The prognostic impact of an abnormal initial renal ultrasound on early reflux resolution
University of Iowa, Division of Pediatric Urology, Iowa City, IA, USA. Journal of pediatric urology
(Impact Factor: 0.9).
08/2011; 7(4):462-6. DOI: 10.1016/j.jpurol.2010.07.003
In a group of children diagnosed with vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) we evaluated renal ultrasound findings, associated findings on renal scan, and prognostic impact on VUR resolution.
Medical records were reviewed for children with primary reflux and no history of antenatal hydronephrosis who underwent an initial renal ultrasound. Abnormal renal ultrasound was defined as hydronephrosis or relative difference in renal size ≥1 cm. Reflux resolution was evaluated at 2 years post diagnosis.
In 129 children with VUR (111 girls, 18 boys), 39 (30%) had an abnormal renal ultrasound. Two-year VUR resolution in the abnormal renal ultrasound group was 21% versus 46% in the group with normal renal ultrasound (P = 0.01). Combining grade II and III reflux, an abnormal ultrasound was associated with a statistically significantly lower resolution rate (grade II-III 23% vs 47%, P = 0.049). For children with moderate hydronephrosis, 8/9 (89%) had abnormal initial renal scans and all failed to achieve resolution of reflux at 2 years.
In this cohort of children with VUR, 30% had abnormalities on renal ultrasound. The presence of moderate hydronephrosis on ultrasound may indicate a high likelihood of abnormality on renal scan and failure to achieve early resolution of VUR.
Available from: Christopher S Cooper
- "In addition to information obtained from a cystogram, prognostic information may be obtained from renal ultrasound, which is performed on most children diagnosed with VUR. The author recently demonstrated that children with an abnormal renal ultrasound, as defined by the presence of hydronephrosis or a size discrepancy of > 1 cm, had significantly lower 2-year resolution rates than those with a normal renal ultrasound (35). As one might expect, children with an abnormal renal ultrasound were likely to have an abnormal renal scan. "
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ABSTRACT: Approaches to the management of vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) in children have changed rapidly in recent years. Multiple studies published over the last decade have contributed to these changes by challenging the dogma that all children with reflux require and benefit from continuous antibiotic prophylaxis. The advent and wide acceptance of endoscopic treatment for VUR has also contributed to these changes. Although new guidelines for VUR management have recently been proposed, they are broad and relatively non-specific. Many physicians and parents remain unsure which children are at risk from their VUR, and which would benefit from antibiotic prophylaxis or surgical intervention.
A literature search, followed by an additional search based on bibliographies, was performed for articles reporting on VUR and the utility of antibiotic prophylaxis for its treatment, as well as the chance of spontaneous resolution.
Articles selected for review included those that provided information to assist physicians in determining if a child with VUR is at increased risk of pyelonephritis or persistent VUR, and would benefit from intervention. Particular emphasis was placed on recent prospective, randomized trials in children with VUR.
Because of the multiple factors affecting risk in a child with VUR, specific guidelines for intervention cannot be provided. However, an accurate understanding of these risk factors will help the physician and parents to develop a more individualized management plan for a child with VUR.
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ABSTRACT: Widespread antenatal screening has resulted in increased detection of anomalies of the kidneys and urinary tract. The present guidelines update the recommendations published in 2000. Antenatal hydronephrosis (ANH) is transient and resolves by the third trimester in almost one-half cases. The presence of oligohydramnios and additional renal or extrarenal anomalies suggests significant pathology. All patients with ANH should undergo postnatal ultrasonography; the intensity of subsequent evaluation depends on anteroposterior diameter (APD) of the renal pelvis and/or Society for Fetal Urology (SFU) grading. Patients with postnatal APD exceeding 10 mm and/or SFU grade 3-4 should be screened for upper or lower urinary tract obstruction and vesicoureteric reflux. Infants with vesicoureteric reflux should receive antibiotic prophylaxis through the first year of life, and their parents counseled regarding the risk of urinary tract infections. The management of patients with pelviureteric junction or vesicoureteric junction obstruction depends on clinical features and results of sequential ultrasonography and radionuclide renography. Surgery is considered in patients with increasing renal pelvic APD and/or an obstructed renogram with differential renal function <35-40% or its subsequent decline. Further studies are necessary to clarify the role of prenatal intervention, frequency of follow up investigations and indications for surgery in these patients.
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