neuro-psycho
adjustments). This allows optimization of the
allostatic responses, progressively reducing the
the trademark of CRM (ASMED, Florence, Italy). The
result is an activation of the central nervous system that
can optimize neuropsycomotorial function and reduce
the adaptive dysfunctional modification of the nervous
system induced by stress. The NPPO auricular therapy
protocol was used to manage and optimize these
modifications17-21. The REAC-CRM probe was applied
to seven specific points of the auricular pavilion, the
same points that are also used in auricular therapy to
treat neurovegetative symptoms and diseases (Shen-
men, kidney, stomach, heart, occiput, ipotalamus,
prefrontal cortex). Only 18 sessions of NPPO with the
REAC-CRM active (group A) and inactive (group B)
were administered to each patient on alternate days,
during a 4 wk therapy cycle after the first PSM test.
The aim of REAC-CRM therapy was to optimize the
responses of the CNS and of the whole organism against
unknown alterations due to stress from continuous
interaction with the environment.
The instrument that we used is registered under
three seconds. The protocol was painless, non invasive,
did not require the collaboration of the patient and was
completely without side effects.
Each therapeutic session lasted for approximately
CRM (group A) and the inactive REAC-CRM (group
B), the PSM test was repeated (t1).
After 18 sessions of NPPO with the active REAC-
Statistical analysis: Statistical analysis of Total points
and Point T scored at t0 and t1was performed using the
Wilcoxon Signed Ranks test and P<0.05 was considered
significant. The number of patients showing anxiety/
depression before and after therapy in both groups was
RINALDI et al: CRM THERAPY IN PATIENTS WITH STRESS-RELATED DEPRESSION & ANXIETY 191
compared using the McNemar test of Symmetry for
statistical significance. The mean percentage change
of Total points and T points before and after therapy
between Groups A and B was calculated and compared
by the Wilcoxon-Mann Whitney Rank Sum Test.
the PSM test before and after “active” and “placebo”
REAC-CRM therapy in both groups of patients are
shown in the Table.
The mean of Total Points and T Points obtained by
(45%) reported stress related symptoms of anxiety/
depression, whereas only 84 (12%) reported the
persistence of these clinical targets after a cycle of
“active” REAC-CRM therapy. In particular, the mean
of Total Points and T Points decreased from 107.9
to 87.3 and from 57.1 to 48.2, respectively and was
statistically significant (Wilcoxon Signed Rank Test
P<0.001 for Total Points).
In Group A, before the treatment 312 patients
reported stress related symptoms of anxiety/depression,
and after the cycle of “placebo” REAC-CRM therapy
72 patients (36%) reported the presence of these clinical
targets. The difference was not significant.
In Group B, before the treatment 76 patients (38%)
T Points) after the cycle of REAC-CRM treatment
were lower and less variable (Fig. 1). In contrast, the
distribution of scores for the “placebo” group (Group
B) was similar in both the first and second tests
In Group A, the PSM scores (Total Points and
difference in number of patients showing anxiety/
depression before and after therapy. Only 8 patients
of Group B, who reported stress related symptoms
of anxiety/depression before the cycle of “placebo”
REAC-CRM therapy, did not show the same
symptoms after the cycle of placebo. On the contrary,
240 patients belonging to Group A found relief
from anxiety/depression as they did not report these
symptoms after the cycle of REAC-CRM therapy
The McNemar test was used to analyze the
Points T between Group A and B was also analysed.
The difference between the two groups was significant
(P<0.001) for both Total points and Point T, confirming
the positive effect of the REAC-CRM therapy on
The mean percentage change of Total Points and
Table. Total points and T points obtained in group A and in group B
by the PSM test before (t0) and after (t1) therapy/placebo
Patients Total points
No. of patients
312 (45)Group A
107.9 ± 23.1357.06 ± 9.70
87.3 ± 16.21 48.25 ± 6.9084* (12)
107.86 ± 25.8057.05 ± 10.6276 (38)
106.32 ± 25.88 56.09 ± 11.0272 (36)
Values are mean ± SD
*P<0.05 compare to before therapy
Fig. 1. Distribution of the PSM scores in treated patients (Group A,
n° 688). Scores obtained in the first test were significantly different
(P<0.05) to those of the second test performed after the therapy.
The scores after therapy were lower.
Fig. 2. Distribution of the PSM scores in untreated patients (Group
B, n°200). The distribution of scores was similar in both the first
and second tests.
192 INDIAN J MED RES, AUGUST 2010
biomedical studies, and particularly in the treatment of
disturbances of the nervous system, is not a new idea28.
The weak environmental emission of a radiofrequency
field and its dispersion due to the interaction with the
body was able to induce weak currents in the human
body that activated the nervous system. Preliminary
studies have suggested a reduction in general stress
levels and especially in correlated stress disorders
when REAC-CRM therapy is applied18-21.
The use of electricity and magnetic fields in
possible improvement of stress conditions in examined
patients treated with REAC-CRM therapy, in particular
on behavioural anxiety/depression. After a cycle of
REAC-CRM therapy, a significant reduction in the
scores measuring subjective perceptions of stress
in the studied patients was observed. In particular, a
significant reduction of symptoms was reported by the
group showing signs of behavioural anxiety-depression.
On the other hand, in the untreated control group, no
significant difference was found. Also, the cluster
measuring behavioural anxiety/depression remained
This study was aimed at assessing the significant
stress-related anxiety and depression are the results
of allostatic processes on specific cerebral areas29
and our data also showed that REAC-CRM was an
effective instrument to optimize the responses of the
CNS. Recently Collodel et al 17 suggested that NPPO
therapy with REAC-CRM treatment may realize a
general improvement in spermatogenetic condition,
as demonstrated with sophisticated tools such as TEM
and FISH, in males with idiopathic infertility.
Growing literature indicates that the symptoms of
with REAC-CRM could reduce subjective perceptions
of stress measured with the PSM psychometric test and
in particular the symptoms of stress-related anxiety
and depression. Hendriks et al 30 reported that cognitive
behavioural therapy is efficacious for the treatment of
late-life anxiety disorders.
The results of this study showed that NPPO therapy
painless, non-invasive and totally free of side-effects.
Moreover, REAC-CRM therapy is not pharmacological
and can represent an efficient support in many medical
fields, as it does not interfere with the simultaneous
use of other therapeutic approaches. This research
highlights the efficacy of NPPO with REAC-CRM
therapy on anxious-depressive scale only in non
This new therapy has the advantage of being
psychiatric subjects; these conditions represent the
most comprehensive mental suffering in the general
efficacy of NPPO with REAC-CRM therapy was
demonstrated on subjects who although identified
as psychometric anxious-depressive, did not need
any clinical intervention. In current psychiatric
terminology, the observed affective phenomenology
is classified as “below threshold” (presence of certain
symptoms of anxiety or depression, which are however
insufficient to set up a “primary diagnostic entity”) or
“sub-clinical” (complete clinical picture, but without
serious symptoms). Moreover, the patients who
have responded positively to REAC-CRM therapy,
showed clearly stress-related symptoms and therefore
“reactive” psychic symptoms. They did not show any
“endogenetic” features such as “melancholic” forms
of depression, for which, the best choice in terms of
speed of response and global therapeutic efficacy was
a psychopharmacological treatment.
The main limitation of this research was that the
over time when using more than one cycle, although it
could be very difficult to obtain and mantain a selected
group, especially after therapy.
Further studies are needed to verify the stability
CRM therapy will help to speed up the physiological
capability of recovery of the person, optimising the
adaptive response to environmental stressors and
contributing to the elimination of dysfunctional
In conclusion, our results showed that REAC-
in statistical analysis, Alessandro Castagna, for helpful discussion,
and to Piero Mannu, psychiatrist, for the clinical evaluation of the
patients and fruitful discussions.
The authors thank Matteo Lotti Margotti, for helpful discussion
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Reprint requests: Dr Giulia Collodel, Department of Medical Sciences, Applied Biology Section, University of Siena
Policlinico Le Scotte, Viale Bracci, 14, 53100 Siena, Italy
194 INDIAN J MED RES, AUGUST 2010