Irreducible Pipkin II femoral head fractures: Is transgluteal approach the best strategy?

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery and Traumatology, Pointe-à-Pitre Teaching Hospital Center, Route de Chauvel, 97159 Pointe-à-Pitre, Guadeloupe.
Orthopaedics & Traumatology Surgery & Research (Impact Factor: 1.26). 10/2010; 96(6):695-701. DOI: 10.1016/j.otsr.2010.04.011
Source: PubMed


Femoral head fracture-dislocations (FHFD) are rare, while irreducible cases are even less frequent. Truly irreducible fractures such as the two cases in this report must be differentiated from incomplete reduction due to incarcerated bone or soft tissue interposition. Opinions vary on the surgical approach to be used once the hip is reduced and the fragment of the femoral head yet remains to be stabilized. Reports in the literature do not usually take into account the specificity of irreducible lesions, which in our opinion should be treated by the transgluteal approach (TGA) while reducible forms can be treated by the Hueter approach. The transgluteal approach with the patient in the lateral decubitus position provides a direct anterior view of the antero-infero-medial fracture site as well as dorsal access via the injuries occasioned to dorsal soft tissues by the posterolateral dislocation. A lag screw can be used with this approach, which is the only way to stabilize the ligament teres femoris attachment. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Level IV retrospective historical study.

Download full-text


Available from: Jean-Louis Rouvillain, Aug 18, 2014
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Hip dislocations are emergently reduced to decrease the chance of avascular necrosis of the femoral head. However, in some situations, the dislocation may be irreducible by a closed technique. Rarely, the fractured femoral head may become perched on an intact acetabulum, leading to an irreducible fracture-dislocation. This rare type of irreducible fracture-dislocation demonstrates unique physical and associated radiographic findings. These fractures are important to recognize early, as attempts at closed reduction can lead to femoral neck fractures.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2012 · Clinical imaging
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The femoral head fracture has become an increasingly frequent injury, usually sustained by individuals during high-energy trauma. Regardless of the type of treatment, long-term consequences, as avascular necrosis, post-traumatic arthritis, and heterotopic ossification, may complicate the clinical outcome leading to variable degree of disability. The aim of this study was to review the clinical and radiological long-term follow-up of patients with a fracture of the femoral head. Between January 1985 and January 2002, twenty-one patients with mean age 42.0 ± 15.9 years (range, 21-70 years) with a fracture of the femoral head were evaluated retrospectively. According to Pipkin's classification, there were four type I, nine type II, and eight type IV fractures. Functional outcomes were measured using the Merle d'Aubigné-Postel and Thompson-Epstein scoring scale. Heterotopic calcifications was graded according to the Brooker classification. All patients were followed up from 12 to 210 months, with an average of 81.19 ± 37.4 months. The average Merle d'Aubigné-Postel score was 12.9 ± 4.5. According to the Thompson-Epstein criteria, eight patients had excellent results, eight patients good, two patients fair, and three patients poor results. Overall, almost all (95. 2%) patients were determined to have radiographic criteria of post-traumatic arthritis (PA). Ten patients (47.6%) had a mild PA, seven patients (33.3%) had a moderate PA, and three patients (14.2%) had a severe PA. Open reduction and internal fixation of the fragments provided better results in comparison to excision. Although degenerative changes of the hip were observed in almost all patients, most severe case occurred in the excision group.
    No preview · Article · Mar 2012 · MUSCULOSKELETAL SURGERY
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: This report describes case series of the femoral head fractures associated with fracture-dislocation of the hip joint to evaluate the mid- and long-term outcomes and to highlight the surgical technique of fixation of the femoral head from the posterior trochanteric flip osteotomy approach. Twelve patients (6 men and 6 women) with dislocated femoral head fractures (mean age at the time of injury, 56 years; range, 23-80) were followed up for mean period of 9.7 years (range, 5-20). All dislocations were reduced within less than 6 h after the injury. The type of femoral head fracture was classified according to the Pipkin classification on radiographs and CT. Five patients were classified as type I, 2 as type II, 2 as type III, and 3 as type IV. The clinical and radiological outcomes were assessed by Thompson and Epstein's regimen. Excluding 2 patients with Pipkin type III, the outcome of 9 patients was excellent/good, and poor in 1. The latter patient sustained Pipkin type IV and developed osteoarthritis 1 year after surgery and consequently required total hip arthroplasty. We conclude that small fragment of the femoral head less than 1 cm can be removed, while larger fragments should be fixed by bioabsorbable screws or pins in all types of femoral head fractures. In Pipkin type IV fractures, surgeons should always take anatomical reduction in the acetabulum into consideration during surgery.
    No preview · Article · Jul 2012 · European Journal of Orthopaedic Surgery & Traumatology
Show more