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O2C3: A unified model for emergency operations planning

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  • DisasterDoc LLC

Abstract

The leadership in each jurisdiction of the world has been described as legally, morally, and politically responsible for ensuring that necessary and appropriate actions are taken to protect people and property from the consequences of emergencies and disasters. As emergencies often evolve rapidly and become too complex for effective improvisation, a government can successfully discharge its emergency management responsibilities only by taking action beforehand. This requires preparedness in advance of the disaster event. Accordingly, preparedness measures should not be improvised or handled on an ad hoc basis.
... The planning method used for this intervention was based upon a previously described process developed at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC; Atlanta, Georgia USA) that applies an Operational, Objective-based, Consensus-based, Capabilitybased, and Compliant, or "O2C3," approach for plan writing and a Strategy, Objective, Activity, Responsibility, or "SOAR," structure for organizing plan content. 22,23 This same methodology has demonstrated plausibility and reports of cross-cultural transferability among academic and governmental settings in over 200 jurisdictions world-wide. [24][25][26] The "O2C3" planning is a facilitated process of group planwriting that is: objective-based (O); written at an operational level of detail (O); consensus-based (C); capability-based (C); and compliant (C) with local and national cultural norms, policies, and regulations. ...
... [24][25][26] The "O2C3" planning is a facilitated process of group planwriting that is: objective-based (O); written at an operational level of detail (O); consensus-based (C); capability-based (C); and compliant (C) with local and national cultural norms, policies, and regulations. 22,23 The "SOAR" acronym is used to describe the organizational structure (ie, data schema) for information stored in the plan. The achievement of each protection plan capability is described in a cascading level of detail starting from the (S) strategic goal (S); to the operational objectives (O) that accomplish that goal; to the activities that accomplish each objective (A); and parties responsible for performance of each activity (R). ...
... Using a facilitated, consensus-based approach (based upon the O2C3 method), the team then drafted 72 activities that would accomplish these 13 objectives. 22,23 The group also assigned primary responsibility and a deadline for completion for each activity. ...
Article
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Objective The efficacy is measured for a public health intervention related to community-based planning for population protection measures (PPMs; ie, shelter-in-place and evacuation). Design This is a mixed (qualitative and quantitative) prospective study of intervention efficacy, measured in terms of usability related to effectiveness, efficiency, satisfaction, and degree of community engagement. Setting Two municipalities in the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico are included. Participants Community members consisting of individuals; traditional leaders; federal, territorial, and municipal emergency managers; municipal mayors; National Guard; territorial departments of education, health, housing, public works, and transportation; health care; police; Emergency Medical Services; faith-based organizations; nongovernmental organizations (NGOs); and the private sector. Intervention The intervention included four community convenings: one for risk communication; two for plan-writing; and one tabletop exercise (TTX). This study analyzed data collected from the project work plan; participant rosters; participant surveys; workshop outputs; and focus group interviews. Main Outcome Measures Efficacy was measured in terms of ISO 9241-11, an international standard for usability that includes effectiveness, efficiency, user satisfaction, and “freedom from risk” among users. Degree of engagement was considered an indicator of “freedom from risk,” measurable through workshop attendance. Results Two separate communities drafted and exercised ~60-page-long population protection plans, each within 14.5 hours. Plan-writing workshops completed 100% of plan objectives and activities. Efficiency rates were nearly the same in both communities. Interviews and surveys indicated high degrees of community satisfaction. Engagement was consistent among community members and variable among governmental officials. Conclusions Frontline communities have successfully demonstrated the ability to understand the environmental health hazards in their own community; rapidly write consensus-based plans for PPMs; participate in an objective-based TTX; and perform these activities in a bi-lingual setting. This intervention appears to be efficacious for public use in the rapid development of community-based PPMs.
... The planning method used for this intervention was based upon a previously described process developed at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC; Atlanta, Georgia USA) that applies an Operational, Objective-based, Consensus-based, Capabilitybased, and Compliant, or "O2C3," approach for plan writing and a Strategy, Objective, Activity, Responsibility, or "SOAR," structure for organizing plan content. 22,23 This same methodology has demonstrated plausibility and reports of cross-cultural transferability among academic and governmental settings in over 200 jurisdictions world-wide. [24][25][26] The "O2C3" planning is a facilitated process of group planwriting that is: objective-based (O); written at an operational level of detail (O); consensus-based (C); capability-based (C); and compliant (C) with local and national cultural norms, policies, and regulations. ...
... [24][25][26] The "O2C3" planning is a facilitated process of group planwriting that is: objective-based (O); written at an operational level of detail (O); consensus-based (C); capability-based (C); and compliant (C) with local and national cultural norms, policies, and regulations. 22,23 The "SOAR" acronym is used to describe the organizational structure (ie, data schema) for information stored in the plan. The achievement of each protection plan capability is described in a cascading level of detail starting from the (S) strategic goal (S); to the operational objectives (O) that accomplish that goal; to the activities that accomplish each objective (A); and parties responsible for performance of each activity (R). ...
... Using a facilitated, consensus-based approach (based upon the O2C3 method), the team then drafted 72 activities that would accomplish these 13 objectives. 22,23 The group also assigned primary responsibility and a deadline for completion for each activity. ...
Presentation
Guest Lecturer for day-long workshop Johns Hopkins University Bloomberg School of Public Health Health Emergency for Large Populations (HELP) Course Title: Planning for Community-based Disaster Risk Reduction Baltimore, MD January 16, 2014
... 10,11 And not all public health consequences are completed by public planning process usually begins with the most general concepts and leads to increasingly specific plans, programs and tasks, resulting in integration between each part. 3,4 There are several key approaches to effective emergency operations planning that have been offered in order to improve the efficiency of plan-writing and to facilitate quality and timely execution of the plan. ...
... These approaches have been described as O2C3 and include the following characteristics: 3 • Operational-level planning • Objective-based planning • Capability-based planning • Consensus-based planning • Compliant with local, national and international preparedness strategies, guidelines and best practices. ...
... 17 An innovative approach is here proposed that serves to integrate an all-hazard approach with widely-accepted principles of emergency operations planning, (namely O2C3). 3 This approach is comprised of the following three components: 1. A format to organize plan information. ...
Article
Full-text available
This paper describes the innovative use information technology for assisting disaster planners with an easily-accessible method for writing and improving evidence-based emergency operations plans. This process is used to identify all key objectives of the emergency response according to capabilities of the institution, community or society. The approach then uses a standardized, objective-based format, along with a consensus-based method for drafting capability-based operational-level plans. This information is then integrated within a relational database to allow for ease of access and enhanced functionality to search, sort and filter and emergency operations plan according to user need and technological capacity. This integrated approach is offered as an effective option for integrating best practices of planning with the efficiency, scalability and flexibility of modern information and communication technology.
... The planning method used for this intervention was based upon a previously described process developed at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC; Atlanta, Georgia USA) that applies an Operational, Objective-based, Consensus-based, Capabilitybased, and Compliant, or "O2C3," approach for plan writing and a Strategy, Objective, Activity, Responsibility, or "SOAR," structure for organizing plan content. 22,23 This same methodology has demonstrated plausibility and reports of cross-cultural transferability among academic and governmental settings in over 200 jurisdictions world-wide. [24][25][26] The "O2C3" planning is a facilitated process of group planwriting that is: objective-based (O); written at an operational level of detail (O); consensus-based (C); capability-based (C); and compliant (C) with local and national cultural norms, policies, and regulations. ...
... [24][25][26] The "O2C3" planning is a facilitated process of group planwriting that is: objective-based (O); written at an operational level of detail (O); consensus-based (C); capability-based (C); and compliant (C) with local and national cultural norms, policies, and regulations. 22,23 The "SOAR" acronym is used to describe the organizational structure (ie, data schema) for information stored in the plan. The achievement of each protection plan capability is described in a cascading level of detail starting from the (S) strategic goal (S); to the operational objectives (O) that accomplish that goal; to the activities that accomplish each objective (A); and parties responsible for performance of each activity (R). ...
... Using a facilitated, consensus-based approach (based upon the O2C3 method), the team then drafted 72 activities that would accomplish these 13 objectives. 22,23 The group also assigned primary responsibility and a deadline for completion for each activity. ...
Article
Disaster management is most effective when developed at the community level. Community based planning, prevention, mitigation, and emergency response all engage the population to make choices that are commensurate with local needs and resources. Community based disaster management also offers a force multiplying effect by increasing the number of potential participants and leaders. This discussion of key community based developmental activities is meant to provide a primer for the public health practitioner beginning the study of emergency preparedness and response.
... The LFA is a powerful project management tool with pervasive use in many subject areas including medical and health projects (13). LFA is a managerial approach for implementation, achievement, and monitoring of any program including projects in health care systems (14). ...
Article
Full-text available
Coronavirus infection (COVID-19) is spreading rapidly in the world beyond the health care capacity. The World Health Organization (WHO) has announced an emergency state that needs quick and effective actions. In the lack of specific medicine and vaccine, integration of mental health and nutritional care in the platform of a powerful managerial technique named the “Logical Framework Approach” (LFA) could be helpful for successful control of this pandemic. The strengths of the LFA for coronavirus management program are stakeholders’ involvement, integrative teamwork in research and medical procedures, as well as Inter-sectoral cooperation. The related organizations like WHO and ministries of health of every country could easily adopt this approach and act more efficiently to manage this pandemic.
Article
The development of performance measures is not a new concept in the disaster preparedness space. For over a decade, goals have been developed and tied to federal preparedness grant programs. However, these measures have been heavily criticized for their inability to truly measure preparedness. There is also growing frustration at the local level that these performance measures do not account for local readiness priorities or the outcome-driven value of emergency response activities. To define an appropriate theoretical framework for the development of performance measures, a review of the literature on existing planning and preparedness frameworks was conducted, with an iterative feedback process with a local health agency. This paper presents elements of that literature review that were most directly along with the conceptual framework that was used as a starting point for future iterations of a comprehensive performance measure development project.
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