Application of oligonucleotide array CGH in the detection of a large intragenic deletion in POLG associated with Alpers Syndrome
Murdoch Childrens Research Institute and Genetic Health Services Victoria, Royal Children's Hospital, Melbourne, Australia. Mitochondrion
(Impact Factor: 3.25).
01/2011; 11(1):104-7. DOI: 10.1016/j.mito.2010.07.012
Mutations in the polymerase γ (POLG) gene are among the most common causes of mitochondrial disease and more than 160 POLG mutations have been reported. However, a large proportion of patients suspected of having POLG mutations only have one (heterozygous) definitive pathogenic mutation identified. Using oligonucleotide array CGH, we identified a compound heterozygous large intragenic deletion encompassing exons 15-21 of this gene in a child with Alpers syndrome due to mtDNA depletion. This is the first large POLG deletion reported and the findings show the clinical utility of using array CGH in cases where a single heterozygous mutation has been identified in POLG.
Available from: Ni-Chung Lee
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ABSTRACT: Mutations in the POLG gene have emerged as one of the most common causes of inherited mitochondrial diseases in children and adults. This study sequenced the exons and flanking intronic regions of the POLG gene from 2697 unrelated patients with clinical presentations suggestive of POLG deficiency. Informative mutations have been identified in 136 unrelated individuals (5%), including 92 patients with two recessive pathogenic alleles and three patients harbouring a dominant mutation. Twenty-four novel recessive mutations and a novel possible dominant mutation, p.Y951N, were identified. All missense mutations occurred at evolutionarily conserved amino acids within functionally important regions identified by molecular modelling analyses. Oligonucleotide array comparative genomic hybridisation analyses performed on DNA samples from 81 patients with one mutant POLG allele identified a large intragenic deletion in only one patient, suggesting that large deletions in POLG are rare. The 92 patients with two mutant alleles exhibited a broad spectrum of disease. Almost all patients in all age groups had some degree of neuropathy. Seizures, hepatopathy, and lactic acidaemia were predominant in younger patients. By comparison, patients who developed symptoms in adulthood had a higher percentage of myopathy, sensory ataxia, and chronic progressive external ophthalmoplegia (CPEO)/ptosis. In conclusion, POLG mutations account for a broad clinical spectrum of mitochondrial disorders. Sequence analysis of the POLG gene should be considered as a part of routine screening for mitochondrial disorders, even in the absence of apparent mitochondrial DNA abnormalities.
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ABSTRACT: Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) depletion syndrome encompasses a heterogeneous group of disorders characterized by a reduction in the mtDNA copy number. We identified two patients with clinical presentations consistent with mtDNA depletion syndrome (MDS), who were subsequently found to have apparently homozygous point mutations in TYMP and DGUOK, two of the nine nuclear genes commonly associated with these disorders. Further sequence analyses of parents indicated that in each case only one parent; the mother of the first and the father of the second, was a heterozygous carrier of the mutation identified in the affected child. The presence of underlying deletions was ruled out by use of a custom target array comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) platform. A high-density single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) array analysis revealed that the first patient had a region of copy-neutral absence of heterozygosity (AOH) consistent with segmental isodisomy for an 11.3 Mb region at the long-arm terminus of chromosome 22 (including the TYMP gene), and the second patient had results consistent with complete isodisomy of chromosome 2 (where the DGUOK gene is located). The combined sequencing, array CGH and SNP array approaches have demonstrated the first cases of MDS due to uniparental isodisomy. This diagnostic scenario also demonstrates the necessity of comprehensive examination of the underlying molecular defects of an apparently homozygous mutation in order to provide patients and their families with the most accurate molecular diagnosis and genetic counseling.
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