Enhanced tumor suppression in vitro and in vivo by co-expression of survivin-specific siRNA and wild-type p53 protein
Department of Pathophysiology, Norman Bethune College of Medicine and Prostate Diseases Prevention and Treatment Research Center, Jilin University, Changchun, China. Cancer gene therapy
(Impact Factor: 2.42).
12/2010; 17(12):844-54. DOI: 10.1038/cgt.2010.41
The development of malignant prostate cancer involves multiple genetic alterations. For example, alterations in both survivin and p53 are reported to have crucial roles in prostate cancer progression. However, little is known regarding the interrelationships between p53 and survivin in prostate cancer. Our data demonstrate that the expression of survivin is inversely correlated with that of wtp53 protein (r(s)=0.548) in prostate cancer and in normal prostate tissues. We have developed a therapeutic strategy, in which two antitumor factors, small interfering RNA-survivin and p53 protein, are co-expressed from the same plasmid, and have examined their effects on the growth of PC3, an androgen-independent prostate cancer cell line. When p53 was expressed along with a survivin-specific short hairpin RNA (shRNA), tumor cell proliferation was significantly suppressed and apoptosis occurred. In addition, this combination also abrogated the expression of downstream target molecules such as cyclin-dependent kinase 4 and c-Myc, while enhancing the expression of GRIM19. These changes in gene expression occurred distinctly in the presence of survivin-shRNA/wtp53 compared with control or single treatment groups. Intratumoral injection of the co-expressed construct inhibited the growth and survival of tumor xenografts in a nude mouse model. These studies revealed evidence of an interaction between p53 and survivin proteins plus a complex signaling network operating downstream of the wtp53-survivin pathway that actively controls tumor cell proliferation, survival and apoptosis.
Available from: X. Long Zheng
- "Survivin has been shown to inhibit apoptosis, promote tumorassociated angiogenesis, and serve as a resistance determinant to various anti-cancer therapies . Survivin expression inhibits cell death induced by various apoptotic stimuli in vitro and in vivo  . In the current study, we demonstrated that As 2 O 3 is a potent down-regulator of survivin expression at both the protein and mRNA levels and a potent inducer of apoptosis in WSU-CLL cells. "
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ABSTRACT: Arsenic trioxide (As2O3) can induce apoptosis in many tumors. However, the associated mechanisms are not clearly understood. We found that As2O3 significantly inhibited the proliferation of WSU-CLL cells and induced apoptosis in dose- and time-dependent manners. WSU-CLL cells treated with 2μM As2O3 showed survivin down-regulation and p53 up-regulation. Survivin siRNA combined with As2O3 further inhibited the proliferation of WSU-CLL cells. p53 inhibition by siRNA prevented the down-regulation of survivin by As2O3 and prevented the As2O3-induced cytotoxicity of WSU-CLL cells. These results suggest that As2O3 may be of therapeutic value for chronic lymphocytic leukemia.
Available from: Zhao Lijing
- "Typhimurium, which could selectively target tumors and deliver the therapeutic agents into tumors while reducing the damage to normal tissue
[23,33,34]. More recently, these bacteria have been engineered to express numerous genes, including survivin
 and STAT3 siRNA
 against prostate cancer in our laboratory. So this time, we first employed the attenuated S. enterica ser. "
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RBM5 (RNA-binding motif protein 5, also named H37/LUCA-15) gene from chromosome 3p21.3 has been demonstrated to be a tumor suppressor. Current researches in vitro confirm that RBM5 can suppress the growth of lung adenocarcinoma cells by inducing apoptosis. There is still no effective model in vivo, however, that thoroughly investigates the effect and molecular mechanism of RBM5 on lung adenocarcinoma.
We established the transplanted tumor model on BALB/c nude mice using the A549 cell line. The mice were treated with the recombinant plasmids carried by attenuated Salmonella to induce the overexpression of RBM5 in tumor tissues. RBM5 overexpression was confirmed by immunohistochemistry staining. H&E staining was performed to observe the histological performance on plasmids-treated A549 xenografts. Apoptosis was assessed by TUNEL staining with a TUNEL detection kit. Apoptosis-regulated genes were detected by Western blot.
We successful established the lung adenocarcinoma animal model in vivo. The growth of tumor xenografts was significantly retarded on the mice treated with pcDNA3.1-RBM5 carried by attenuated Salmonella compared to that on mice treated with pcDNA3.1. Overexpression of RBM5 enhanced the apoptosis in tumor xenografts. Furthermore, the expression of Bcl-2 protein was decreased significantly, while the expression of BAX, TNF-α, cleaved caspase-3, cleaved caspase-8, cleaved caspase-9 and cleaved PARP proteins was significantly increased in the pcDNA3.1-RBM5-treated mice as compared to that in the control mice.
In this study, we established a novel animal model to determine RBM5 function in vivo, and concluded that RBM5 inhibited tumor growth in mice by inducing apoptosis. The study suggests that although RBM5’s involvement in the death receptor-mediated apoptotic pathway is still to be investigated, RBM5-mediated growth suppression, at least in part, employs regulation of the mitochondrial apoptotic pathways.
Available from: Zhao Lijing
- "Previous study demonstrated that Salmonella could be infected and preferentially accumulated in the tumor xenograft in vivo, with a tumor/normal tissue-retaining ratio of approximately 1,000:1 . Attenuated Salmonella typhi Ty21a is a facultative anaerobic bacterium that was capable of replicating preferentially in tumor cells and was used for developing proteins therapeutic to several different tumors [30-33]. We showed that a large amount of the Salmonella typhi Ty21a still remained in the tumor tissues at the later stage of treatment. "
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The loss of tumor suppressor gene (TSG) function is a critical step in the pathogenesis of human lung cancer. RBM5 (RNA-binding motif protein 5, also named H37/LUCA-15) gene from chromosome 3p21.3 demonstrated tumor suppressor activity. However, the role of RBM5 played in the occurrence and development of lung cancer is still not well understood.
Paired non-tumor and tumor tissues were obtained from 30 adenocarcinomas. The expression of RBM5 mRNA and protein was examined by RT-PCR and Western blot. A549 cell line was used to determine the apoptotic function of RBM5 in vitro. A549 cells were transiently transfected with pcDNA3.1-RBM5. AnnexinV analysis was performed by flow cytometry. Expression of Bcl-2, cleaved caspase-3, caspase-9 and PAPP proteins in A549 lung cancer cells and the A549 xenograft BALB/c nude mice model was determined by Western blot. Tumor suppressor activity of RBM5 was also examined in the A549 xenograft model treated with pcDNA3.1-RBM5 plasmid carried by attenuated Salmonella typhi Ty21a.
The expression of RBM5 mRNA and protein was decreased significantly in adenocarcinoma tissues compared to that in the non-tumor tissues. In addition, as compared to the vector control, a significant growth inhibition of A549 lung cancer cells was observed when transfected with pcDNA3.1-RBM5 as determined by cell proliferation assay. We also found that overexpression of RBM5 induced both early and late apoptosis in A549 cells using AnnexinV/PI staining as determined by flow cytometry. Furthermore, the expression of Bcl-2 protein was decreased, whereas the expression of cleaved caspase-3, caspase-9 and PARP proteins was significantly increased in the RBM5 transfected cells; similarly, expression of decreased Bcl-2 and increased cleaved caspase-3 proteins was also examined in the A549 xenograft model. More importantly, we showed that accumulative and stable overexpression of RBM5 in the A549 xenograft BALB/c nude mice model significantly inhibited the tumor growth rate in vivo as compared to that in the control.
Our study demonstrates that RBM5 can inhibit the growth of lung cancer cells and induce apoptosis both in vitro and in vivo, which suggests that RBM5 might be used as a potential biomarker or target for lung cancer diagnosis and chemotherapy. Moreover, we propose a novel animal model set up in BALB/c nude mice treated with attenuated Salmonella as a vector carrying plasmids to determine RBM5 function in vivo.
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