Involvement of the gut microbiota in the development of low grade inflammation associated with obesity: Focus on this neglected partner

Université catholique de Louvain, Louvain Drug Research Institute, Metabolism and Nutrition Research Group, Brussels, Belgium.
Acta gastro-enterologica Belgica (Impact Factor: 0.91). 04/2010; 73(2):267-9.
Source: PubMed


Nowadays, the literature provides evidence that obesity, type 2 diabetes and insulin resistance are characterized by a low grade inflammation. Among the environmental factors involved in such diseases, the gut microbiota has been proposed as a key player. This neglected "organ" has been found to be different between healthy and or obese and type 2 diabetic patients. For example, recent data have proposed that dysbiosis of gut microbiota (at phyla, genus, or species level) affects host metabolism and energy storage. Among the mechanisms, metabolic endotoxemia (higher plasma LPS levels), gut permeability and the modulation of gut peptides (GLP-1 and GLP-2) have been proposed as putative targets. Here we discuss 1 degrees the specific modulation of the gut microbiota composition by using prebiotics and 2 degrees the novel findings that may explain how gut microbiota can be involved in the development or in the control of obesity and associated low-grade inflammation.


Available from: Patrice D Cani, Jan 12, 2016
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    • "In contrast to the typical viewpoint that healthy intestinal microbiota are relatively stable throughout adulthood, intestinal microbiota are disturbed by exogenous and endogenous factors such as diet, antibiotics, and stress [5,6]. For example, high-fat diets lead to increased levels of gram-negative bacteria that induce lipopolysaccharide production in the intestine, which can lead to inflammation, obesity, and cancer789. While development of beneficial and stable intestinal microbiota during infancy and childhood is of great interest, a few studies have focused on genetic and physiological factors that affect intestinal microbiota during ageing and on the impact of these modifications on health and longevity101112. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To understand differences in the gut microbiota between elderly people of urbanized town communities (UTC) and longevity village communities (LVC), we analyzed fecal microbiota collected from individuals living in 2 UTC (Seoul and Chuncheon) and 3 LVC (Gurye, Damyang, and Soonchang) selected on the basis of indices for superlongevity (the ratio of centenarians to the total population) and longevity (the ratio of those aged 85 years or greater to those aged 65 years or greater) in South Korea by 454 pyrosequencing. Taxonomy-based analysis showed that The relative abundance of Firmicutes, Tenericutes, and Actinobacteria was significantly lower in LVC than in UTC. Due to an increase of Firmicutes and a reduction of Bacteroidetes, the ratio of Firmicutes to Bacteroidetes in the gut microbiota was greater in UTC adults than in UTC children or LVC adults. The population levels of Bacteroides, Prevotella, and Lachnospira were significantly higher in LVC than in UTC, but the levels of Dialister, Subdoligranulum, Megamonas, EF401882_g, and AM275436_g were lower in LVC than in UTC. Although most of the species detected in LVC were detected in UTC, some Bacteroides spp. and Faecalibacterium spp. were detected only in LVC. Among Bacteroides spp., ACWH_s, EF403317_s, and EF403722_s were detected in children and LVC samples only but FJ363527_s, 4P000677_s, and 4P000015_s were detected in UTC samples. EF402172_s and EF404388_s, members of Faecalibacterium spp., which are known to have anti-inflammatory properties, were detected in LVC and children only (>3.9% of total sequence). In addition, the fecal lipopolysaccharides (LPS) content was significantly higher in UTC than in LVC. These findings suggest that maintaining gut microbiota, including Faecalibacterium spp. EF402172_s and EF404388_s, as well as low LPS levels may play an important role in preserving residents' health in LVC.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2015 · BMC Microbiology
    • "Even the lung tumors of smokers has considerable association with microbes as well (Cummins and Tangney, 2013). The microbiome has also been shown to secrete metabolites that promote liver cancer through the senescence secretome (Cani and Delzenne, 2010; DiBaise et al., 2008; Kadooka et al., 2010; Pischon et al., 2008; Wang et al., 2014; Yoshimoto et al., 2013). Turnbaugh performed an interesting study where he was able to demonstrate significant effects of diet on the microbiome by transplanting fresh or frozen adult fecal microbial communities into germ-free c57BL/6 J mice (Turnbaugh et al., 2009b). "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Utilization of environmental stimuli for growth is the main factor contributing to the evolution of prokaryotes and eukaryotes, independently and mutualistically. Epigenetics describes an organism's ability to vary expression of certain genes based on their environmental stimuli. The diverse degree of dose-dependent responses based on their variances in expressed genetic profiles makes it difficult to ascertain whether hormesis or oncogenesis has or is occurring. In the medical field this is shown where survival curves used in determining radiotherapeutic doses have substantial uncertainties, some as large as 50% (Barendsen, 1990). Many in-vitro radiobiological studies have been limited by not taking into consideration the innate presence of microbes in biological systems, which have either grown symbiotically or pathogenically. Present in-vitro studies neglect to take into consideration the varied responses that commensal and opportunistic pathogens will have when exposed to the same stimuli and how such responses could act as stimuli for their macro/microenvironment. As a result many theories such as radiation carcinogenesis explain microscopic events but fail to describe macroscopic events (Cohen, 1995). As such, this review shows how microorganisms have the ability to perturb risks of cancer and enhance hormesis after irradiation. It will also look at bacterial significance in the microenvironment of the tumor before and during treatment. In addition, bacterial systemic communication after irradiation and the host's immune responses to infection could explain many of the phenomena associated with bystander effects. Therefore, the present literature review considers the paradigms of hormesis and oncogenesis in order to find a rationale that ties them all together. This relationship was thus characterized to be the microbiome. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    No preview · Article · Jul 2015 · Environmental Research
    • "The consumption of prebiotics able to favor the proliferation of a given microbiota has also been suggested as a potential strategy to improve obesity. In fact, Cani et al. (2012) demonstrated that prebiotic treatment decreases gut permeability and metabolic endotoxemia and improves insulin sensitivity, steatosis, and lowgrade inflammation via several mechanisms including the following: (i) an increased L cell number and endogenous GLP-1 and GLP-2 production and (ii) an increased leptin sensitivity, which controls energy homeostasis and GLP-1 production [19]. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Gut microbiota, its evolutive dynamics and influence on host through its protective, trophic and metabolic actions, has a key role in health and opens unique opportunities for the identification of new markers of the physiopathological state of each individual. Alterations in gut microbiota composition have been associated with plenty disorders. Of interest, the vast number of studies demonstrates the role of microbiota in obesity, a serious public health problem that has reached epidemic proportions in many developed and middle-income countries. The economic and health costs of this condition and its comorbidities such as fatty liver, insulin resistance/diabetes, or cardiovascular events are considerable. Therefore, every strategy designed to reduce obesity would imply important savings. Targeting microbiota, in order to restore/modulate the microbiota composition with antibiotics, probiotics, prebiotics, or even fecal transplants, is considered as a promising strategy for the development of new solutions for the treatment of obesity. However, there is still lot to do in this field in order to identify the exact composition of microbiota in "health" and the specific mechanisms that regulate the host-microbiotal crosstalk. In addition, it is important to note that changes not only in the gut microbiota profile (abundance) but also in its metabolism and functions need to be taken into account in the context of contribution in the physiopathology of obesity and related disorders.
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