Article

Involvement of the gut microbiota in the development of low grade inflammation associated with obesity: Focus on this neglected partner

Université catholique de Louvain, Louvain Drug Research Institute, Metabolism and Nutrition Research Group, Brussels, Belgium.
Acta gastro-enterologica Belgica (Impact Factor: 0.91). 04/2010; 73(2):267-9.
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT

Nowadays, the literature provides evidence that obesity, type 2 diabetes and insulin resistance are characterized by a low grade inflammation. Among the environmental factors involved in such diseases, the gut microbiota has been proposed as a key player. This neglected "organ" has been found to be different between healthy and or obese and type 2 diabetic patients. For example, recent data have proposed that dysbiosis of gut microbiota (at phyla, genus, or species level) affects host metabolism and energy storage. Among the mechanisms, metabolic endotoxemia (higher plasma LPS levels), gut permeability and the modulation of gut peptides (GLP-1 and GLP-2) have been proposed as putative targets. Here we discuss 1 degrees the specific modulation of the gut microbiota composition by using prebiotics and 2 degrees the novel findings that may explain how gut microbiota can be involved in the development or in the control of obesity and associated low-grade inflammation.

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Available from: Patrice D Cani, Jan 12, 2016
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    • "The consumption of prebiotics able to favor the proliferation of a given microbiota has also been suggested as a potential strategy to improve obesity. In fact, Cani et al. (2012) demonstrated that prebiotic treatment decreases gut permeability and metabolic endotoxemia and improves insulin sensitivity, steatosis, and lowgrade inflammation via several mechanisms including the following: (i) an increased L cell number and endogenous GLP-1 and GLP-2 production and (ii) an increased leptin sensitivity, which controls energy homeostasis and GLP-1 production [19]. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Gut microbiota, its evolutive dynamics and influence on host through its protective, trophic and metabolic actions, has a key role in health and opens unique opportunities for the identification of new markers of the physiopathological state of each individual. Alterations in gut microbiota composition have been associated with plenty disorders. Of interest, the vast number of studies demonstrates the role of microbiota in obesity, a serious public health problem that has reached epidemic proportions in many developed and middle-income countries. The economic and health costs of this condition and its comorbidities such as fatty liver, insulin resistance/diabetes, or cardiovascular events are considerable. Therefore, every strategy designed to reduce obesity would imply important savings. Targeting microbiota, in order to restore/modulate the microbiota composition with antibiotics, probiotics, prebiotics, or even fecal transplants, is considered as a promising strategy for the development of new solutions for the treatment of obesity. However, there is still lot to do in this field in order to identify the exact composition of microbiota in "health" and the specific mechanisms that regulate the host-microbiotal crosstalk. In addition, it is important to note that changes not only in the gut microbiota profile (abundance) but also in its metabolism and functions need to be taken into account in the context of contribution in the physiopathology of obesity and related disorders.
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