Risk factors for fluoroquinolone resistance in Enterococcus urinary tract infections in hospitalized patients

Center for Clinical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, 423 Guardian Drive, Philadelphia, PA 19104-6021, USA.
Epidemiology and Infection (Impact Factor: 2.54). 06/2011; 139(6):955-61. DOI: 10.1017/S095026881000186X
Source: PubMed


Past studies exploring risk factors for fluoroquinolone (FQ) resistance in urinary tract infections (UTIs) focused only on UTIs caused by Gram-negative pathogens. The epidemiology of FQ resistance in enterococcal UTIs has not been studied. We conducted a case-control study at two medical centres within the University of Pennsylvania Health System in order to identify risk factors for FQ resistance in enterococcal UTIs. Subjects with positive urine cultures for enterococci and meeting CDC criteria for healthcare-acquired UTI were eligible. Cases were subjects with FQ-resistant enterococcal UTI. Controls were subjects with FQ-susceptible enterococcal UTI and were frequency matched to cases by month of isolation. A total of 136 cases and 139 controls were included from 1 January 2003 to 31 March 2005. Independent risk factors [adjusted OR (95% CI)] for FQ resistance included cardiovascular diseases [2·24 (1·05-4·79), P=0·037], hospitalization within the past 2 weeks [2·08 (1·05-4·11), P=0·035], hospitalization on a medicine service [2·15 (1·08-4·30), P<0·030], recent exposure to β-lactamase inhibitors (BLIs) [14·98 (2·92-76·99), P<0·001], extended spectrum cephalosporins [9·82 (3·37-28·60), P<0·001], FQs [5·36 (2·20-13·05), P<0·001] and clindamycin [13·90 (1·21-10·49), P=0·035]. Use of BLIs, extended spectrum cephalosporins, FQs and clindamycin was associated with FQ resistance in enterococcal uropathogens. Efforts to curb FQ resistance should focus on optimizing use of these agents.

Download full-text


Available from: Pinyo Rattanaumpawan, Apr 13, 2015
  • Source
    • "There are inconsistent data for the association between fluoroquinolone-resistant E. faecalis strains and the number of admissions. Rattanaumpawan et al. [27] reported that a previous hospitalization within 2 weeks is a risk factor for fluoroquinolone resistance, whereas Yasufuku et al. [12] reported that previous hospitalization is not a risk factor. We think that the difference in these studies may result from different patient characteristics. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Urinary tract infection (UTI) is one of the most prevalent bacterial infections, and fluoroquinolone therapy is a well-known standard regimen for UTI. The prevalence and risk factor analysis of fluoroquinolone resistance in enterococcal UTIs are not well documented. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial susceptibility and risk factors for ciprofloxacin resistance in Enterococcus faecalis strains isolated from patients with complicated UTI. We evaluated 81 E. faecalis strains isolated from 81 male patients at a single teaching hospital over 3 years. The Vitek 2 automatic system was used for antimicrobial susceptibility analysis. Antimicrobial resistance rates were rare for ampicillin/sulbactam, imipenem, and vancomycin in E. faecalis. Forty-six percent of the E. faecalis strains were resistant to levofloxacin, 47% were resistant to ciprofloxacin, and 58% were resistant to norfloxacin. E. faecalis strains were highly resistant to erythromycin (92%) and ftetracycline (96%). The risk factor analysis revealed that age intervals, the underlying diseases, catheterization, and the number of admissions did not increase the risk of ciprofloxacin resistance, whereas patients with hospital-acquired infection (odds ratio [OR], 18.15; 95% confidence interval [CI], 3.46 to 95.13; p=0.001), patients who were treated in a urological department (OR, 6.15; 95% CI, 1.5 to 25.41; p=0.012), and patients who were transferred from health care centers (OR, 7.393; 95% CI, 1.32 to 41.22; p=0.023) had an increased risk of ciprofloxacin resistance compared with the matched controls. Ciprofloxacin is no longer a recommended therapy for E. faecalis from complicated UTI in men with risk factors. We suggest that ampicillin/sulbactam can be recommended as alternatives for treating ciprofloxacin-resistant E. faecalis strains associated with UTI in Korea.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2013 · Korean journal of urology
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: We examined Enterococcus faecalis strains clinically isolated from 100 patients with urinary tract infections (UTIs) for their susceptibility to levofloxacin (LVX) by measuring the MIC and investigated amino acid mutations by direct DNA sequencing, which were then correlated with LVX resistance. Next, we studied risk factors for LVX resistance, such as age, gender, and previous fluoroquinolone use, and investigated the statistical correlation of these risk factors with each amino acid mutation and LVX resistance. Of the 100 isolates tested, 14 isolates showed LVX resistance and all of these isolates had amino acid mutations. We demonstrated that 2 out of 4 mutations (Ser83-to-Ile in gyrA and Ser80-to-Ile in parC) had a significant correlation with LVX resistance. There was a significant relationship between isolates with 2 or 3 amino acid mutations and LVX resistance. In addition, we found a significant correlation between the previous use of fluoroquinolones and LVX resistance or the presence of mutations and also demonstrated that previous use of other types of antibiotics was significantly related to the presence of mutations by multivariate analysis. In conclusion, we found significant correlation between amino acid mutations in E. faecalis, LVX resistance, and risk factors such as previous use of fluoroquinolones.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2011 · Journal of clinical microbiology
  • Source

    Full-text · Article · Dec 2011 · Clinical Infectious Diseases
Show more