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Abstract and Figures

Reiki is used by a growing number of people but little is known about the scientific basis for its use. The Touchstone Process was developed as an ongoing process to systematically analyze published, peer-reviewed studies of Reiki, the results being made accessible to the public online. Thirteen scientifically qualified experts in the field of Reiki were assembled into 3 teams to retrieve, evaluate, and summarize articles using standardized, piloted evaluation forms. Summaries of 26 Reiki articles, including strengths and weaknesses, were posted on a newly developed Web site (www.centerforreikiresearch.org), together with an overall summary of the status of Reiki research and guidelines for future research: The Touchstone Process determined that only 12 articles were based on a robust experimental design and utilized well-established outcome parameters. Of these articles, 2 provided no support, 5 provided some support, and 5 demonstrated strong evidence for the use of Reiki as a healing modality. There is a need for further high-quality studies in this area.
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An Ongoing Critical Evaluation of Reiki
in the Scientific Literature
Ann L. Baldwin, PhD Anne Vitale, PhD, APN, AHN-BC Elise Brownell, PhD
Jan Scicinski, PhD Mary Kearns, PhD William Rand
23,451*+/67 Reiki is used by a growing number of people but little is known about the scientific basis for its use.
0+18*-)7 The Touchstone Process was developed as an ongoing process to systematically analyze published,
peer-reviewed studies of Reiki, the results being made accessible to the public online. 9).(*67 Thirteen
scientifically qualified experts in the field of Reiki were assembled into 3 teams to retrieve, evaluate, and summarize
articles using standardized, piloted evaluation forms. &)-+:.-7 Summaries of 26 Reiki articles, including strengths
and weaknesses, were posted on a newly developed Web site (www.centerforreikiresearch.org), together with an
overall summary of the status of Reiki research and guidelines for future research:The Touchstone Process
determined that only 12 articles were based on a robust experimental design and utilized well-established outcome
parameters. Of these articles, 2 provided no support, 5 provided some support, and 5 demonstrated strong
evidence for the use of Reiki as a healing modality. ;*/,:+-<*/7 There is a need for further high-quality studies in
this area. ="> ?@&A'7 evidence-based practice,Reiki,Reiki research Holist Nurs Pract !"#"$!%&'()!*"+!,*
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The Touchstone Process !*I
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Very good 12-13 26-29
Excellent 14-15 30-34
0; jCN90>Dk 36>D.1; .; E?.>? D?6 =67.6E6= F=.6K
3D0D63 E?6D?6= D?6 3D45K .3 >1;3.3D6;D E.D? 9=67.P
143 ;5.;G3B >=60D63 ;6E 90=05.GN3B 1= 5.39=1763
9=67.143 ;5.;G3A C; 055.D.1;B 60>? =67.6E6= =0D63
D?6 0=D.>86 Q1= jg76=088 CN9=633.1;k &6^>6886;DB
76=K G115B 30D.3Q0>D1=KB 1= E60/(A M1 6;34=6 >1;P
3.3D6;>K F6DE66; 0 =67.6E6=f3 3>1=6 0;5 g76=088
CN9=633.1;B 6^0>D ;4N6=.>08 =0;G63 E6=6 56;65
Q1= 60>? g76=088 CN9=633.1; >0D6G1=K &M0F86 #(A
M?636 =0;G63 E6=6 1FD0.;65 Q=1N D?6 3>1=6 5.3D=.P
F4D.1;3 Q1= 60>? >0D6G1=K .; D?6 9.81D 3D45KA CQ D?6
! =67.6E6=3 Q1= 0 G.76; 0=D.>86 5.QQ6= .; D?6.= g76=P
088 CN9=633.1;3 FK # >0D6G1=KB D?0D .3B 1;6 G.763
j_0D.3Q0>D1=Kk 0;5 D?6 1D?6= j\6=K `115Bk D?6 0=P
D.>86 .3 >8033.65 03 30D.3Q0>D1=Ki76=K G115A M?6
O408.D0D.76 0;5 O40;D.D0D.76 Q1=N3B 567681965 FK
D?6 M14>?3D1;6 D60N 0;5 3?1E; .; D?6 U996;5.^B
>1;D0.; 0 D1D08 1Q #! 0;5 !# .D6N3B =6396>D.768KB
31N6 1Q E?.>? 0=6 >1NN1; F6DE66; D?6 ! >0D6P
G1=.63A C; >0363 1Q 3.G;.>0;D8K 5.76=G6;D 3>1=.;G
&g76=088 CN9=633.1;3 5.QQ6=.;G FK N1=6 D?0; # >0DP
6G1=K(B 0 D?.=5 =67.6E .3 96=Q1=N65 0;5 D?6 I 3>1=63
076=0G65A M?6 :67.6E M60N N0.;D0.;3 =6>1=53 1Q
088 966=P=67.6E65 0=D.>863 03 E688 03 3676=08 >036
3D45.63 Q1= Q4D4=6 670840D.1;A T1N986D65 =67.6E3
0=6 36;D D1 D?6 _4NN0=.V0D.1; D60NA M?6 =67.6E
Q1=N3 E6=6 .;.D.088K 9.81D65 D1 6;34=6 D?6.= 34.DP
0F.8.DK D1 D?6 9=1c6>D G1083 0;5 D1 D63D 0;5 ;6P
D4;6 D?6 670840D.1; 9=1>633 .D368QA M?6 =3D % :6./.
=6360=>? 0=D.>863 =6D=.6765 E6=6 4365 Q1= D?6 9.81D
3D45KB 0881E.;G D.N6 D1 >08.F=0D6 3>1=.;G 90DD6=;3
0;5 D1 670840D6 14= 176=088 9=1>633A
IA The Summarization Team) T1;3.3D3 1Q , D60N
N6NF6=3 E?1 jD=0;380D6k D?6 =67.6E3 .;D1 90=65P
51E; 34NN0=.63 D?0D >1;76K D?6 .N91=D0;D .;Q1=P
N0D.1; .; 60>? 0=D.>86 &94=9136 1Q 3D45KB 1Fc6>P
D.763B ?K91D?63.3B N6D?153B 0;5 =6348D3(B D1G6D?6=
E.D? .D3 3D=6;GD?3 0;5 E60/;63363B .; 0; 603.8K 4;P
56=3D0;50F86 E0KA H60/;63363 &.Q 0;K( .; D?6 436
1Q :6./. 9=0>D.D.1;6=3 0;5 .; 176=088 >80=.DK 1Q E=.DP
.;G 0=6 .;>84565 .; D?.3 36>D.1; 0;5 80D6= 670840D65
.; 055.D.1; D1 D?6 9=.N0=K 3>1=65 =67.6EA U 3D0;P
50=5.V65 9.81D65 34NN0=K Q1=N .3 4365 D1 N0.;P
D0.; 4;.Q1=N.DK .; 80;G40G6 0;5 176=088 >1;D6;D
D?=14G?14D D?6 G=149 1Q 34NN0=.63A g;>6 >1NP
986D65B D?6 34NN0=K G163 D1 D?6 65.D1=P.;P>?.6QB
E?1 56D6=N.;63 D?0D 60>? 34NN0=K D=48K =66>D3
D?6 =67.6E6=3f 3>1=63 0;5 >=.D.>.3N3B 0;5 65.D3 0>P
>1=5.;G8K 9=.1= D1 980>6N6;D 1; D?6 H6F 3.D6A
E7680:878=: ;179: 24 01: )2/=19028: .32=:99
M?6 M14>?3D1;6 S=1>633 .3 =.G1=143 0;5 3.N.80= D1 D?6
63D0F8.3?65 =67.6E 9=1>654=63 4365 FK 65.D1=.08 F10=53
1Q ?.G?8K =0;/.;G 3>.6;D.> c14=;083 D1 3686>D 0=D.>863
E1=D?K 1Q 94F8.>0D.1;A -48D.986 =67.6E6=3 0;5
3D0;50=5.V65 670840D.1; >=.D6=.0 0=6 4D.8.V65 .; F1D?
O40;D.D0D.76 0;5 O408.D0D.76 =67.6E3 1Q :6./. =6360=>?A
M?6 =6348D3 1Q 14= 670840D.1; D1 50D6 &; =!* 0=D.>863(
0=6 D0F480D65 .; 0 80D6= 36>D.1; 1Q D?.3 0=D.>86 &M0F86 !(A
M?636 0=D.>863 &N0=/65 E.D? 03D6=.3/3( 0=6 >.D65 .; D?6
j:6Q6=6;>63k 36>D.1; 1Q D?.3 0=D.>86A M?6 >1N986D.1; 1Q
966= =67.6E3 1; 088 6^.3D.;G :6./. =6360=>? 0=D.>863
D?=14G? <4;6 !""@ N0=/3 D?6 F6G.;;.;G 1Q D?6
-0.;D6;0;>6 S?036 1Q D?6 9=1c6>DA M60N 86056=3
>1;D.;46 D1 N66D N1;D?8K D1 >1;D.;41438K 4950D6 D?6
50D0F036 E.D? ;6E8K 94F8.3?65 :6./. =6360=>?
14D>1N63A X0>? 94F8.3?65 3D45K .3 >=.D.O465 43.;G D?6
3D0;50=5.V65 9=1>654=63 1Q D?6 M14>?3D1;6 S=1>633B
6;34=.;G 0>>4=0D6B 49PD1P50D6 0>>633 D1 D?6 3D0D43 1Q
:6./. =6360=>?A UD 0;K G.76; D.N6B 1;6 >0; 033633 G093
.; /;1E865G6 0;5 563.G; Q4D4=6 3D45.63B 0>>1=5.;G8KA
M?6 M14>?3D1;6 S=1>633 0;5 D?6 T6;D6= Q1= :6./.
:6360=>? E6=6 567681965 D1 F6 0 >6;D=08 >860=.;G?1436
1Q :6./. =6360=>? .;Q1=N0D.1; Q1= 9=0>D.D.1;6=3 0;5
=6360=>?6=3 08./6A M?6 T6;D6= Q1= :6./. :6360=>? ?03
567681965 0 H6F 3.D6 &EEEA>6;D6=Q1==6./.
=6360=>?A1=G( D1 N0/6 D?6 ;5.;G3 1Q D?6 M14>?3D1;6
S=1>633 070.80F86 D1 D?6 94F8.>A M?6 3.D6 8.3D3 088 1Q D?6
966=P=67.6E65 :6./. 3D45.63 .; D?6 9=1c6>D E.D?
34NN0=.63A
!",GH),
*B:3755 03:8<9 78< 90706906=9 432> 01: ;36>73I
3:B6:J ;32=:99
M?6 M14>?3D1;6 S=1>633 .56;D.65 !* 966=P=67.6E65
:6./. 0=D.>863 .; D?6 >4==6;D 3>.6;D.>
8.D6=0D4=6B,,I#,I!,I%PIJ ,%"P', , 1Q E?.>? E6=6 qualitative
0;5 #@ E6=6 quantitativeA U 34=9=.3.;G ;5.;G E03
Copyright © 2010 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. Unauthorized reproduction of this article is prohibited.
!*% LgYC_MCT Z2:_CZ` S:UTMCTX _XSMX-WX:igTMgWX: !"#"
$#2F" OE Major Primary and Additional
Weaknesses Specific to Each Article
P?)34Q #1.<,:)-
Ring46 A, B, C, E, H J, K, M, O
Raingruber and Robinson45 A, E, G, H J, K, M
Engebretson lWardell7A, B, C, E J
Wetzel53 A, B, C, D L
Sharma et al48 C, D, F K, L
Wardell and Engbretson52 A, C, D, E J
Wirth et al55 B, D, F, I
Olson et al43 A, B, C J
Brathovde37 B, D, E L
Potter44 AJ, K
Rubik et al47 M, N
P9<6R&3/5)Q #1.<,:)-
Shiflett et al49 A, B, C, D, F
Crawford et al40 A, B, C, D J, O
Tsang et al51 A, B, C J, K
Gillespie et al57 C, F L
Mackay et al42 B, D, F
Dressin and Singg41 A, C, F
Wirth et al54 B, I
P$*8R&3/5)Q #1.<,:)-
Vitale and O’Conner38 A, B J
Shore50 FN
Whelan and Wishnia32 B, H
Vitale31 B
Witte and Dundes56 D
Baldwin and Schwartz35 B
Baldwin et al36 B
Assefi et al34 B
A. Lack of blinding of participants to treatment group
B. Small sample size
C. Lack of blinding of data collectors
D. Convenience sample of participants
E. Lack of controls
F. Lack of information about participants (gender/age/race)
G. Lack of standardization of qualitative outputs
H. Lack of independent decision-audit trail
I. Using multiple treatment modalities simultaneously
J. Lack of sham Reiki treatment (if possible)
K. Lack of standardization of Reiki treatments within study
L. Lack of information about training level of Reiki practitioners
M. Lack of clarity of writing
N. Using Reiki practitioners of different levels in same study
O. Using Reiki practitioners as subjects receiving Reiki
D?0D 1;8K '"h 1Q D?6 0=D.>863 =67.6E65 9=17.565 Q488
.;Q1=N0D.1; 0F14D D?6 G6;56=B 0G6B 0;5 6D?;.>.DK 1Q D?6
6^96=.N6;D08 90=D.>.90;D3A CD .3 9133.F86 D?0D D?6
6QQ6>D.76;633 1Q :6./. N0K F6 .;46;>65 FK # 1= N1=6
1Q D?636 90=0N6D6=3A U>>1=5.;G D1 D?6 9=.N0=K
670840D.1; >=.D6=.0B 0F14D ?08Q &% 1Q ,$ ',h( 1Q D?6
O408.D0D.76 3D45.63 E6=6 >0D6G1=.V65 03 jE60/k 0;5 D?6
=63D &I 1Q ,$ %Ih( E6=6 3>1=65 03 j76=K G115k D1
j6^>6886;DAk U 3.N.80= 90DD6=; E03 366; Q1= D?6
O40;D.D0D.76 3D45.63 &, 1Q #@B mI,hn E6=6 jE60/k 0;5
% 1Q #@ m!#hn E6=6 j76=K G115k D1 j6^>6886;Dk(A Z1;6
1Q D?6 O408.D0D.76 0=D.>863 0;5 , &I,h( 1Q D?6 #@
O40;D.D0D.76 0=D.>863 E6=6 >8033.65 03 N.5=0;G6A C;
D1D08B ## &%!h( 1Q D?6 !* 3D45.63 E6=6 >0D6G1=.V65 03
jE60/k 0;5 , &!,h( 03 j76=K G115k D1 j6^>6886;Dk
&M0F86 !(A M?6 176=088 0;08K3.3 3?1E65 D?0D Q1=
O40;D.D0D.76 3D45.63 D?6=6 .3 0 Q0= 81;G6= ?.3D1=K 1Q
94F8.>0D.1; .; 966=P=67.6E65 c14=;083 D?0; Q1=
O408.D0D.76 3D45.63 &[.G4=63 !0 0;5 !FB =6396>D.768K(A
M?6 =3D 966=P=67.6E65 O40;D.D0D.76 0=D.>86 09960=65 .;
#@J@B E?6=603 D?6 =3D 966=P=67.6E65 O408.D0D.76
0=D.>86 5.5 ;1D 09960= 4;D.8 !""#A C; 055.D.1;B D?6
076=0G6 ;4NF6= 1Q 94F8.3?65 O40;D.D0D.76 3D45.63
.;>=60365 0QD6= !""IA ME1 1Q D?6 % O40;D.D0D.76 3D45.63
>8033.65 03 j6^>6886;Dk E6=6 94F8.3?65 .; !""JA
U;1D?6= ! 1Q D?6 % j6^>6886;Dk 3D45.63 &94F8.3?65 .;
!""* 0;5 !""J( .;718765 6^96=.N6;D3 1; 0;.N083
=0D?6= D?0; 1; ?4N0;3A U;.N083 0=6 90=D.>480=8K
=68670;D D1 :6./. 3D45.63 F6>0436 6^96=.N6;D3 E.D?
0;.N083 0=6 ;1D >1;Q14;565 FK D?6 5.QQ6=6;>63 .;
F68.6Q3 1= 8.Q63DK863B 03 1QD6; 1>>4=3 E.D? ?4N0;3B 0;5
D?43 D?6 436 1Q 0;.N083 86053 D1 N1=6 603.8K
.;D6=9=6D0F86 6^96=.N6;DA gQ D?6 J 3D45.63 >8033.65 03
j76=K G115k D1 j6^>6886;DBk 088 E6=6 94F8.3?65
F6DE66; !""# 0;5 !""@B 34GG63D.;G D?0D D?6 O408.DK 1Q
D?6 3D45.63 09960=3 D1 F6 .N9=17.;G E.D? D.N6A
M?6 N0.; 56>.6;>.63 1Q D?6 3D45.63B 03 03363365
43.;G D?6 9=.N0=K 670840D.1; >=.D6=.0B 0=6 8.3D65 .;
M0F86 IB D1G6D?6= E.D? D?6 ;4NF6=3 1Q 0=D.>863
>8033.65 03 jE60/Bk jN.5P=0;G6k &30D.3Q0>D1=K 1=
30D.3Q0>D1=Ki76=K G115(B 1= jD19 =0;G6k &76=K G115 D1
6^>6886;D( D?0D 3?1E65 60>? 90=D.>480= 56>.6;>KA M?6
N0.; 56>.6;>.63 0331>.0D65 E.D? 60>? 90=D.>480=
0=D.>86 0=6 3?1E; .; M0F86 !A [4=D?6= 56D0.83 >1;>6=;.;G
D?6 N6D?15181G.63 1Q D?6 =0;51N.V65 >1;D=18865 D=.083
.;>84565 .; D?6 M14>?3D1;6 S=1>633IJ,%"P%% ,%@P'# >0; F6
Q14;5 .; 0 9=67.143 94F8.>0D.1;A'J -13D 1Q D?6
56>.6;>.63 E6=6 =680D65 D1 0 E.56 =0;G6 1Q .;D6=;08
0;5 6^D6=;08 708.5.DK .33463 E.D? 6^96=.N6;D08 563.G;A
T1N90=65 D1 D?6 0=D.>863 >8033.65 03 jE60/Bk Q6E6= 1Q
D?136 >8033.65 03 jN.5 =0;G6Bk 0;5 Q0= Q6E6= 1Q D?6
jD19P=0;G6k 0=D.>863B 3?1E65 N0c1= 56>.6;>.63 6^>69D
D?0D 08N13D 088 D?6 0=D.>863 E6=6 >=.D.>.V65 Q1= D?6 3N088
30N986 3.V6A M?.3 90=D.>480= 56>.6;>K E03 D?6 1;8K
1;6 D?0D 390;;65 088 >0D6G1=.63 1Q N6=.DA U88 J 0=D.>863
D?0D E6=6 >8033.65 03 jD19 =0;G6k 56N1;3D=0D65
E688P563.G;65 N6D?15181GK 0;5 4D.8.V65 3D0;50=5.V65
D=60DN6;D 9=1D1>183 0;5 14D>1N6 90=0N6D6=3 D?0D ?05
F66; 9=67.1438K 708.50D65A
M0F86 % 8.3D3 055.D.1;08 E60/;63363 =6G0=5.;G
9=1F86N3 E.D? D?6 436 1Q :6./. 9=0>D.D.1;6=3 0;5 80>/
Copyright © 2010 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. Unauthorized reproduction of this article is prohibited.
The Touchstone Process !*'
!BC%&" OE Graphs to show number and quality of peer-reviewed original Reiki research articles as a function of year of
publication for (a) qualitative and (b) quantitative articles.
1Q 176=088 >80=.DK 1Q E=.D.;GB 03 03363365 Q=1N D?6
_4NN0=K 3D0D6N6;D3A C;>84565 .; D?6 D0F86 .3
.;Q1=N0D.1; 3?1E.;G D?0D D?6 ;4NF6= 1Q 055.D.1;08
E60/;63363 96= 0=D.>86 E03 >1;3.3D6;D E.D? 60>?
9096=f3 g76=088 CN9=633.1; .; D?6 9=.N0=K 670840D.1;A
M?6 055.D.1;08 E60/;63363 0331>.0D65 E.D? 60>?
90=D.>480= 0=D.>86 0=6 3?1E; .; M0F86 !A
g76=088B D?6 =6348D3 Q=1N D?6 M14>?3D1;6 S=1>633
0;08K3.3 1Q D?6 !* 966=P=67.6E65 :6./. =6360=>?
0=D.>863 56N1;3D=0D65 D?0D 1;8K #! 1Q D?6
3D45.63I#BI!,I%PI* ,IJ,%",%#,%@,'",'%,'* E6=6 F0365 1; =1F43D
=6360=>? 563.G;3 0;5 E688P63D0F8.3?65 14D>1N6
90=0N6D6=3A M?636 0=D.>863 E6=6 033.G;65 E1=5
670840D.1;3 1Q j\6=K `115k 1= jX^>6886;Dk FK 0D 8603D
Copyright © 2010 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. Unauthorized reproduction of this article is prohibited.
!** LgYC_MCT Z2:_CZ` S:UTMCTX _XSMX-WX:igTMgWX: !"#"
$#2F" ME Numbers of Articles of a Given Quality Demonstrating Each Particular Major Primary Weakness
S+TU)1 *J #1.<,:)-
?)34 9<6 $*8 &3/5)
A Lack of blinding of participants to treatment group 7 4 1
B Small sample size 6 5 6
C Lack of blinding of data collectors 6 5 0
D Convenience sample of participants 5 3 1
E Lack of controls 5 0 0
F Lack of information about participants (gender/age/race) 2 5 0
G Lack of standardization of qualitative outputs020 0
H Lack of independent decision-audit trail020 1
I Using multiple treatment modalities simultaneously 1 1 0
0For qualitative studies only.
# =67.6E6= 0;5 E6=6 ;1D >1;3.56=65 jE60/k FK 0;K
=67.6E6=A CD 3?1485 F6 ;1D65 D?0D N13D 1Q D?636 3D45.63
0=6 =6>6;DB .;5.>0D.;G D?0D D?6 3>.6;D.> 3D0;50=5 1Q
94F8.3?65 :6./. =6360=>?B 03 670840D65 FK D?6
M14>?3D1;6 S=1>633B .3 .N9=17.;GA
&2 01: ;/D5691:< ;::3C3:B6:J:< 90/<6:9 ;32B6<:
9/;;230 423 !:6@6K
M?6 #! 0=D.>863 D?0D E6=6 >8033.65 03 j\6=K `115k 1=
jX^>6886;Dk FK 0D 8603D # =67.6E6= E6=6 6^0N.;65 D1
56D6=N.;6 D1 E?0D 56G=66 D?6K 9=17.56 34991=D Q1= D?6
436 1Q :6./. 03 0 ?608.;G N1508.DKA M?6 =6348D3 E6=6
N.^65A g; D?6 ;6G0D.76 3.56B 1;6 3D45K 3?1E65 318.5
67.56;>6 1Q ;1 6QQ6>D 1Q :6./. 1= D14>? 1; =654>.;G
90.; =6348D.;G Q=1N F=1NK08G.0AI% M?.3 90=D.>480=
3D45K E03 76=K E688 563.G;65 0;5 .;>84565 3?0N :6./.
G=1493A L1E676=B D?6 6^96=.N6;D E03 ;1D 91E6=65 D1
56D6>D 34FD86 >?0;G63 .; 90.; 96=>69D.1;B 0;5
05?6=6;>6 D1 3D0;50=5.V65 :6./. ?0;5 913.D.1;3 N0K
$#2F" NE Numbers of Articles of a Given Category of Quality Demonstrating Each Particular Additional
Weakness Assessed from Summaries
S+TU)1 *J #1.<,:)-
?)34 9<6 $*8 &3/5)
J Lack of sham Reiki treatment0(if possible) 6 2 1
K Lack of standardization of Reiki treatments within study 4 1 0
L Lack of information about training level of Reiki practitioners 3 1 0
M Lack of clarity of writing 3 0 0
N Using Reiki practitioners of different levels in same study 1 1 0
O Using Reiki practitioners as subjects receiving Reiki 1 1 0
0An example of a sham Reiki treatment would be when a person, untrained in energy healing, assumes the hand positions of a Reiki practitioner as if
delivering Reiki to a participant.
?076 ;6G86>D65 .;5.7.5408 90=D.>.90;D ;6653A U;1D?6=
3D45K E03 34GG63D.76 1Q ;1 6QQ6>D 1Q :6./. .;
913D3D=1/6 =6?0F.8.D0D.1; 0;5 =6>176=KA%@ M?.3 3D45K
4365 1;8K 0 3N088 30N986 3.V6B 0;5 D?6 Q4;>D.1;08
.;5696;56;>6 N6034=6 4365 Q1= 670840D.;G =6>176=K
N0K ;1D ?076 F66; 34Q>.6;D8K 36;3.D.76 F6>0436 .D 5.5
;1D .;>8456 0 >1G;.D.76 >1N91;6;DA U 3?0N >1;D=18
G=149 E03 .;>84565 .; D?6 3D45KA
[.76 0=D.>863 3?1E65 N.^65 1= >1;5.D.1;08 =6348D3A
H.=D? 6D 08'% 56N1;3D=0D65 3.G;.>0;D =654>D.1; .;
913D196=0D.76 90.; 0QD6= D11D? 6^D=0>D.1; .; 90D.6;D3
E?1 =6>6.765 0 >1NF.;0D.1; 1Q :6./. 0;5 Y0_?0;
D?6=09KA L1E676=B .D .3 ;1D 9133.F86 D1 56D6=N.;6 D?6
6QQ6>D 1Q :6./. 03 1991365 D1 Y0_?0; 0;5 D?6=6 E03 ;1
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Copyright © 2010 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. Unauthorized reproduction of this article is prohibited.
The Touchstone Process !*,
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Copyright © 2010 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. Unauthorized reproduction of this article is prohibited.
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Copyright © 2010 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. Unauthorized reproduction of this article is prohibited.
The Touchstone Process !*@
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The Touchstone Process !,'
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Copyright © 2010 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. Unauthorized reproduction of this article is prohibited.
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Copyright © 2010 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. Unauthorized reproduction of this article is prohibited.
... Despite incomplete evidence (19) there are some clinical documentation (12,13,(16)(17)(18)20) and studies (20)(21)(22) indicating that reiki could be a complementary treatment/caring method increasing mental and physical well-being at various conditions, possibly including alcohol addiction. However, there is a lack of research on reiki effects during alcohol withdrawal which justifies this study. ...
... There are quantitative studies supporting some findings of this study. The subcategory Greater harmony is consistent with the studies indicating that reiki has the potential to reduce anxiety and depression (7)(8)(9)(20)(21)(22)(27)(28)(29)(30)(31)(32)(33)(34), and those that have found increased peace and relaxation and improved sleep (27,(31)(32)(33)(34). The findings of this study indicate that pain can be reduced or disappear after reiki, which is indicated in previous studies (20)(21)(22), and that reiki can cause reduced heart rate and blood pressure, which is supported by a study showing significant reduced heart rate and diastolic blood pressure in the reiki group (35). ...
... The subcategory Greater harmony is consistent with the studies indicating that reiki has the potential to reduce anxiety and depression (7)(8)(9)(20)(21)(22)(27)(28)(29)(30)(31)(32)(33)(34), and those that have found increased peace and relaxation and improved sleep (27,(31)(32)(33)(34). The findings of this study indicate that pain can be reduced or disappear after reiki, which is indicated in previous studies (20)(21)(22), and that reiki can cause reduced heart rate and blood pressure, which is supported by a study showing significant reduced heart rate and diastolic blood pressure in the reiki group (35). ...
... Despite incomplete evidence (19) there are some clinical documentation (12,13,(16)(17)(18)20) and studies (20)(21)(22) indicating that reiki could be a complementary treatment/caring method increasing mental and physical well-being at various conditions, possibly including alcohol addiction. However, there is a lack of research on reiki effects during alcohol withdrawal which justifies this study. ...
... There are quantitative studies supporting some findings of this study. The subcategory Greater harmony is consistent with the studies indicating that reiki has the potential to reduce anxiety and depression (7)(8)(9)(20)(21)(22)(27)(28)(29)(30)(31)(32)(33)(34), and those that have found increased peace and relaxation and improved sleep (27,(31)(32)(33)(34). The findings of this study indicate that pain can be reduced or disappear after reiki, which is indicated in previous studies (20)(21)(22), and that reiki can cause reduced heart rate and blood pressure, which is supported by a study showing significant reduced heart rate and diastolic blood pressure in the reiki group (35). ...
... The subcategory Greater harmony is consistent with the studies indicating that reiki has the potential to reduce anxiety and depression (7)(8)(9)(20)(21)(22)(27)(28)(29)(30)(31)(32)(33)(34), and those that have found increased peace and relaxation and improved sleep (27,(31)(32)(33)(34). The findings of this study indicate that pain can be reduced or disappear after reiki, which is indicated in previous studies (20)(21)(22), and that reiki can cause reduced heart rate and blood pressure, which is supported by a study showing significant reduced heart rate and diastolic blood pressure in the reiki group (35). ...
... Efter Reikibehandlingar känner patienter mindre stress, oro och är mer avslappnade, samt somnar lättare, och när Reikimetoden används skapas det också lugn och ro i hela omgivningen (Hahn, Reilly, & Buchanan, 2014). Biofältsterapier rekommenderas i läroböcker för sjuksköterskor i USA (Dossey, Keegan, Guzzetta, & Kolkmeier, 1995) och inom omvårdnadslitteratur beskrivs Reiki som en relevant metod för patientbehandling och för självbehandling i vårdarnas stressiga arbetsmiljö (Ann L Baldwin et al., 2010). Sköterskor som använder Reiki som självbehandling under arbetsdagen beskriver i en kvalitativ studie hur de känner sig lugnare, mer fokuserade och redo att engagera sig i patienterna (A. ...
... Forskare (Lee et al., 2008) som undersöker energimedicinska metoder och pläderar för att endast hålla sig till kvantitativa metoder med i förväg bestämda forskningshypoteser har för lite grundläggande kunskap om Reikimetoden. Undertecknad instämmer med de forskare (Ann L Baldwin et al., 2010;Herron-Marx et al., 2008;Miles & True, 2003;A. Vitale, 2007) som anser att mixed design är bästa metoden, då kvantitativa data berikas med kvalitativa forskningsmetoder så att mottagarens hela upplevelse inkluderas i studien. ...
... Av dessa 12 visar fem studier stark evidens för att Reiki kan minska smärta, depression och oro, fem studier visar visst stöd för att Reiki kan minska smärta, oro och stress, samt sänka puls och blodtryck och skapa kognitiva förbättringar vid Alzheimers, medan två studier inte visade något stöd för Reikis effekt vid fibromyalgi och rehabilitering efter stroke. Slutsatsen är att Reiki verkar lovande som icke-invasivt redskap för läkning på fysisk och psykisk nivå, speciellt när det gäller smärta, oro, depression (Ann LBaldwin et al., 2010). I en review om Reikimetoden vid smärta och oro(Thrane & Cohen, 2014) söktes RCT-studier publicerade i peer reviewed tidskrifter från år 2000. ...
Research
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Finns det vetenskap och beprövad erfarenhet bakom Reiki? I studien beskrivs hur Reiki används inom klinisk vård och vad det finns för vetenskaplig grund för metoden.
... Även om det saknas fullständig evidens (22) så finns det klinisk dokumentation (14,16,(19)(20)(21)23) och studier (23)(24)(25) som pekar på att reiki kan vara en kompletterande behandlings/omvårdnads-metod för ett allmänt ökat psykiskt och fysiskt välbefinnande vid varierande tillstånd, vilket även skulle kunna inkludera personer med alkoholberoende. Det saknas dock studier som visar effekter efter reikibehandlingar vid alkoholavvänjning, vilket motiverar denna studie. ...
... Det visade sig samband mellan sociala livet och förbättrade relationer, som att släppa gamla konflikter och strider: Det finns kvantitativa studier som stödjer vissa delar av denna studies resultat. Subkategorin Ökad harmoni stämmer väl överens med de studier som funnit att reiki har potentialen att minska oro och depression (8-10,23-25,30-37) och de som funnit ökat lugn och avslappning, samt förbättrad sömn (30,(34)(35)(36)(37). Resultatet i denna studie pekar på att smärtor kan reduceras eller försvinna efter reiki, vilket framkommit i tidigare studier (23)(24)(25), samt att reiki kan ge effekter som sänkt puls och blodtryck, vilket stöds av en studie som visade signifikant sänkning av puls och diastoliskt blodtryck för reikigruppen (38). ...
Research
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Syfte: Att beskriva hur personer under avvänjning av alkoholberoende upplever effekter av den energimedicinska metoden reiki och dess påverkan på alkoholberoendet. Bakgrund: Ett behandlingshem för alkohol- och drogavvänjning i Australien har sedan 1992 använt reikimetoden med framgång. Reiki har visat sig ha en potential att minska depression och oro och är integrerad inom klinisk vård i USA. Metod: Nio personer under alkoholavvänjning fick cirka sju reikibehandlingar vardera. Deras upplevelser av effekterna efteråt dokumenterades genom kvalitativa intervjuer och narrativ metod. Resultat: Analysen visar ett övergripande tema: Naturliga processer mot ökat harmoniskt normaltillstånd och minskat alkoholbehov. Temat innefattar två kategorier: Psykiska förändringar och personlig utveckling, samt Fysiska processer. Slutsatser: Resultatet pekar på att reikimetoden kan vara en kompletterande metod vid alkoholavvänjning då den kan ge ökat välbefinnande och minskat alkoholbehov. Samtidigt kan processerna dit innebära tillfälliga obehag. Fler studier behövs som belyser reikimetodens komplementära effekter.
... Метод, запропонований японським цілителем Мікао Усуі у 1922 році, отримав свою назву як похідне від двох японських слів: рей (Всесвіт, дух душа) та кі (енергія, розум, настрій). Рейкірозповсюджена у багатьох країнах альтернативна лікувальна та духовна практика, яку, за даними Американського коледжу кардіології [2], на початок XXI сторіччя у світі практикувало близько 500 000 енерготерапевтів (майстрів Рейкі), а у 2010 році, за даними Baldwin A.L. et al., їх нараховували вже 2 млн [3]. Вважається, що Рейкі не може заподіяти шкоду здоров'ю людини, якщо його не використовують як єдиний метод замість стандартної офіційно схваленої терапії. ...
Article
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Bioenergy therapy method Reiki, existing since 1922, is widespread in Europe, Asia, North America, Australia, and the former Soviet Union. According to the US National Center for Complementary and Integrative Health (NCCIH), Reiki belongs to the methods of com­plementary and alternative medicine, but is increasingly used as a standard procedure in hospitals, hospices and rehabilitation centers. Most of the published results of Reiki efficacy studies relate to pain relief, anxiety, depression, and fatigue. The effects of Reiki for reducing the effects of strokes, epilepsy, normalization of the nervous, immune and endocrine systems in the rehabilitation and overcoming the effects of distress are studied. Studies concern humans, animals, and bacterial cultures. Special attention should be paid to recent studies conducted with a large number of patients, design and methods of evaluation of results that meet the standards of modern traditional evidence-based medicine. To determine promising areas for further research, PubMed information on the proven effects of Reiki on chronic and acute pain, stress-induced states, motor and sensitivity functions, immunity, metabolic and hormonal processes, inflammation, edema, microcirculation in the perspective of physical therapy and rehabilitation. Among the studies of the last twenty years are studies with small samples of patients and animals, which contain interesting hypotheses about the possible mechanisms of action of Reiki. In particular, this is a study by Dyer N.L. et al. (2019). The high interest of researchers in Reiki therapy and good acceptance of the method by many patients were noted. Researchers constantly note that the study of the effectiveness of Reiki should be continued, and determine what part of the effect belongs to the placebo. Other aspects of impact require standardization of methods, randomization, blinding, and strict control of results. Keywords: Reiki, physical therapy, rehabilitation, clinical effects, evidence-based medicine.
... A falta de padronização dos protocolos para aplicação da intervenção Reiki foi evidente nos estudos incluídos nesta revisão. Essa heterogeneidade se refere ao tipo, frequência, duração da prática e nível de experiência do profissional (42) . Dois estudos utilizaram como abordagem metodológica o ensaio clínico e rigor metodológico ao realizar a aplicação Reiki. ...
Article
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Objective: To analyze the scientific evidences of the use of Reiki as a care strategy to people in mental suffering. Methods: Integrative review in the databases PubMed, Scielo, Web of Science, and BVS. The study included articles in English, Portuguese, and Spanish, with no time restriction, which answer to the guiding question that was created in accordance to the PICo strategy: “What are the scientific evidences on the use of Reiki as a care strategy to people in mental suffering?” Gray literature was not considered. Results: Ten articles made up the final sample. The use of the Reiki therapy had benefits as a strategy to care for stress, anxiety, depressive symptoms, pain relief, and quality of life improvements, whether the therapy was used isolated or to complement other treatments. Conclusion: The development of the competence of nurses and other health professionals in the use of Reiki can contribute to improve the quality standards of care.
... A técnica apresenta diversas vantagens evidenciadas pela literatura, tais como redução da ansiedade, dores, fadiga, estresse e depressão, aumento da imunidade e diminuição dos níveis pressóricos (7,9) . Contudo, não há nessas revisões ensaios clínicos que avaliem a eficácia da técnica no âmbito da cirurgia cardíaca, validando se a mesma pode ser útil em contribuir com o paciente, seja na dimensão subjetiva, no enfrentamento do trâmite cirúrgico, seja na recuperação da cirurgia (7,(9)(10)(11)(12)(13)(14) . ...
Article
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Objective To assess the effectiveness of Reiki in reducing anxiety, depression, and improving preoperative well-being in cardiac surgery. Method A non-randomized, two-arm controlled clinical trial conducted in a cardiology referral hospital with patients in the preoperative period of cardiac surgery, with up to five days for surgery, between May and November 2018. The intervention group (n=31) was submitted to a Reiki protocol, and the control group (n=59) received only conventional care. Results One hundred twenty-four patients were assessed. The mean anxiety and depression did not obtain a significant difference between the groups. Spiritual well-being, in religious and existential dimensions, has improved significantly. Conclusion Anxiety and depression were lower in the intervention group, with no statistically significant difference. There was a better result in the assessment of well-being with the intervention group. Religiosity may interfere in some cases with acceptance of holistic and integrative practices. Brazilian Registry of Clinical Trials: RBR-4cxw37
... R eiki is a Japanese word that means spiritually guided life force energy. 1 It is a form of biofield therapy, which is based on the principle that fields of energy and information surround living systems and that these fields can be influenced by a practitioner to stimulate healing responses. 2 Most biofield therapies involve an energetic exchange between practitioner and client, which can be draining for the practitioner. ...
Article
Objectives: The main purpose of this study was to measure the effect of a single session of Reiki on physical and psychological health in a large nonclinical sample. Design: The study design was a single arm effectiveness trial with measures at pre-and postintervention. Settings: The study took place at private Reiki practices across the United States. Subjects: Reiki practitioners were recruited from an online mailing list to participate in the study with their Reiki clients. A total of 99 Reiki practitioners met the inclusion criteria and participated in the study. Reiki practitioners were instructed to give a flyer to each of their Reiki clients that contained information about the study and invited the client to complete a survey before and after their Reiki session. Interventions: Trained and certified Reiki Masters conducted the Reiki sessions in person, with each session lasting between 45 and 90 min. Outcome measures: The well-validated 20-item Positive and Negative Affect Schedule was used to assess affect, and brief, single-item self-report measures were used to assess a wide range of physical and psychological variables immediately before (pre) and after (post) the Reiki session. Results: A total of N = 1411 Reiki sessions were conducted and included in the analysis. Statistically significant improvements were observed for all outcome measures, including positive affect, negative affect, pain, drowsiness, tiredness, nausea, appetite, shortness of breath, anxiety, depression, and overall well-being (all p-values <0.001). Conclusions: The results from this large-scale multisite effectiveness trial suggest that a single session of Reiki improves multiple variables related to physical and psychological health.
Article
Health care organizations are responding to consumer demand by offering more complementary and integrative health services in inpatient, outpatient, and clinic settings. Nursing has long embraced energy-based modalities such as Reiki and has been at the forefront of introducing body, mind, and spirit healing practices into health care settings. This article describes how nurses can integrate Reiki into both their personal lives for self-care as well as their professional patient care practices. An overview of Reiki's integration into hospital systems is presented as well as Reiki's use with various patient populations. The status of Reiki research is discussed.
Article
Background: Reiki is a universal life-force energy that promotes healing and relaxation. Reiki requires no equipment or technology, is noninvasive, does not interfere with conventional treatments, is appropriate for all ages, and has no known medical contraindications. There is an emerging preference for nonopioid therapies for symptom management. Within an integrative person-centered holistic care model, nursing care plans include a patient’s whole narrative with physical, mental, emotional, and spiritual elements. The Evidence-Based Practice PICOT Question: Will hospitalized patients of any age (population) receiving one 20-minute session of Reiki (intervention) compared with usual care (comparison) report a change from prerating symptom score (outcome) at the completion of the 20-minute session (time frame)? Method: A total of 1,278 patients received a 20-minute Reiki session with volunteer, certified Reiki practitioners from September 2017 through October 2019. Results: The average symptom prescore was 5.52 and postscore was 2.25, thus showing an average change of −3.17. Conclusions: The authors presented the results that were consistent with research findings from the literature review suggesting that Reiki can decrease pain, general discomfort, anxiety, insomnia, and nausea.
Article
The effect of Therapeutic Touch, Reiki, LeShan, and Qigong Therapy in combination on haematological measures was examined in an exploratory pilot study utilizing a randomized, double-blind, within-subject, crossover design. Fourteen subjects were randomly assigned to treatment and control conditions for two one-hour evaluation sessions separated by a 24-hour period. Six blood samples were taken from each subject — three during the treatment condition and three during the control condition — for a total of 84 separate analyses. Blood samples were taken prior to the commencement of each evaluation session as well as at 30- and 60-minute intervals and analyzed using an i-STAT point-of-care clinical analyzer. Treatment intervention included a distant healing element — with Reiki and LeShan healers working conjunctively — as well as an inperson healing period wherein a Qigong and Therapeutic Touch practitioner worked independently through a one-way mirror. The subjects were blinded to the treatment intervention as well as to the nature of the experimental protocol in order to control for suggestion, expectation of healing, and the placebo effect. The results demonstrated that the treatment had a significant effect versus the control condition for urea nitrogen values at time point two (P = 0.02), as well as significance for blood glucose values at time point one (P = 0.03) and time point two (P = 0.0001). The findings of the study are considered preliminary in nature, however, due to the fact that the significant effects demonstrated may have been influenced by several factors other than the treatment intervention including: psychophysiological factors, the incorporation of meditation into the experimental protocol, dietary and measurement variability elements, the experimenter effect, and the utilization of subjects who were students/patients of the Qigong practitioner.
Article
This study utilized a randomized, double-blind, within subject, crossover design to examine the effect of Reiki and LeShan healing in combination on iatrogenic pain experienced after unilateral operative extraction of the lower third molar. Two separate operations were performed on 21 patients with bilateral, asymptomatic, impacted lower third molar teeth. The patients were randomly assigned to the treatment or control condition prior to the first operation. For the second operation, patients crossed over to the opposite condition - i.e. those subjects who were in the treatment group for the first operation became control group subjects for the second operation, and those subjects who were in the control group for the first operation became treatment group subjects for the second operation.All pre-operative and postoperative conditions were identical for the treatment and control groups for both operations, with the exception that the treatment group received Reiki and LeShan healing postoperatively. The patients assessed their pain intensity using a 100 mm visual analogue scale for postoperative hours 3 through 9, and pain relief using a 5 point scale for hours 4 through 9. A statistically significant difference was found between the treatment and control groups in both the level of pain intensity and degree of pain relief experienced for postoperative hours 4 through 9.
Article
Healing therapies which employ touch and are based on the premise of a human energy field are gaiping in popularity and support. Reiki, a Tibetan healing art, is one such modality. But Reiki has not yet been submitted to close scientific scrutiny. Using Krieger's protocol for hemoglobin studies within the context of Therapeutic Touch, forty-eight adults participating in First Degree Reiki Training were tested. Findings revealed a statistically significant change in the hemoglobin and hematocrit levels of the participants at the P =.01 level. A comparable control group, not experiencing the training, demonstrated no change within an identical time frame. Further research is necessary to clarify the physiologic effects of touch healing.
Article
Biological correlates of Reiki Touchsm healing Background. Despite the popularity of touch therapies, theoretical understanding of the mechanisms of effect is not well developed and there is limited research measuring biological outcomes. Aims. The aim of this study was to test a framework of relaxation or stress reduction as a mechanism of touch therapy. Methods. The study was conducted in 1996 and involved the examination of select physiological and biochemical effects and the experience of 30 minutes of Reiki, a form of touch therapy. A single group repeated measure design was used to study Reiki Touch’ssm effects with a convenience sample of 23 essentially healthy subjects. Biological markers related to stress-reduction response included state anxiety, salivary IgA and cortisol, blood pressure, galvanic skin response (GSR), muscle tension and skin temperature. Data were collected before, during and immediately after the session. Results. Comparing before and after measures, anxiety was significantly reduced, t(22)=2·45, P=0·02. Salivary IgA levels rose significantly, t(19)=2·33, P=0·03, however, salivary cortisol was not statistically significant. There was a significant drop in systolic blood pressure (SBP), F(2, 44)=6·60, P < 0·01. Skin temperature increased and electromyograph (EMG) decreased during the treatment, but before and after differences were not significant. Conclusions. These findings suggest both biochemical and physiological changes in the direction of relaxation. The salivary IgA findings warrant further study to explore the effects of human TT and humeral immune function.