Cognitive Therapy: Current Status and Future Directions

Department of Psychiatry, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA.
Annual review of medicine (Impact Factor: 12.93). 02/2011; 62(1):397-409. DOI: 10.1146/annurev-med-052209-100032
Source: PubMed


Cognitive therapy is a system of psychotherapy with a powerful theoretical infrastructure, which has received extensive empirical support, and a large body of research attesting to its efficacy for a wide range of psychiatric and medical problems. This article provides a brief overview of the conceptual and practical components of cognitive therapy and highlights some of the empirical evidence regarding its efficacy. Cognitive therapy (often labeled generically as cognitive behavior therapy) is efficacious either alone or as an adjunct to medication and provides a prophylaxis against relapse and recurrence.

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    • "After the failure at school, the child may have experienced some successes, leaving the negative schema dormant , until failure was encountered again in adulthood. Schema explanations, which suggest that depressed individuals are not directly responsible for their distorted thinking, but can test and modify these negative beliefs (e.g.,Beck & Dozois, 2011, 2014), may be optimal for balancing both responsibility and hope for change. "
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    ABSTRACT: Public stigma discourages people with depression from seeking help. Attribution theory predicts that psychological causal explanations for depression increase public stigma by emphasising personal responsibility for the condition. Schema theory may, however, present a less stigmatizing psychological etiology by emphasising childhood experiences. Undergraduate participants (N = 276) were randomly presented with vignettes positing biomedical, contextual, cognitive distortion, or cognitive schema explanations for depression. Contextual, cognitive distortion, and cognitive schema explanations for depression were associated with less public stigma relative to the control condition. Future antistigma programs may incorporate cognitive and contextual models of depression to reduce public stigma. (PsycINFO Database Record
    No preview · Article · Oct 2015 · Canadian Journal of Behavioural Science
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    • "The visual dot-probe task (VDP) (MacLeod, Mathews, & Tata, 1986) is a computerized task designed to identify hypothesized attentional biases that correlate with different psychopathology like depression (Beck A., Rush, Shaw, & Emery, 1979; A. T. Beck, 1967; A. T. Beck & Dozois, 2011). In this task, a stimulus pair (often one emotional and one neutral) was flashed to the participants for a prearranged period of time (e.g., 500, 1000, or 1500 ms). "
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: The present study aimed to investigate the selective attention hypothesis in a group of Iranian outpatients with depressive disorder. Methods: Causal-comparative and correlation methods were used to analyze the data. A total of 60 subjects participated in this study. Of them, 31 patients diagnosed with depression were assigned in the depressive group and 29 nondepressed individuals were observed as control (normal) group. Participation in this study was completely voluntary. Participants were screened by the structured clinical interview for the DSM-IV (SCID), answered to Beck depression inventory–II (BDI-II), and took part in the Visual Dot-Probe (VDP) task. The data were analyzed by correlation analysis and t test. Results: The results showed that the depressed group got higher score in BDI compared to the control group and this difference was statistically significant. But the differences between two groups regarding attention biases were not large enough to be significant. Conclusion: The following results could be because of the different reasons such as culture. Furthermore, there were several limitations to the current study which are discussed.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2015
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    • "Extensive inclusion and exclusion criteria, lengthy assessments, and long programs that are conducted at inconvenient hours, were all identified as key barriers to enrollment and to future dissemination, and were all minimized in the design of this trial. Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) has a solid evidence-base and been proven effective in community and non-clinical settings (Beck & Dozois, 2011), including in the management of anger (Beck & Fernandez, 1998). Cognitive behavioral principles have been shown to enhance parental self-efficacy for emotional regulation and therefore to better implement more positive childmanagement skills (Jones & Prinz, 2005) and have been used in effective parenting interventions such as Friends (Shortt, Barrett, & Fox, 2001) and Triple P (Sander et al., 2008). "
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    ABSTRACT: There is a shortage of culturally appropriate, brief, preventive interventions designed to be sustainable and acceptable for community participants in nonwestern cultures. Parents' ability to regulate their emotions is an important factor for psychological well-being of the family. In Chinese societies, emotional regulation may be more important in light of the cultural desirability of maintaining harmonious family relationships. The objectives of our randomized controlled trial were to test the effectiveness of our Effective Parenting Programme (EPP) to increase the use of emotional management strategies (primary outcome) and enhance the parent-child relationship (secondary outcome). We utilized design characteristics that promoted recruitment, retention, and intervention sustainability. We randomized a community sample of 412 Hong Kong middle- and low-income mothers of children aged 6-8 years to the EPP or attention control group. At 3, 6 and 12- month follow up, the Effective Parent Program group reported greater increases in the use of emotion management strategies during parent-child interactions, with small to medium effect size, and lower negative affect and greater positive affect, subjective happiness, satisfaction with the parent-child relationship, and family harmony, compared to the control group, with small to medium effect size. Our results provided evidence of effectiveness for a sustainable, preventive, culturally appropriate, cognitive behaviorally-based emotion management program, in a non-clinical setting for Chinese mothers. HKCTR-1190. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2015 · Behaviour Research and Therapy
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