Comparison of Human Anxiety Based on Different Cultural Backgrounds

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This work conceptualizes human behavior on the Internet. The study was conducted with 10 university participants representing two different cultural backgrounds, Asian and Western. The participants were asked to visit any Web page on the Internet for 15 minutes, for 30 minutes, and for 1 hour. The results showed that participants displayed no signs of anxiousness during the 15-minute task and very little anxiousness during the 30-minute task. Western participants showed overall more anxiousness than Asian participants. However, all participants showed anxiousness during the 1-hour task. Data on comparative human anxiety were collected on the basis of a literature review of social fun, online belonging, and community on the Internet. Only the limited set of data of the participant is discussed in this article.

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... In Kalwar, S. et al. [1,17] has defined seven types of Internet anxiety, and these seven types of Internet anxiety are used to measure anxiety among our participants. We believe that a humancentered approach is most suitable for conceptualizing and measuring anxiety. ...
... positive, negative, and neutral) are determined using FeelCalc module.4. Identifies if a user has a particular anxietyAny of the seven types of Internet anxieties[1,17] Or other types of anxiety 5. Save answer in a database 6. Provides feedback to the user A user learns types of IA A user recommends 7. Get recommendation from a user and Go to Step 3 ...
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This paper presents a front-end interface named ‘Intelligentsia’ for collecting Internet anxiety types. Four diverse age groups of users (e.g. child, old men/women, and a young adult) were recruited to perform a task of randomly browsing contents on the Internet to gather data of Internet anxiety. The results include behavioural observations and symptoms of Internet anxiety types. Among seven types of Internet anxiety tested using Intelligentsia: Internet time delay anxiety, Net search anxiety, and Experience anxieties are most significant types of Internet anxiety.
... Tenacity and diligence in working on difficult course assignments may overcome anxiety in operating computer even if the individual does not have enough skill to master it maximally. It is also tinged with cultural diversity in influencing viewpoint on how the role of computer technology assists works of man (Kalwar, 2010). This perception is important to see whether or not a particular skill should be mastered in accordance with the individual needs. ...
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Academic procrastination is fairly and commonly found among college students. The lack of understanding in making the best use of computer technology may lead to anxiety in terms of operating computer hence cause postponement in completing course assignments related to computer operation. On the other hand, failure in achieving certain academic targets as expected by parents and/or the students themselves also makes students less focused and leads to tendency of postponing many completions of course assignments. The aim of this research is to investigate contribution of anxiety in operating computer and academic stress toward procrastination on students. As much as 65 students majoring in psychology became participants in this study. The results showed that anxiety in operating computer and academic stress play significant role in influencing academic procrastination among social sciences students. In terms of academic procrastination tendencies, anxiety in operating computer and academic stress, male students have higher percentage than female students.
... The purpose of creating a modified Internet anxiety (IA) scale is to form a model and generate a relationship between individual items for extracting cluster/factors. Kalwar, [10] has identified various Internet anxiety types, and these IA types are utilized in item grouping. ...
Conference Paper
The Internet experience has drastically changed as social networking sites have proliferated and become a major part of Internet usage. This change in the Internet landscape and Internet usage poses an interesting challenge for scales addressing Internet behavior. In this work, we describe further development of an Internet anxiety scale for assessment of Internet behavior, presenting underlying concepts, and analysis and evaluation of human anxiety on the Internet. A study was conducted with initially twenty-five participants, and later a survey with (n=385) university participants was carried out to determine MIAS factors. Based on analysis of the results of the surveys and using a modified Internet anxiety scale (MIAS), user data can be leveraged to measure Internet anxiety. The results of the study illustrate an ongoing progression in addressing issues faced by anxious users and indicate future directions of measuring Internet anxiety.
... Internet addiction is defined as an inability to control Internet use, which may lead to serious impairment in psychological and social functioning (Griffiths, 1997;Young, 1996). Individuals with Internet addiction experience various psychiatric symptoms such as depressed mood or anxiety (Kalwar, 2010). Impulsivity is also related to Internet addiction, and Cao et al. (2007) reported that adolescents with Internet addiction were more impulsive than were controls as measured by both the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale-11 (BIS-11) and the GoStop impulsivity paradigm (Cao et al., 2007). ...
Background and Objectives: The increasing demand of people and students for computer technology and the Internet has caused mental health problems and social communication in them. In this study, the relationship between Internet addiction and general health in students of Qom University of Medical Sciences has been investigated. Methods: This descriptive-correlation study was performed on 321 students living in Qom dormitory of medical sciences through demographic, general health (GHQ) and Internet addiction questionnaires. Data analysis was performed using SPSS software in two parts: descriptive statistics, mean, frequency, frequency percentage and inferential statistics of Pearson correlation coefficient and univariate linear regression. Results: 79.8% of students were regular users and 20.2% of students were addicted to the Internet and no severe Internet addiction was observed. According to the general health questionnaire, 13.1% of students had mild disorder, 66% had moderate disorder and 20.9% had severe disorder. Pearson correlation coefficient between scales and general health in general with Internet addiction showed a significant and positive relationship at a significant level of 0.05. In linear regression analysis, the only variable is the duration of internet connection under the same conditions in terms of other variables that predict the general health score. Conclusion: There is a significant and positive relationship between public health and Internet addiction. Preventing the complications and dangers of Internet addiction is essential and requires educational, counseling, and behavioral planning among vulnerable students.
Conference Paper
More than 350 million people worldwide suffer from depression. Major depressive disorder has a hugely negative impact on psychological well-being, work, and family life. Yet culture may shape how depressed patients interpret their symptoms, choose treatments, and behave. This paper reports a case study, including participant observations and interviews, of the Chinese online depression community, SunForum. Our findings reveal that Chinese cultural beliefs (e.g., the power of inner self-control) and Chinese beliefs about traditional medicine (e.g., the integrated body-mind relationship) significantly affect patients’ understandings of depression, illness management, and social interactions. These beliefs create problems of understanding depression in society – including family members, friends, co-workers, and others – and present various challenges for depressed patients who can become marginalized, suffer discrimination, and lose their jobs. We draw implications for how Chinese society as a whole may respond to the misunderstanding of mental illness and the raising of public awareness. We also propose specific social media design to support depressed patients as they seek online information and social support.
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The purpose of this paper is to determine if Internet anxiety is a myth or reality using literature, questionnaires, and analysis of the collected data. Results showed that the Internet anxiety phenomenon is mostly reality. By placing strong emphasis on the existent Internet anxiety phenomenon, the HCI community could constructively build effective tools and techniques to mitigate users’ anxiety.
The Internet has become a conduit for services, applications, information, content and opportunities. There is no common understanding for assessing human anxiety on the Internet. This paper aims to identify dimensions of anxieties and proposes a conceptual framework. The framework consists of three elements; i.e. the service front-end, FeelCalc and psycho-physiological elements. A simple interface tool named “MyAnxiety,” aimed to service front-end element of the framework is presented which permits identification of seven types of Internet anxiety. Initial tests with twelve and final tests with 140 university participants indicate the viability of the high-level view of the framework since the anxiety types are identified, and the framework-based assessment provides a measurement of anxiety.
Conference Paper
In this paper, we describe a paper-based survey for measuring seven Internet anxiety types. A paper-based survey was distributed among seventy university participants and forty-nine responded with a valid response. The evaluation and analysis of seven types of Internet anxiety revealed internal consistency and acceptable reliability. The findings also suggested for omitting non-significant Internet anxiety types. The results showed that a user feeling while browsing is independent on level of familiarity with the Internet contents.
Conference Paper
The Internet has recently emerged with new kind of services, applications and countless contents. User reaction plays essential role in interacting with the Internet. The theoretical concepts on feelings are extracted from psychology, phenomenology and computer science. It is understood that feelings are subjective experience of users aroused from different emotions. As feelings changes based on time, circumstance, people and environment, it is extremely difficult to assess feelings objectively. User's interaction on the Internet is based on contents (text, audio and video materials) and context (past experience, surroundings, circumstances, environment, background, or settings). Thus, the potential of understanding feelings and its measure is very important. In this paper, a systematic measure of feelcalc module is introduced to measure user's reaction in order to reduce human anxiety on the Internet.
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Definitions of the three components of computer literacy and of computer anxiety were used in a nationwide survey of instructional computing educators to develop a list of seventy competencies of the computer-literate person. This list was used to develop an eighty-question multiple-choice examination. This test was divided into three parts, one part for each of the three components of the definition of computer literacy. Normative data were collected from 341 college students from six different universities. The examination was found to have a reliability estimate of .86. A computer anxiety index (CAIN) was also developed. This instrument was designed to be used to determine a person's level of computer anxiety. Normative data from 1943 students were collected. The CAIN was found to have a reliability of approximately .90. Both the eighty-item achievement test and the twenty-six item CAIN were sent to a nationwide selection of instructional computing specialists who evaluated them. This evaluation was used to revise the two tests. In summary, this article describes the process used to develop two examinations, an achievement test of computer literacy, and a computer anxiety index.
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In this thesis, "Human behavior on the Internet", the human anxiety is conceptualized. The following questions have guided the writing of the thesis: How humans behave with the Internet technology? What goes in their mind? What kinds of behaviors are shown while using the Internet? What is the role of the content on the Internet and especially what are the types of anxiety behavior on the Internet? By conceptualization this thesis aims to provide a model for studying whether humans show signs of less or exacerbated anxiety while using the Internet. The empirical part of this thesis was built on new developed model and user study that utilizes that model. For the user study, the target users were divided into two groups based on their skill level. The user study used both qualitative and quantitative research methods. The qualitative research was conducted using interviews and observational analysis. The quantitative research was conducted in three iterations by using questionnaires and surveys. These results suggest that the significance of human on using technology would be integral part of such a study. The study also suggests that Internet has lulled humans with the sense of dependency to greater extent. In particular, the results identified seven main areas of human anxiety. These forms of anxiety require further studies to encompass human anxiety in more detail.
Conference Paper
In this paper a conceptualization of human anxiety on the Internet is introduced; it is built on the understanding of human behavior with regard to technology. The objective of this paper is to conceptualize the human anxiety. An integral part of understanding is an inter-disciplinary (psychology science, cognitive science, behavioral science and communication technology) literature review, of which and overall summary is presented. The understanding is conceptualized by designing, implementing and evaluating through a developed user study model. In this paper the preliminary result of utilizing the developed user study found seven particular anxiety areas which need further studies.
Communities started changing from groups to networks well before the advent of the Internet. Initially, people believed that industrialization and bureaucratization would dissolve community groups and leave only isolated, alienated individuals. Then scholars discovered that communities continued, but more as sparsely-knit, spatiallydispersed social networks rather than as densely-knit, village-like local groups. A similar debate has developed about the impact of the Internet on community. Some fear that it will isolate people from face-to-face interactions. Others extol the Internet's ability to support far-flung communities of shared interest.
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