Development of Preschool and Academic Skills in Children Born Very Preterm

Department of Pediatrics, Division of Neonatology, Erasmus University Medical Centre, Sophia Children's Hospital, Rotterdam, The Netherlands.
The Journal of pediatrics (Impact Factor: 3.79). 01/2011; 158(1):51-6. DOI: 10.1016/j.jpeds.2010.06.052
Source: PubMed


To examine performance in preschool and academic skills in very preterm (gestational age ≤ 30 weeks) and term-born comparison children aged 4 to 12 years.
Very preterm children (n = 200; mean age, 8.2 ± 2.5 years) born between 1996 and 2004 were compared with 230 term-born children (mean age, 8.3 ± 2.3). The Dutch National Pupil Monitoring System was used to measure preschool numerical reasoning and early linguistics, and primary school simple and complex word reading, reading comprehension, spelling, and mathematics/arithmetic. With univariate analyses of variance, we assessed the effects of preterm birth on performance across grades and on grade retention.
In preschool, very preterm children performed comparably with term-born children in early linguistics, but perform more poorly (0.7 standard deviation [SD]) in numerical reasoning skills. In primary school, very preterm children scored 0.3 SD lower in complex word reading and 0.6 SD lower in mathematics/arithmetic, but performed comparably with peers in reading comprehension and spelling. They had a higher grade repeat rate (25.5%), although grade repeat did not improve their academic skills.
Very preterm children do well in early linguistics, reading comprehension, and spelling, but have clinically significant deficits in numerical reasoning skills and mathematics/arithmetic, which persist with time.

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    • "These children were more likely to renew an academic year while their academic skills would not develop. Therefore, trying to develop intervention methods can help in identifying and reducing academic weaknesses of the preterm born children (78). Five to eight years-old VLBW children were more prone to major and minor neurological dysfunction, low intelligence, poor language test performance, and low academic achievement and had more behavioral problems than their full-term peers. "
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    ABSTRACT: Context: All over the the world, preterm birth is a major cause of death and important neurodevelopmental disorders. Approximately 9.6% (12.9 million) births worldwide are preterm. Evidence Acquisition: In this review, databases such as PubMed, EMBASE, ISI, Scopus, Google Scholar and Iranian databases including Iranmedex, and SID were researched to review relevant literature. A comprehensive search was performed using combinations of various keywords. Results: Cerebral palsy especially spastic diplegia, intellectual disability, visual (retinopathy of prematurity) and hearing impairments are the main neurodevelopmental disorders associated with prematurity. Conclusions: The increased survival of preterm infants was not associated with lower complications. There is now increasing evidence of sustained adverse outcomes into school age and adolescence, for preterm infants. Keywords:Neurodevelopment; Impairment; Preterm Birth; Low Birth Weight
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2014
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    • "Children born extremely preterm continue exhibiting difficulties in cognition, inhibition , and perceptual-motor skills in kindergarten compared to peers born full term [6]. Difficulty with executive function persists into school age, especially in the areas of response inhibition, planning, and verbal and spatial working memory skills [7] [8] [9] [10]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Background Difficulties with executive function have been found in preterm children, resulting in difficulties with learning and school performance. Aim This study evaluated the relationship of early working memory as measured by object permanence items to the cognitive and language scores on the Bayley Scales-III in a cohort of children born extremely preterm. Study design Logistic regression models were conducted to compare object permanence scores derived from the Bayley Scales-III by race/ethnicity and maternal education, controlling for medical covariates. Subjects Extremely preterm toddlers (526), who were part of a Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Neonatal Research Network's multi-center study, were evaluated at 18–22 months corrected age. Outcome measures Object permanence scores derived from the Bayley Developmental Scales were compared by race/ethnicity and maternal education, controlling for medical covariates. Results There were no significant differences in object permanence mastery and scores among the treatment groups after controlling for medical and social variables, including maternal education and race/ethnicity. Males and children with intraventricular hemorrhage, retinopathy of prematurity, and bronchopulmonary dysplasia were less likely to demonstrate object permanence mastery and had lower object permanence scores. Children who attained object permanence mastery had significantly higher Bayley Scales-III cognitive and language scores after controlling for medical and socio-economic factors. Conclusions Our measure of object permanence is free of influence from race, ethnic and socio-economic factors. Adding this simple task to current clinical practice could help detect early executive function difficulties in young children.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2013 · Early human development
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    ABSTRACT: To assess learning problems among kindergarten students with extremely preterm birth and to identify risk factors. Cohort study. Children's hospital. A cohort of 148 children born between January 1, 2001, and December 31, 2003, with extremely preterm birth, defined as less than 28 weeks' gestation or having a birth weight of less than 1000 g, and 111 classmate control individuals born at term with normal birth weight. The children were enrolled in the study during their first year in kindergarten and were assessed on measures of learning progress. Achievement testing, teacher ratings of learning progress, and individual educational assistance. Children with extremely preterm birth had lower mean standard scores than controls on achievement tests of spelling (8.52; 95% confidence interval, 4.58-12.46) and applied mathematics (11.02; 6.76-15.28). They had higher rates of substandard learning progress by teacher report in written language (odds ratio, 4.23; 95% CI, 2.32-7.73) and mathematics (7.08; 2.79-17.95). Group differences in mathematics achievement and in teacher ratings of learning progress were statistically significant even in children without neurosensory deficits or low global cognitive ability. Neonatal risk factors, early childhood neurodevelopmental impairment, and socioeconomic status predicted learning problems in children with extremely preterm birth; however, many children with problems were not enrolled in a special education program. Learning problems in children with extremely preterm birth are evident in kindergarten and are associated with neonatal and early childhood risk factors. Our findings support efforts to provide more extensive monitoring and interventions before and during the first year of school.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2011 · JAMA Pediatrics
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