Article

Larvicidal and mosquito repellent action of peppermint (Mentha piperita) oil

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Abstract

Oil of Mentha piperita L. (Peppermint oil), a widely used essential oil, was evaluated for larvicidal activity against different mosquito species: Aedes aegypti, Anopheles stephensi and Culex quinquefasciatus by exposing IIIrd instar larvae of mosquitoes in enamel trays 6 + 4 inch2 size filled to a depth of 3 inch with water. Of the three species tested Cx. quinquefasciatus was most susceptible followed by Ae. aegypti and An. stephensi. Application of oil at 3 ml/m2 of water surface area resulted in 100% mortality within 24 h for Cx. quinquefasciatus, 90% for Ae. aegypti and 85% for An. stephensi. For Ae. aegypti 100% mortality was achieved at 3 ml/m2 in 48 h or 4 ml/m2 in 24 h. For An. stephensi 100% mortality was observed at 4 ml/m2 in 72 h. The emergence at 3 ml/m2 was also inhibited to a great extent and the few adults which emerged did not ovipost even after taking a blood meal.The oil showed strong repellent action against adult mosquitoes when applied on human skin. Percent protection obtained against An. annularis, An. culicifacies, and Cx. quinquefasciatus was 100%, 92.3% and 84.5%, respectively. The repellent action of Mentha oil was comparable to that of Mylol oil consisting of dibutyl and dimethyl phthalates.

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... Essential oil extracts from plants such as Cinnamonum camphora (Camphor), Cymbopogon citratus (Lemongrass), Litsea cubeba (May Chang), Mentha piperita (Peppermint) and Pogostemon cablin (Patchouli) said to have immunomodulatory, 16 antihistamine, 17 antipruritic, 18 anti-inflammatory, 17,19,20 larvicidal and insect repellence effects, 21,22 as well as anti-allergy 23 and analgesic properties 23,24 that may be beneficial in the treatment of IBH. ...
... Camphor, Lemongrass, May Chang, Peppermint and Patchouli) in controlling the clinical signs of IBH-affected horses is likely the result of summation or even synergism of their wellcharacterised therapeutic properties. [16][17][18][19][20][21] These essential oils have been shown, both in vitro (cell culture and bioassays) and in vivo (topical application), to offer immunomodulatory, 16 antihistamine, 17 antipruritic, 18 anti-inflammatory, 17,19,20 larvicidal and insect repellence effects, 21,22 as well as anti-allergy 23 and analgesic properties 23,24 that may be beneficial in the treatment of IBH. However, establishing the individual effect and potential contribution to the overall treatment success of each separate ingredients of the tested spray was beyond the scope of this study. ...
... Camphor, Lemongrass, May Chang, Peppermint and Patchouli) in controlling the clinical signs of IBH-affected horses is likely the result of summation or even synergism of their wellcharacterised therapeutic properties. [16][17][18][19][20][21] These essential oils have been shown, both in vitro (cell culture and bioassays) and in vivo (topical application), to offer immunomodulatory, 16 antihistamine, 17 antipruritic, 18 anti-inflammatory, 17,19,20 larvicidal and insect repellence effects, 21,22 as well as anti-allergy 23 and analgesic properties 23,24 that may be beneficial in the treatment of IBH. However, establishing the individual effect and potential contribution to the overall treatment success of each separate ingredients of the tested spray was beyond the scope of this study. ...
Article
Objective To assess the efficacy of an herbal spray combining various essential oils, with a claim of mast cell stabilisation, antipruritic, anti‐inflammatory, and insect repellent effects on the clinical presentation of insect bite hypersensitivity (IBH) in horses. Design Double‐blinded, placebo‐controlled, randomised, cross‐over clinical trial. Methods Twenty adult horses with clinical IBH were treated with a daily application of herbal spray or placebo for 28 days in a randomised, cross‐over fashion, separated by a>28‐day washout period. Horses were examined and scored prior to and after the completion of each treatment. Histopathology was performed on four horses. Owners kept daily diaries of observations. Results The herbal spray significantly reduced the severity of all assessed parameters (pruritus, excoriations, lichenification and alopecia; P < 0.05) compared with baseline values (pretreatment) and with placebo. Owners reported improvement of pruritus in 19/20 horses (95%) with complete resolution in 17 horses (85%) following treatment. Skin biopsies showed resolution of orthokeratosis in 4/4 horses, reduced thickness of the stratum spinosum in 2/4 horses and complete resolution of histopathological abnormalities in 1/4 horses after treatment, compared with either no change or deterioration of histopathologic lesions after placebo. No side effects were observed. Conclusions The tested herbal spray may be an effective treatment for the management of equine IBH.
... Paulus Aegineta noted that spreading herbs, including pennyroyal, was useful for repelling reptiles [31]. It has already been established that Mentha herbs, especially pennyroyal, have repellant, larvicidal and growth/reproduction regulatory activities against a wide variety of insects, including the mosquitoes responsible for spreading malaria (Anopheles sp.), yellow fever, dengue (Aedes aegypti), and zika (Culex quinquefasciatus) [94][95][96][97][98]. ...
... Probable medical uses given to different Mentha species by the main authors discussed in this review throughout history in chronological order.Table 1. Cont. Table 1. Cont. Description and main results of relevant studies assessing the health-promoting effects of mint-based products.Ansari et al. (2000) [94] Peppermint oilIn vitro Aedes aegypti, Anopheles stephensi and Culex quinquefasciatus (IIIrd instar larvae) ...
... Cont. Description and main results of relevant studies assessing the health-promoting effects of mint-based products.Ansari et al. (2000) [94] Peppermint oilIn vitro Aedes aegypti, Anopheles stephensi and Culex quinquefasciatus (IIIrd instar larvae) ...
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Mints have been among the most widely used herbs for medicinal purposes since ancient civilizations. They are still presently used for numerous purposes, including non-medicinal, which makes them economically relevant herbs. Information regarding the medical and scientific uses given to mints throughout history are vastly scattered and/or incomplete. The aim of this paper is to provide an extensive descriptive overview of the medical uses given to these herbs, highlighting both the authors in medical culture responsible for their dissemination, as well as their major galenic formulations. Databases on medical science, reference textbooks on medical history, botanics (aromatic herbs), and pharmacognosy were consulted. The use of mints remotes to Classical Antiquity, with major contributions from Pliny the Elder. In the Middle Ages, the increased knowledge surrounding mints came from Byzantine physicians, while, in the Modern Age, technological developments allowed the production of mint-based products which have become part of elaborate galenic formulas employed by an increasing number of physicians, as well as have also stimulated both scientific and artistic interests alike. In present-day medicine, several mints and mint-based products are being researched as potential therapeutic alternatives for many diseases, while also being vastly employed in food and cosmetic industries.
... The leaf dipping technique method was conducted to evaluate the lethal concentration values (LC 30 ; LC 50 ; LC 90 ) with five replicates for each concentration of the T. ammi against the 4 th larval instar of S. littoralis. Five water concentrations (10,15,20,30, and 40%) of the T. ammi were used. Ten starved larvae were transferred into each cup and allowed to feed on the treated and untreated leaves. ...
... Overall, in agreement of the assumption that thymol could be the main antibacterial compound in T. ammi; previous studies also cited that plants of thymol-rich essential oils such as Thymus vulgaris, Thymus zygis and Thymus hyemalis, have been reported to possesses significant antibacterial and antifungal properties 29 . Eventually, based on the results of this investigation which showed a larvicidal effect of T. ammi against the 4 th instar of the cotton leafworm S. littoralis, the essential oils contain active monoterpenes which can be used against some insect pests with nontoxic impact to human 30,31 . The current study shows that the water extract of T. ammi can be used for the control of S. littoralis. ...
Article
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Trachyspermum ammi fruits (T. ammi) are widely sold and used in the Arabian herbal markets, which requires scientific investigations about its biological activities. The GC-MS analysis of the essential oil revealed that it contains 20 compounds, of which the main components are aromatic and monocyclic terpenes. Thymol was present in the higher amounts (36.00%) followed by γ-terpinene (26.01%) and m-cymene (21.44%). The essential oil of T. ammi contains about 9.77% of bicyclic terpenes of which β-pinene is about 6.70%. The anti-bacterial activity (in vitro) was performed by disc diffusion, MIC and MBC methods. The essential oil of the fruits of T. ammi exhibited significant dose-dependent antibacterial activity against all tested microorganisms (three Gram-positive and four Gram-negative bacteria) and it was comparable to the positive control (Chloramphenicol), with a remarkable MIC and MBC values. Water extract of T. ammi exhibited promising larvicidal activity against S. littoralis and the lethal concentration, LC 50 was found to be 6.21%. The current study provides some scientific support to the application of T. ammi fruits in traditional medicine and suggests it as a source of antibacterial drug and natural larvicidal agents for crops as biocontrols.
... Interestingly, some research showed the repellent effect of VD [13]. In fact, essential oil, especially peppermint oil, was well known for strong mosquito repellent action Molecules 2020, 25, 2800 2 of 11 and its action has been widely reported [14][15][16]. Thus, it is known that VD plays an important role in the mosquito repellent effect of peppermint [13]. ...
... repellent effect of VD [13]. In fact, essential oil, especially peppermint oil, was well known for strong mosquito repellent action and its action has been widely reported [14][15][16]. Thus, it is known that VD plays an important role in the mosquito repellent effect of peppermint [13]. ...
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A simple, sensitive, and rapid UHPLC-MS/MS method was developed for the simultaneous determination of veratraldehyde and its metabolite veratric acid in rat plasma. Cinnamaldehyde was used as an internal standard (IS) and the one-step protein precipitation method with 0.2% formic acid in acetonitrile (mobile phase B) was used for the sample extraction. Reversed C18 column (YMC-Triart C18 column, 50 mm × 2.0 mm, 1.9 µm) was used for chromatographic separation and was maintained at 30 °C. The total run time was 4.5 min and the electrospray ionization in positive mode was used with the transition m/z 167.07 → 139.00 for veratraldehyde, m/z 183.07 → 139.00 for veratric acid, and m/z 133.00 → 55.00 for IS. The developed method exhibited good linearity (r2 ≥ 0.9977), and the lower limits of quantification ranged from 3 to 10 ng/mL for the two analytes. Intra-day precision and accuracy parameters met the criteria (within ±15%) during the validation. The bioanalytical method was applied for the determination of veratraldehyde and veratric acid in rat plasma after oral and percutaneous administration of 300 and 600 mg/kg veratraldehyde. Using the analytical methods established in this study, we can confirm the absorption and metabolism of veratraldehyde in rats for various routes.
... Cloves, peppermint, and perfume were novel to the subjects. Alcohol and peppermint are known insecticides (Ansari et al. 2000). We also ranked these odors with regard to their perceived strength, with perfume having the strongest odor, followed by peppermint, alcohol, cloves, urine, AGS, and water. ...
... In addition, giant pandas were found to anoint with peppermint significantly more than control stimuli, although this odor did not evoke more scent marking. Since peppermint oil is an effective mosquito repellent and natural pesticide (Ansari et al. 2000), we hypothesize that preferentially anointing with this odor could reflect a self-medicating function. Giant pandas are afflicted with a variety of ectoparasites that can have debilitating effects on their health (Wang et al. 2018), and nonhuman animals are known to rub plant materials into the integument to repel insects or mitigate against skin infections (de Roode et al. 2013). ...
Article
Although several mammals impregnate their fur with environmental odors, a phenomenon termed scent anointing or rubbing, the functional relevance of this behavior often is unclear. One theory is that scent anointing could be a form of scent matching with environmental odors to signal competitiveness and home range occupation. In this study we presented giant pandas with a range of odors to determine whether scent matching could provide a functional explanation for scent anointing in this species. We found that only a musk-based perfume elicited significantly more scent-anointing and scent-marking behavior than control. Males were also significantly more likely to scent-anoint and scent-mark than females. A preference for anointing, but not scent marking, when presented with peppermint (an insecticide) also was revealed. Our results suggest that giant pandas differentially scent-anoint with foreign odors to signal home range occupation, and possibly to repel ectoparasites. We also highlight how chemical signaling of resource-holding potential is likely to play an important role in determining competitive interactions between adult male giant pandas.
... This application of essential oils may be rationalized considering that co-evolution has equipped plants with a plethora of chemical defences against insect predators 3 and this has initiated a considerable research activity concerning the use of plant parts and/or extracts to control insects. Studies of essential oils obtained from various plants have demonstrated promising larvicidal activities against mosquito vectors [4][5][6][7][8][9][10][11][12][13][14] . In continuation to these numerous studies, the essential oils from Acalypha ciliata and A. ornata were evaluated for toxicity and mosquito larvicidal activities. ...
... Mint essential oil has been used against various insect pests; peach-potato aphid (Myzus persicae) [10]; mosquitoes [11][12]; black bean aphid (Aphis fabae) larvae [13]. Similarly some studies were conducted on rosemary essential oils for pest management; spidermite (Tetranychus urticae) [14][15], pests of stored products [16][17], onion thrips (Thrips tabaci) [18], Pseudaletia unipuncta, cabbage looper (Trichoplusia ni [19], Trogoderma granarium and Tribolium castaneum [20]; Oryzaephilus surinamensis and T. castaneum [21]. ...
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Fall armyworm (Spodoptera frugiperda, J.E. Smith) is a pest with devasting effects on maize. A laboratory biassay was conducted to analyse the phytochemicals and determine the efficacy of M. spicata and R. officinalis extracts on FAW. Treatments were laid out in a Completely Randomized Design (CRD) with 3 replications. The factors included solvent [Methanol (Me), dichloromethane (DCM), distilled water (Di)] and the plant species (M. spicata and R. officinalis). Coragen SC 200 (Co) and Distilled water (Di) were the positive and negative controls, respectively. FAW rearing, plant extract preparation and phytochemical screening were done using standard procedure. Data collection and analysis was done using standard procedures. The extract yield was highest for R. officinalis regardless of the solvent used. Me-R. officinalis and Di-M. spicata extracts yielded the highest. Saponins, glycosides, alkaloid, flavonoids and tannins. Flavonoid contents were 7.9036 mg/mL and 6.0073 ± 0.6117 mg/mL in methanolic extract of M. spicata and R. officinalis, respectively. M. spicatha and R. officinalis extracts caused 100% mortality to 3rd instar larvae. Based on the findings, both M. spicata and R. officinalis have several secondary metabolites that confer insecticidal activity of the plants against FAW, hence should be evaluated under field conditions.
... Mean of the observations for was recorded for each. Results were expressed as average landing and percent repellency per exposure interval compared to control using the following formula [22]. ...
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Objective: The objective of the study was to investigate the repellent activity of different extracts of Duranta plumieri against mosquito vector Culex quinquefasciatus. Methods: Four different extracts (petroleum ether, chloroform, ethanol, and aqueous) of D. plumieri were evaluated for repellency test against mosquito vector C. quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae) in comparison with diethyltoluamide (DEET), which was used as a positive control. Results: Results showed that chloroform extract was the most effective against mosquito vector even at a low dose. A direct relationship was observed with different concentrations of D. plumieri extract and the repellent activity. Moreover, all the extracts showed highly significant level of repellency as compared to DEET at 10% dosage till 5 h of exposure. Among all of these, chloroform extract showed significant repellency at 5% dosage till 4 h. Conclusion: Chloroform extract of D. plumieri has the potential as an effective mosquito repellent and further studies are needed to isolate the marker compound responsible for this activity.
... Natural insecticides are usually pest specific and non-allergic to human (Reegan et al. 2015). The bioassay of different herbal extracts has been studied against malaria vector mosquito, Anopheles stephensi, larvae and adults to determine the larvicidal and repellent activity (Fradin 1998;Ansari et al. 2000;Pandey, Upadhyay, and Tripathi 2009;Govindarajan et al. 2011a;Sedaghat et al. 2011;Vatandoost and Vaziri 2004;Vatandoost et al. 2012). Natural repellents are good and safe entities in personal protection toward the mosquito bites (Satti and Edriss 2014). ...
Article
This research is conducted to determine the larvicidal, repellent and pathological effects of fruit extracts of C. colocynthis on malaria vector mosquito, Anopheles stephensi Liston, 1901. The fruit water and ethanol extract of C. colocynthis were concentrated for larvicidal and repellent activities on human volunteer against An. stephensi. The temephos larvicide was tested as the positive control. A concentration of 300 mg/L had full-scale mortality and the most toxic effect. The LC50 and LC90 values of C. colocynthis water and ethanol extracts were 180and 283mg/L respectively. The LC50 and LC90 values of temephos were 0.2706 and 1.6932 mg/L, respectively. The ED50 and ED90 values of the plant extract were 0.2 and 1.3 mg/cm², respectively. Thin sections from treated larvae exhibited gross histopathologic effects of C. colocynthis fruit extracts on gut epithelial cell layer by vacuolization of foregut cuboidal and midgut columnar cells. This study suggested that the fruit extracts of C. colocynthis had significant larvicidal and repellent activity to be used as an ideal approach to control the malaria vector mosquito.
... The unique monoterpenoid profile of several Mentha spp. is dominated by menthol, a cyclic monoterpene with some remarkable biological properties that make it useful in the pharmaceutical, medical, cosmetic and cleaning product industries (Nair, 2001;Tucker, 2006;Eftekhari et al., 2021). Essential oils from Mentha have proven to have interesting properties: as carminatives (May et al., 2000), antispasmodics (Heghes et al., 2019), insect repellents (Ansari et al., 2000), choleretics (Hu et al., 2015), analgesics (Yousuf et al., 2013), anti-inflammatories (Xia et al., 2021), antioxidants (Ed-Dra et al., 2020), antivirals (Minami et al., 2003), anti-tumour promoting (Ohara and Matsushia, 2002), antibacterials (Xia et al., 2021), antifungals (Piras et al., 2021), antimicrobials (Mimica-Dukic et al., 2003), anti-allergenics (Inoue et al., 2002), anti-biofilms (Fathi et al., 2021) and more recently inhibitors of SARS-CoV-2 (Jan et al., 2021). It is little wonder then that a recent market analysis showed that the global EO market was just over $10.8B USD in 2020 and this is expected to rise to over $24.7B USD in 2030 while the mint EO market was valued at $177.8M USD in 2018 and is expected to top $330 M USD by 2025 (Grand View Research, 2019;Chauhan and Deshmukh, 2022). ...
Article
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In recent years, the study of aromatic plants has seen an increase, with great interest from industrial, academic, and pharmaceutical industries. Among plants attracting increased attention are the Mentha spp. (mint), members of the Lamiaceae family. Mint essential oils comprise a diverse class of molecules known as terpenoids/isoprenoids, organic chemicals that are among the most diverse class of naturally plant derived compounds. The terpenoid profile of several Mentha spp. is dominated by menthol, a cyclic monoterpene with some remarkable biological properties that make it useful in the pharmaceutical, medical, cosmetic, and cleaning product industries. As the global market for Mentha essential oils increases, the desire to improve oil composition and yield follows. The monoterpenoid biosynthesis pathway is well characterised so metabolic engineering attempts have been made to facilitate this improvement. This review focuses on the Mentha spp. and attempts at altering the carbon flux through the biosynthetic pathways to increase the yield and enhance the composition of the essential oil. This includes manipulation of endogenous and heterologous biosynthetic enzymes through overexpression and RNAi suppression. Genes involved in the MEP pathway, the menthol and carvone biosynthetic pathways and transcription factors known to affect secondary metabolism will be discussed along with non-metabolic engineering approaches including environmental factors and the use of plant growth regulators.
... It contains a variety of chemicals including menthol, menthone, piperitenone oxide and carvone (Hussain et al. 2010). Ansari et al. (2000) report strong larvicidal and repellent effects of peppermint oil against various mosquito species. These data were confirmed by a study from Kumar et al. (2011b). ...
Article
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Mosquitoes of the Aedes genus are vectors for dengue, chikungunya, Zika, and yellow fever viruses. Mosquito repellents are an effective way to prevent mosquito bites and reduce the spread of mosquito-borne diseases. In the early 90s, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) published a list of active ingredients that pose minimum risk to human health that can be used as pesticides or repellents without passing the EPA registration process. The present study examined the efficacy of 21 of the active ingredients listed by the EPA 25 (B) exempt list and five commercially available sprays that only contained active ingredients from the EPA 25(B) list in repelling female Aedes aegypti (L.) females. We performed choice bioassays in a controlled laboratory environment, using a Y-tube olfactometer to determine attraction rates of humans to female Ae. aegypti in the presence of one of the 21 active ingredients and five commercially available repellent sprays. We found that cinnamon oil, peppermint oil, spearmint oil, lemongrass oil, and garlic oil reduced mosquito attraction to human odor. Of the five commercial repellent sprays, only one reduced mosquito attraction for up to 30 min in our assay. The EPA 25 (B) list contains active ingredients that under the conditions of our assay repel Ae. aegypti.
... The peppermint plant originated from Mediterranean region, but it has now commonly found in many countries. The extracted essential oil presents a colourless, pale yellow liquid with strong odour and aromatic taste 8 . Menthol is the major constituent of peppermint oil, and it is widely used in flavourings, pharmaceuticals, confections and medicine 9 . ...
Article
Plant essential oils have been widely used as fragrance in perfumes or flavouring agents in food products due to their unique characteristic scent of the active constituents. The objective of this study is to qualitatively and quantitatively analyse the repellent activity, and the properties of the bioactive constituents in nutmeg, peppermint, and basil oils. The repellent activity of these essential oils was tested against Aedes aegypti and analysed using gas chromatography-flame ionisation (GC-FID) method. α-pinene, terpinen-4-ol and safrole in nutmeg oil, α-pinene, β-pinene, and menthol in peppermint oil, and methyl chavicol, geraniol, and methyl eugenol in basil oil, were selected for further analysis. Selected constituents were tested for accuracy, intra-and interday precision, recovery, limit of detection (LOD), and limit of quantification (LOQ). Nutmeg oil contributed to the highest percentage of repellence with 70.2%, with the accuracy values ranged from 99.25 - 99.71%. The precision for intra- and interday measurements for all tested constituents ranged between 1.083 - 7.296% and 1.308 - 7.924% respectively. The range of recovery was 97.43 - 100.86%. LOD ranged from 0.005 - 0.4 mol/L, and LOQ (with signal to noise ratio of 10:1) ranged from 0.0002 - 0.025 mol/L. In conclusion, the proposed method is simple, precise, and accurate, for qualitative and quantitative analysis of constituents present in essential oils. Nutmeg oil is an alternative natural mosquito repellent with α-pinene as the main active constituent.
... Menthol is a mint essential oil, which is allowed to be used in formulations against mites and ticks. 19 Acetone was the fourth highest volatile of chestnut_Düzce, pine, wildflower_Ardahan and wildflower_Kırşehir, while 2-cyclopenten-1,4-dione was the fourth leading volatile compound for rhododendron, heather and wildflower_Sivas. Alpha-pinene was the fourth higest concentrated compound measured in sage honey, while ethyl acetate was measured in carob and dimethyl sulfide in citrus as fourth highest compound. ...
Article
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Background: Honey has a very important commercial value for producers as a natural product. Honey aroma is formed from the contributions of several volatile compounds, which were influenced by nectar composition, botanical origins and locations. Selected ion flow tube mass spectrometry (SIFT-MS) is a technique that quantifies volatile organic compounds simply and rapidly even in low concentrations. In this study, the headspace concentration of eight monofloral (chestnut, rhododendron, lavender, sage, carob, heather, citrus, and pine) and three multiflower Turkish honeys were analyzed using SIFT-MS. Soft independent modeling of class analogy (SIMCA) was used to differentiate honey samples based on their volatiles. Results: This study focused on 78 volatile compounds, which were selected from previous studies of selected honeys. A very clear distinction was observed between all honeys. Interclass distances greater than 8 indicate that honeys were significantly different. Methanol and ethanol, were abundant in the honeys. Chestnut honey collected from the Yalova region had the highest total concentration of volatiles followed by heather honey and chestnut honey collected from the Düzce region. Conclusion: Honeys with different botanical and geographical origin showed differences in their volatile profile based on chemometric. Between the honey samples, methanol, ethanol, acetoin, ethyl acetate, and isobutanoic acid had the highest discriminating power and also methanol and ethanol, and then acetic acid, were the volatiles at the highest concentration in most honeys. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
... The effect of peppermint on Anopheles was explored in 3 studies. Ansari et al. [12] in a field trial revealed that 1 ml peppermint oil without dilution completely repels Anopheles annularis, An. culicifacies and Anopheles subpictus for 11, 9.6 and 7.3 h, respectively and the corresponding percentage repellency were 100%, 92.3% and 83.1%. In another study [6], 20% oil solutions of peppermint had 57% repellency and complete protection time for 6.5 h against An. ...
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Abstract Plant-based repellents have been applied for generations in traditional practice as a personal protection approach against different species of Anopheles. Knowledge of traditional repellent plants is a significant resource for the development of new natural products as an alternative to chemical repellents. Many studies have reported evidence of repellant activities of plant extracts or essential oils against malaria vectors worldwide. This systematic review aimed to assess the effectiveness of plant-based repellents against Anopheles mosquitoes. All eligible studies on the repellency effects of plants against Anopheles mosquitoes published up to July 2018 were systematically searched through PubMed/Medline, Scopus and Google scholar databases. Outcomes measures were percentage repellency and protection time. A total of 62 trials met the inclusion criteria. The highest repellency effect was identified from Ligusticum sinense extract, followed by citronella, pine, Dalbergia sissoo, peppermint and Rhizophora mucronata oils with complete protection time ranging from 9.1 to 11.5 h. Furthermore, essential oils from plants such as lavender, camphor, catnip, geranium, jasmine, broad-leaved eucalyptus, lemongrass, lemon-scented eucalyptus, amyris, narrow-leaved eucalyptus, carotin, cedarwood, chamomile, cinnamon oil, juniper, cajeput, soya bean, rosemary, niaouli, olive, tagetes, violet, sandalwood, litsea, galbanum, and Curcuma longa also showed good repellency with 8 h complete repellency against different species of Anopheles. Essential oils and extracts of some plants could be formulated for the development of eco-friendly repellents against Anopheles species. Plant oils may serve as suitable alternatives to synthetic repellents in the future as they are relatively safe, inexpensive, and are readily available in many parts of the world.
... Previous work demonstrated the contact toxicity activity of peppermint EO to Plodia interpunctella, Aedes aegypti, Culex quinquefasciatus and Culex pipiens (Ansari et al., 2000;Jesser et al., 2017). Moreover, Yeom et al. (2018) informed that Mentha spicata produced high insecticidal activity to B. germanica males by topical exposure. ...
Article
Essential oils (EO) from peppermint, palmarosa, geranium, lavender and rosemary were tested against the German cockroach, Blatella germanica L. (Blattaria: Blatellidae). Peppermint and palmarosa oils were the most effective and were included in a polyethylene glycol 6000 matrix to obtain EO loaded polymeric nanoparticles (EOPN). The physicochemical analyses indicated that, at 7 days postformulation, peppermint EOPN had sizes of 380 nm, the loading efficiency (LE) was 72.25% and the polydispersity index (PDI) was >0.4 (polydisperse sample). Palmarosa EOPN had sizes of 191 nm; LE was 89.75% and PDI was <0.25 (monodisperse sample). Peppermint and palmarosa EOPN enhanced the lethal and sublethal effects of the EO on B. germanica. These results suggest that the newly developed nanoinsecticides could be successfully used to control German cockroach.
... Phytochemicals and essential oils from plants possess larvicidal and ovicidal properties against mosquitoes. Essential oils from Argentina's aromatic plants [114] namely Mentha piperita (peppermint) oil [115], volatile oils [116], pine oil from Pinus longifolia [117], lemongrass oil [118], Zingiber nimmonii Dalzell oil [119], and mixture of olive oil and Aloe Vera gel [120] have been proved to possess excellent mosquito-repellent properties, and some of them have been formulated into commercial mosquito-repellent creams and sprays such as Aromakrafts and MosQuick, formulated with essential oils from lavender, eucalyptus, orange, lemongrass, and citronella, respectively [121]. Meanwhile, phytochemicals from plant products such as peels of citrus fruit species [122], Lantana camara leaves [123], leaf extracts from Ferronia elephantum [124], and Moringa oleifera [125], volatile phytochemicals [126], seed extracts from Apium graveolens [127], Vitex agnus castus [128], Delonix elata [129], root extracts from Saraca indica, Nyctanthes arbortristis, Clitoria ternatea [130], Angelica sinensis [131], flower extract of Ocimum sanctum [132], Sida acuta [133], fruit extracts of Melia azedarach [134], and Zanthoxylem limonella [135] were proven to possess enhanced mosquitorepellent properties that help to prevent mosquitoes from biting human beings. ...
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Mosquito-borne diseases cause life-threatening challenges to public health, and their prevention is the key task of several parasitological techniques. In the past, conventional chemical and biological mosquitocides were highly utilized to regulate the mosquito population. However, these mosquitocidal agents possess drawbacks such as toxicity toward humans and resulted in mosquitoes with high resistance to mosquitocides. The technological improvements in the field of nanoparticles are widely used to overcome the drawback of conventional mosquitocides. Nanoparticles, especially nanosized metal oxides, seem to possess unique properties that can help in the formulation of the enhanced mosquitocidal agent. In this review article, magnesium oxide (MgO) nanoparticles have been proposed as an enhanced mosquitocidal agent and as an alternative to conventional mosquitocides. Additionally, a group of metal oxide nanoparticles is listed as mosquitocidal agents, and the proposed mechanism of MgO nanoparticle toxicity toward life stages of mosquitoes is also discussed.
... Plant-derived pesticides are being tried as optional alternatives. While a number of botanicals, especially essential oils, were reported to be effective as mosquito repellents (Sritabutra and Soonwera, 2013;Phasomkusolsil and Soonwera, 2011;Gillij et al., 2008;Prajapati et al., 2005), many exhibited larvicidal activity (Govindarajan et al., 2013;Manimaran et al., 2012;Ansari et al., 2000;Cetin et al., 2004;Cetin and yanikoglu, 2006;Michaelakis et al., 2007). Few studies were carried out on adulticidal properties of essential oils against mosquitoes (Pal et al, 2011;Kang et.al. ...
... The botanical based pesticides mainly from Meliaceae family are most effective against mosquito control.The plant based natural pesticides are nontoxic towards non target and safe for environment as compared to synthetic pesticides [3].Botanical pesticides have been used against different pest species of household and agricultural insects [4]. There are lot of botanicals have been isolated which have larvicidal and repellent activity against mosquitos [5]. Mosquito control has been shifting progressively from use of synthetic pesticides towards botanical pesticides. ...
... Various plant extracts have been identified to have larvicidal property [9][10][11][12] and repellent activity [13,14]. However, there has been only very few researches that tested the essential oils for both larvicide and repellent against the three species of mosquitoes [15][16][17]. The drawback in these researches is that the raw essential oils have been tested and the chances for losing their potency when formulated into the commercial product are high. ...
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Aedes aegypti, Culex quinquefasciatus, and Anopheles stephensi are the domestic vectors of tropical diseases include dengue, malaria, zika, filariasis. To control these vectors, ethnobotanical knowledge provides pragmatic solutions that are compatible with nature. Hence an attempt has been made to coalesce the ethnobotanical knowledge of tribes from Kadambur hills with the nano emulsification technology to formulate an herbal-based larvicidal and repellent nanocrystal emulsion. The ethanol extract from Ficus glomerata was used as the larvicidal and repellant agent against A. aegypti, C. quinquefasciatus and A. stephensi. For the improved stability, shelf life and sustained release of bioactive compounds, a novel methodology has been followed to synthesize nanocrystal emulsion. F. glomerata extract based nanocrystal emulsion (FON) was prepared by ultrasonication and characterized by Zeta potential (− 73.6 mV) and dynamic light scattering (104 nm), ATR-FTIR for the functional groups, high-resolution transmission electron microscope and selective area energy diffraction. The maximum shelf life was evaluated to be more than 3 years. The prepared nanocrystal emulsion was challenged for larvicidal and repellent activities against all the three species. The FON larvicidal results were comparable to the conventional neem oil based nanoemulsion and the repellant activity results were effective than the commercial formulation.
... Oil extracted from Mentha has cosmetic, pharmaceutical, and perfumery applications. Sometimes, it is also used for culinary purposes for food and flavors [3]. ...
... We also used the peppermint scent in the experiment, as it has been observed to be a popular scent in previous studies [45]. The existing literature has shown that fragrance itself can have a positive effect on consumer behavior [46]. ...
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Sensory experiences affect individuals’ judgment and behavior through the metaphors that experiences carry. The literature has demonstrated that the perception of warmth activates concepts related to positive meaning and metaphors, such as consideration and gentleness, which increase individuals’ tendency to help or relate to others. This study hypothesized that warm olfactory stimuli influence intention toward prosocial behavior by increasing the need for social connectedness (NSC). The first experiment (n = 123) demonstrated that the actual warm scent increased participants’ intentions for prosocial behavior and that the effect of the actual warm scent was mediated by NSC. Using Amazon Mechanical Turk (MTurk), a second experiment (n = 995) was conducted the showed that warm scent simulated via visual stimuli (i.e., a multimodal approach) led to prosocial behavior intention as well. The results of the study provide academic and managerial insights into how to improve prosocial behavior intention, which is essential for the sustainable development of societies.
... The results of the current study are in line with a study on Carum copticum and Vitex pseudo-negundo on Tribolium castaneum by Sahaf and Moharramipour (2009). In fact, insects exposed to sub lethal doses of insecticides may display a variety of symptoms including reduction in growth rate, life span, pupa weight and adult fecundity and fertility (Ansari, et al., 2000., Bazzoni et al., 1997., Collart and Hink, 1986., Gurusubramanian andKrishma, 1996., Huang et al., 2000). Oils of C. viminalis and E. camaldulensis was toxic to T. confusum (Hamzavi et al., 2015., Negahban andMoharramipour, 2007). ...
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Fatemeh Hamzavi and Saied Moharramipour (2017). Chemical composition and antifeedant activity of essential oils from Eucalyptus camaldulensis and Callistemon viminalis on Tribolium confusum. International Journal of Agriculture Technology 13(3): 413-424. Absract In order to assess the antifeedant activity of Eucalyptus camaldulensis (Dehnh) and Callistemon viminalis Gaertn the plant essential oil was extracted by hydrodistillation and then tested against the confused flour beetle, Tribolium confusum Jacquelin du Val. Several experiments were designed to measure the nutritional indices such as relative growth rate (RGR), relative consumption rate (RCR), efficiency of conversion of ingested food (ECI) and feeding deterrence index (FDI). Treatments experiments were evaluated by the method of flour disc bioassay in the dark, at 27±1 °C and 60±5 % R.H. Aliquots of 10 µl of acetone (controls) or an acetone solutions of essential oils (750-2500 ppm) were spread equally on the flour discs. The solvent was evaporated and after this stage 10 adult (1-3 days old) insects were involved into each treatment. After 72 h, nutritional indices were calculated. Results showed that essential oils concentrations had significant effect on nutritional indices. Essential oils of C. viminalis and E. camaldulensis decreased RGR, RCR and ECI activity significantly. Essential oils of C. viminalis and E. camaldulensis decreased RGR from the amount of 0.0347 and 0.0344 in control to 0.0067 and 0.0031 percentage respectively. Furthermore the amount of RCR decreased from 0.161 and 0. 149 to 0.073 and 0.074 percentage in control treatment. ECI of control decreased from 21.62% to 9.34% and 23.10% to 4.12% in 2500 ppm concentration in comparison to control respectively. Moreover, essential oils of C. viminalis and E. camaldulensis increased FDI from 1.100 to 51.37 percent and 26.03 to 50.24 percent in highest concentration respectively. on the other hand,, GC/MS analysis of the oils showed that p-cymen (18.86%) and alpha-pinene (16.56%), alloaromadendrene (12.26%) and 1,8-cineole (11.79%) in E. camaldulensis oil, 1,8-cineole (41.26%), alpha-pinene (15.01%),Limonene (10.45%), and alpha-terpineol (10.30%) in C. viminalis. overally, it was concluded that antifeedant activity is highly affected by feeding deterrency against T. confusum.
... Alguns autores mostraram que o uso do extrato etanólico dessa planta reduziu e alterou a morfologia e a viabilidade da Giardia lambliain vitro (VIDAL et al., 2007). No que se refere ao óleo essencial de Mentha piperita, ele possui ação contra várias cepas bacterianas, tais como: Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Enterobacter aerogenos, Proteus vulgaris, Salmonella typhimurium, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Enterococcus falcium, entre outras (SARTORATTO et al. 2004;AGGARWAL et al. 2002;AH MAD e BEG, 2001;AMR e EMAN, 2003;ANSARI et al. 2000) e atividade antileshimanicida e virucida (BRITO, 2007;LEITE et al. 2009;SCHUHMACHER et al. 2003). ...
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A Mentha piperita L. tem sido estudada pelo nosso grupo como possível fitofármaco para tratamento de doenças que promovem respostas inflamatórias intensa, mediadas por eosinófilos e neutrofilos. Assim, analisar os efeitos antioxidantes e produção de citocinas por essas células é importante para entender o efeito desses compostos na resposta imune inata e efetora. Dessa forma, utilizou-se um fitofármaco proveniente da M piperita e avaliou a enzima MPO em neutrófilos por meio da quimiluminescência dependente de luminol (QLDLum) e da lucigenina. E os níveis de IL-4, IL-6 e TNF-α e a QLDLum em eosinófilos. Nossos resultados demonstraram que em neutrófilos houve inibição da produção de radical ânion superóxido e da NADPH oxidase após tratamento com o fitofármaco. Entretando, os níveis de IL-4 foi maior após o tratamento. Esses dados sugerem que esse fitofármaco apresenta atividade anti-inflamatória, por meio do controle dos produtos secretados durante as respostas inflamatórias, principalmente como pode ocorrer durante infecções e processos inflamatórios crônicos de diversas doenças, onde se observa uma acentuada eosinofilia tecidual, com presença significativa de PMN no sangue e no tecido.
... In fact, the well-known and widely used peppermint (Mentha piperita L.)(Lamiaceae) is a hybrid mint; a cross between M. aquatica L. (water mint) and M. spicata L. (spearmint) (Heywood, 1979;Foster, 1990;Brown, 1995). M. piperata EO has been proved to possess several important properties, such as antifungal (Schuhmacher et al., 2003;Matan et al., 2009;Sokovic et al., 2009), antiviral (Schuhmacher et al., 2003), antibacterial (Schuhmacher et al., 2003;Mckay and Blumberg, 2006;Bakkali et al., 2008;Vanvuuren et al., 2009), insecticidal (Samarasekera et al., 2008), larvicidal and mosquito repellent, and are mostly considered nontoxic compounds for humans and highly lethal to pathogens (LD50 value of 2000 mg/kg) (Ansari et al., 2000;Debbab et al., 2007). ...
... The botanical based pesticides mainly from Meliaceae family are most effective against mosquito control.The plant based natural pesticides are nontoxic towards non target and safe for environment as compared to synthetic pesticides [3].Botanical pesticides have been used against different pest species of household and agricultural insects [4]. There are lot of botanicals have been isolated which have larvicidal and repellent activity against mosquitos [5]. Mosquito control has been shifting progressively from use of synthetic pesticides towards botanical pesticides. ...
Research
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In India, now a day's mosquito control is very challenging task because mosquito are mostly inhabited in rural areas and in India about 72% of population resides in rural areas. The aim of this study is to irradiate the mosquito problem by destroying the early stages of mosquito larvae. NKP based Spreading formulation is the novel formulation and specially designed for controlling mosquito in larval stage. Main uniqueness of this formulation is that it form network like structure over water surface. This interconnecting network structure shows its uniformity and safe towards non target organisms. Specific density (0.901), kinematic viscosity (0.25x 10 6 m 2 /s), spreading pattern (more than standard), spreading coefficient(+19) complementary qualify its ideal spreading behavior over water surface. Bioefficacy data of NKP based spreading formulation confirms that; this is totally effective toward mosquito control in larval stages. This spreading formulation gives 95% larval mortality after 24 hr in 0.01 ml dose concentration over 78.5 cm 2 area.
... Vol. 28 No. 2 September 2021 ISSN: 2509-0119 80 The result was compatible with other study by [20], where Mentha piperita L (Peppermint oil), was evaluated for larvicidal activity against different species of mosquito. The oil showed strong larvicidal activity and repellent action against adult mosquitoes when applied on human skin. ...
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Mosquito control depends on application of synthetic insecticides. This has been limited due to its harmful effect on human health. This increased needs for botanical origin alternatives as a sustainable and more safe method of mosquito control. The current study aimed to evaluate larvicidal and pupicidal effect of thyme (Thymus vulgaris), peppermint (Mentha piperita) and citronella leaf (Pelargonium citrosum), clove buds (Syzygium aromaticum) and lemon peels (Citrus limonoids) methanolic extracts. Tested plants were extracted and three concentrations of these extracts were prepared (25, 50 and 100 mg/ml) then their larvicidal and pupicidal activities were evaluated against 20 larvae and 20 pupas for each concentration. Mortality rate were calculated after 24 hrs. Adult mosquitoes were identified to genus level. Clove showed the highest larvae mortality rate (100%) for the three tested concentrations, followed by thyme, lemon and peppermint. Citronella had no effect as larvicidal agent. On the other hand, pupicidal activity test of thyme showed the highest results followed by clove. While lemon didn't show any activity. Mosquito was identified as Culex. The result showed that buds extract of S. aromaticum and leaf extracts of T. vulgaris and peels extract of C. limonoids could serve as potential larvicidal extracts against the Culex mosquito.
... Repellents of plant origin do not pose hazards of toxicity to human and domestic animals and are rarely biodegradable (Elango et al., 2009). The oils showed strong repellent action against adult mosquitoes when applied on human skin (Ansari et al., 2000). It is a considerable international interest to develop a natural product that is alternative to synthetic insecticide to control insects. ...
Article
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Larvicidal activity of Tagetes and Mentha arvensis essential oil against the different instar larvae of Culex mosquitoes. Mosquitoes larvae are the attractive goal for pesticides as mosquitoes used to breed in standing water and therefore it is easy to deal with them in this type of habitat. The use of chemical pesticides may introduce harm to the lives of people and environment. Natural pesticides that we obtained from plants are better and promising than this chemical pesticides. Different aromatic plants oils that we obtained are used in different respects. Mosquitoes are the life threatening vectors which cause several harmful diseases like malaria, Zika virus and dengue. This study deals with the essential oils and extracts which work against this life threatening vector. The pesticidal activity of essential oil of Mentha against the mosquitoes larvae is due to its menthol content which is the main aroma spreading component of Mentha . Mosquitoes feed on the blood and severe as the important vector for spreading diseases related to human. Synthetic chemical pesticides are toxic and contaminating our environment. Natural pesticides may serve as a suitable alternative technique in future. The natural pesticides are effective, eco- friendly and safe surroundings. Mentha and Tagetes were tested for their repellency against Culex quinquefasciatus.
... Several diseases are associated with mosquito-human interaction. Ansari et al., (2000) studied the toxicity of MpEOs against three important vector mosquitoes (Kumar et al., 2011), and the application of MpEOs at 3 mL/m 2 on the water surface area led to a 85% mortality within 24 h for Anopheles stephensi, 90% for Aedes aegypti, and 100% for Culex quinquefasciatus. Amer and Mehlhorn (2006) reported 53% mortality of A. aegypti larvae for 50 ppm MpEOs. ...
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Edited by MG Kulkarni A B S T R A C T Mentha piperita L. (peppermint) is one of the most popular and widely consumed species worldwide, and is used in the medical as well as in industrial and culinary fields. The importance of M. piperita is mainly due to its essential oils (EOs) and polyphenols. The present work reviews various novelty aspects of M. piperita phy-tochemicals, including their components, processes used to obtain EOs and extracts, agricultural strategies for the induction of EO production, shelf-life processes, and their application in phytoremediation, animal science, herbicides, pesticides, food industries, and therapeutic issues. The amount and components of M. piperita EOs (MpEOs) available vary widely depending upon the region, climatic and agronomic conditions, the extraction technique and drying procedure. In recent years, different methodologies have been evaluated to enhance EO production and other phytochemicals, such as inoculation with plant growth-promoting rhi-zobacteria, application of chemical elicitors, titanium dioxide nanoparticles, fly ash, and environmental factors. MpEOs and phenolic compounds possess high antimicrobial, antioxidant, antispasmodic, anthelmintic, and acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activities. Due to the wide range of bioactivity and antioxidant activity, this is an interesting topic of research due to the growing usage of natural antioxidants as additives in food and cosmetics. However, further studies should be directed towards MpEOs and extract production and formulation , to enable their wide scale application.
... Previous research has reported the insecticidal properties of EOs from plant species of the genus Mentha (Tripathi et al. 2000;Ansari et al. 2000;Aggarwal et al. 2001;Kumar et al. 2009Kumar et al. , 2011Koliopoulos et al. 2010;Govindarajan et al. 2012) that grow from tropical to temperate regions. For example, M. arvensis EO is known to be associated with antibacterial effects (Biswas et al. 2014;Horváth and Koščová 2017), antifungal effects (Varma and Dubey 2001;Kumar et al. 2007Kumar et al. , 2009 and adulticidal activity on several species of storage pests (Tripathi et al. 2000;Aggarwal et al. 2001;Mishra et al. 2012). ...
Article
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Although synthetic pesticides are still used to control insect pests, greater efforts have been made to develop healthier and more environmentally friendly pesticides. Because of their insecticidal properties, botanical essential oils (EOs) are considered as promising alternatives to the use of synthetic insecticides. However, little is known about mechanisms underlying the insecticidal activity of most these natural compounds. In the present study, we evaluated the contact toxicity and the modes of action of the EO from Mentha arvensis against the granary weevil, Sitophilus granarius L. (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), a cosmopolitan insect pest that causes extensive damage to stored cereals. M. arvensis EO caused high contact toxicity in S. granarius adults, resulting in a rapid paralysis and rapid alteration of walking behavior. Our label-free quantitative proteomics approach revealed that M. arvensis EO induced dramatic physiological changes in exposed insects. The majority of the differentially expressed proteins (DEPs) were upregulated and are related to the development and functioning of the muscular and nervous systems, cellular respiration, protein synthesis, and detoxification. These results suggest that M. arvensis essential oil is capable of affecting a variety of biological processes, and shed light on the repair mechanisms put in place in surviving insects to counter the damage inflicted. This work opens new perspectives on the proposed mechanisms of insecticidal activity of a promising EO for controlling pests of stored cereals and may represent a first step in the development of novel bio-rational insecticides.
... Menthone, present in high concentration in peppermint oil, is reported to act as a natural pesticide. Because of increased interest in developing plant origin insecticides as an alternative to chemical insecticide, the availability, low budget and less environmental impact, there are studies undertaken to assess the larvicidal and repellent potential of the essential oil of peppermint plant, M. piperita against larva of these three mosquito species (Aedes aegypti, Anopheles stephensi and Culex quinquefasciatus), and adult stages of these three species (Anopheles annularis, Anopheles culicifacies and Culex quinquefasciatus) (Ansari, Padma, Mamta and Razdan (2000)). The oil has shown strong repellent action against adult mosquitoes when applied on human skin. ...
Article
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The mosquitoes are a serious threat to public health, since they are known vectors of many life-threatening diseases. Mosquito-borne diseases cause millions of deaths worldwide every year. While mosquitoes are important to maintain ecosystems, the aim is to keep them out of our personal space. People looking for alternatives to synthetic mosquito repellents may find that some natural repellents are effective in protecting them from bites. Natural insect repellents use natural ingredients such essential oils and other plant-based elements. Certain essential oils are effective and helpful in repelling mosquitoes, and are a natural alternative to the harsh chemicals in commercial bug sprays. These products are also likely to be less toxic to humans and the environment. Natural repellents and some essential oils may be effective in keeping mosquitoes away because they block their sense of smell. Many natural scents that are appealing to humans actually repel mosquitoes. Plant - based repellents are becoming more widely used as a protecting measure against mosquito bites, but more research is needed to develop natural repellents in terms of improving their repellent efficiency as well as in terms of their safety for use. This article presents a review about the best essential oils used as green repellents against mosquito bites, their efficiency, development and testing.
... In the present study in unused cement tanks, the P. trifoliate plant extracts caused 25.42 to 92.19 per cent larval reduction was observed at the LC 50 concentration (100.20 mg/L) obtained from lab study in 24 h to 72 h. Ansari et al. (2000) evaluated the repellent activity of Mentha piperita essential oil against mosquito in field condition. Percentage of protection obtained against An. ...
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Mosquito control has been facing backlashes due to the emergence of resistant varieties against synthetic insecticides. The bioactivity of five plant extracts viz., Poncirus trifoliate, Murraya paniculata, Citrus bergamia, Aegle marmelos and Limonia acidissima was studied against the filarial vector of Culex quinquefasciatus Say, 1823. Larvicidal assays were conducted under laboratory condition to evaluate the 24 h LC50 and LC90 of the selected plants against 3rd instar larvae of Cx. quinquefasciatus. The lethal concentration (LC50 and LC90) values ranged from 76.26 to 208.32 mg/L and 191.85 to 477.16 mg/L, respectively. The result of larvicidal test suggests that the larvicidal activity of the L. acidissima and P. trifoliate extracts were highly influenced. Test results showed that the flavonoid compounds exhibited larvicidal activity against 3rd instar Cx. quinquefasciatus mosquitoes. Percent reduction was recorded with an LC50 concentration of L. acidissima and P. trifoliate. A field study was carried out to evaluate larvicidal activity on 24 h, 48 h and 78 h period and percentage of larval and pupal reduction due to L. acidissima and P. trifoliate extracts in the unused cement tank and mini water pool in Puthanampatti, Tiruchirappalli district. The field tested plant extracts proved to have various activities against different life stages of Cx. spp. Therefore, flavonoid compounds from L. acidissima and P. trifoliate plant can be a potential candidate for use in the development of commercial mosquito larvicidal products that may be an alternative to conventional synthetic chemicals, particularly in integrated vector control applications.
... We do not need all insect life to be killed. Birds, reptiles and mammals are supplied with food by insects and several help pollinate plants [27]. Health stores sell a range of bug repellent based on essential oil that are sufficiently diluted to avoid skin irritation. ...
Article
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Background In the present scenario, the markets are flooded with chemical-based mosquito repellent products that are proven to be toxic to the human life especially to the children and quite expensive in term of cost. This present investigation was attempted to evaluate the complete pharmacognostical characteristics of Elettaria cardamomum (Linn.) seed and to formulate eco-friendly and cost-effective herbal mosquito repellents of the seed powder by using a natural binder. Results The results of microscopic study of seed confirmed the presence of perisperm, embryo, endosperm and testa (Figs. 4, 5 and 6). The extractive values, moisture contents and ash values were also analysed and found to be alcoholic extract, 4.88% w/w; water extract, 40% w/w; moisture content, 8.6%; total ash, 5% w/w; acid insoluble ash, 1.5% w/w; and water soluble ash, 3.5% w/w (summarized in Tables 1, 2 and 3). From the mosquito repellency test (Table 6), the combination of cardamom seed cake was done with cardamom powder 3/2 + 1/4 spoons, wood powder 3 spoons and chilli powder 1/4 spoon which showed low residual percentage of 15.05%, no irritation and an average burning time of 65 min. The formulated herbal-based mosquito repellents were found to be more effective without any side effects and found less cost too. Conclusion All the ingredients used in the formulation were herbal based and has no side effect on human health. The cost of the cake was Rs. 11.332/- and it can be considered as good mosquito repellent cakes because of its consistent burning ability with no irritating smoke and low residual percentage and high mosquito repellent ability. By utilizing this concept, the researchers can develop herbal, eco-friendly and cost-effective mosquito repellents in future.
... Previously, the application of EOs in 3 mL/m 2 of water observed a 100% mortality within 24 h for Culex quinquefasciatus, 90% for Aedes aegypti, and 85% for Anopheles stephensi. For A. aegypti, 100% mortality was achieved at 3 mL/m 2 in 48 h, or 4 mL/m 2 in 24 h, and for A. stephensi, 100% mortality was observed at 4 mL/m 2 in 72 h [69]. The EO extracted from M. piperita leaves possessed LC 50 and LC 90 values of 111.9 and 295.18 ppm, respectively, after 24 h of exposure, with an excellent larvicidal efficiency against the dengue vector of adult A. aegypti [70]. ...
Article
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Three natural oils extracted from Mentha piperita, Pinus roxburghii, and Rosa spp. were assessed in order to determine their insecticidal activity against the adults of three stored product insects: the rice weevil (Sitophilus oryzae L.), the lesser grain borer (Rhyzopertha dominica, Fabricius), and the red flour beetle (Tribolium castaneum, Herbst.). By Gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC/MS) analysis, the main compounds in the n-hexane oil from Rosa spp. were determined to be methyl eugenol (52.17%), phenylethyl alcohol (29.92%), diphenyl ether (7.75%), and geraniol (5.72%); in the essential oil from M. piperita, they were menthone (20.18%), 1,8-cineole (15.48%), menthyl acetate (13.13%), caryophyllene (4.82%), β-pinene (4.37%), and D-limonene (2.81%); and from the foliage of P. roxburghii, they were longifolene (19.52%), caryophyllene (9.45%), Δ-3-carene (7.01%), α-terpineol (6.75%), and γ-elemene (3.88%). S. oryzae and R. dominica were reared using sterilized wheat grains, and T. castaneum was reared on wheat flour mixed with yeast (10:1, w/w), all under laboratory conditions (27 ± 1 °C and 65% ± 5% Relative humidity (R.H). Two toxicity bioassays were used, as well as contact using thin film residues and fumigation bioassays. The results indicated that M. piperita caused a high toxicity for S. oryzae compared to other insects. High significant variations were observed between the tested M. piperita doses against the stored insects, and this natural material could be used to control insects that infect the grains. Also, the data indicated that the Rosa spp. oil had a low-toxicity effect against these insects compared to other oils. We recommend using natural oils against the stored weevils and petals, rather than the chemical agent, so as to serve human health.
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Thrips nigropilosus Uzel is a polyphagous species occurring mainly in temperate climates. Its life cycle depends on photoperiodic and temperature conditions. T. nigropilosus feeds on different plant species, but it is considered one of the most serious pests of pyrethrum plants causing serious economic problems. However, several additional agricultural host plants have been affected by T. nigropilosus, including spearmint, cucumber , and lettuce, indicating that this insect can significantly widen its habitats and occurs especially frequently in greenhouses. We report that T. nigropilosus massively attacked Mentha × piperita L. cultivated in greenhouses in central Poland and destroyed the entire mint crops within a short time. The study provided insight into the harmful effect of the thrips and showed that the length of the thrips developmental cycle was reduced with temperature increases from 18 to 26.6°C. The lower threshold temperatures were 13.7, 10.2, 5.0, and 10.1 for eggs, larvae, pupae, and total development, respectively, and the thermal constant for the same developmental stages was 65.9, 90, 132.5, and 284.9-degree days. Both parameters were estimated by linear regression analysis. During our experiment, T. nigropilosus developed by thelytokous parthenogenesis. The morphological and anatomical changes in damaged plants were associated with the fact that the insect began feeding on the lower lamina surface close to the leaf midribs, but no damage to vascular bundles and glandular cells was observed.
Chapter
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Essential oils (EOs) are extracted from flowers, leaves, barks, roots, and fruits of the medicinal plants using hydrodistilation or steam distillation and continuous solvent extraction. EOs are mixture of chemical constituents which have less molecular weight substances, such as alcohols, polyphenols, terpenoids, carbonyl compounds, and aliphatic compounds which provide smell and possess biological properties. EOs have been used as folk medicine throughout the history. Nowadays, EOs are widely used as an alternative medicine in varied industries such as pharmaceutical, agricultural, sanitary, and food industries due to their antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral, antiparasitical, antidiabetic, anticancer (cytotoxic), insect repellent, food industry (flavoring), aromatherapy, antioxidant, perfume, and cosmetic properties. EOs have a great demand and interest as cosmetic and pharmaceutical substances. The isolation, identification, and characterization of major components of EOs have a premier significance. Individual compounds present in EOs mixture such as thymol, camphor, limonene, α-pinene, terpinolene, menthol, menthone, etc. exhibit wide-ranging biological properties. Commercially, still synthetic chemicals are widely used as biological activities than the EOs from the plants. However, EOs from natural sources are more effective and safe for human health and the environment compared to the synthetic chemicals. The aim of the present chapter is to discuss the specific chemical compounds occurring in EOs, their medical applications, and economic importance.
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The ticks, fleas, mosquitoes, and other ectoparasites, in addition of being nuisance, transmit infectious diseases in companion and livestock animals and wildlife. The use of ectoparasiticides on companion and farm animals appears to be inevitable. Currently, synthetic insecticides of various classes are used to combat ectoparasites on animals. Some of the synthetic insecticides are used as ovicides or larvicides, while others are used as adulticides. But due to their greater toxicity, lack of selective toxicity, and pesticide resistance in insects, their use has been on decline. During the past two decades, the quest for natural products as an alternative to synthetic pesticides has been recognized. This chapter describes some biopesticides which can be used to control ectoparasites in pets and farm animals.
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Mint oil has many applications including foods, perfumes and fragrances, pharmaceuticals, cosmetics and pest control. This essential oil is easily damaged because of its high sensitivity to environmental conditions such as heat, oxygen, light and reactions with other compounds. Encapsulation provides protection of the oil against these undesirable conditions. This study was aimed at evaluating the characteristics of mint oil encapsulated in polyethylene glycol (PEG 6000) as influenced by mint oil load. Mint oil was encapsulated in polyethylene glycol at four different percentages (5.0, 7.5, 10 and 12.5%) using a melt dispersion technique. The experiment was done in two replicates. The encapsulates were characterized for their morphology, size attributes and thermal properties. Particulate sizes ranged from 281.4 – 569.5 nm and tended to increase with the increase in oil load. Microstructure of the particles examined under scanning electron microscope showed irregular flakes with sizes around 10 μm. These particles contained oil droplets in the sizes of about 200 – 500 nm as confirmed by observation with a transmission electron microscope. The enthalpy of melting of encapsulates were higher than that of mint oil, describing the enhancement of oil stability under thermal conditions. This study provides useful information in developing essential oil encapsulation for use in wider applications.
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Chinese pear psylla (Cacopsylla chinensis Yang et Li) is a serious orchard pest that causes declines in fruit quality through feeding damage and the spread of pathogens. The rapid development of chemical pesticide resistance has become a severe problem in controlling pear psylla. Thus, the development of natural pesticides to replace conventional chemical pesticides is urgently needed. Here, we found that the essential oil of peppermint (Mentha haplocalyx Briq. [Lamiales: Labiatae]) is an ideal agent for controlling pear psylla based on experiments in the laboratory and the field. The major constituents of peppermint essential oil were found including menthol (49.73%), menthone (30.52%), α-pinene (3.60%), and α-terpineol (3.81%). This oil and chemicals in it performed serious contact toxicity against the winter-form adults and nymphs of pear psylla, yielding LD50 values of 2.54, 10.71, 2.77, 5.85, and 12.58 μg/adult and 1.91, 9.56, 2.18, 4.98, and 12.07 μg/nymph, respectively. Furthermore, the essential oil strongly repelled the adults of pear psylla with 78% repellence at the highest concentration tested in a Y-tube olfactometer in the laboratory. The combined effect of the two factors made peppermint essential oil a natural pesticide, which achieved a maximum reduction of round to 80.9% in winter-form adult population and round to 67.0% in nymph population at the concentration of 4.0 ml/L in the field. Additionally, it had no effect on the natural enemies of pear psylla in the field. Therefore, peppermint essential oil has potential as an alternative to chemical pesticides for pest control in integrated pest management programs in pear orchards.
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Peppermint (Mentha × piperita L) is a perennial, glabrous and strongly scented herb belongs to the family Lamiaceae. It is cultivated in a temperate region of Europe, Asia, United States, India and Mediterranean countries due to their commercial value and distinct aroma. In addition to traditional food flavouring uses, M. × piperita is well recognized for their traditional use to treat fever, cold, digestive, anti‐viral, anti‐fungal and oral mucosa and throat inflammation. The scientific studies provide awareness on the use of M. × piperita for biological effects such as anti‐oxidant, anti‐microbial, anti‐viral, anti‐inflammatory, biopesticidal, larvicidal, anticancer, radioprotective effect, genotoxicity and anti‐diabetic activity have been ascribed. A wide spectrum of bioactive phytochemicals such as flavonoids, phenolics lignans and stilbenes and essential oils are expected to be responsible for the aroma effects. In this sense, this present review provides an extensive overview of the traditional medicinal, phytochemical and multiple biological activities of this “Peppermint.”
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This review explores the body of scientific information on the antimicrobial properties of essential oils against pathogens responsible for respiratory infections and critically compares this to what is recommended in the layman’s aroma‐therapeutic literature. Essential oils are predominantly indicated for the treatment of respiratory infections caused by bacteria or viruses, the efficacy of which has not been confirmed through clinical trials. When used in combination, they are often blended for presumed holistic synergistic effects. Of the essential oils recommended, all show some degree of anti‐oxidant activity, 50.0% demonstrate anti‐inflammatory effects and 83.3% of the essential oils showed antihistamin activity. Of the essential oils reviewed, 43.8% are considered non‐toxic while the remaining essential oils are considered slightly to moderately toxic (43.7%) or the toxicity is unknown (12.5%). Recommendations are made for further research into essential oil combinations.
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Spearmint oil, peppermint oil, neem oil, and d-limonene were tested as nest site repellents against the colonization of the invasive European red ant, Myrmica rubra (L.) in both laboratory and field trials. In a laboratory assay, a 10% (v/v) solution of each extract repelled M. rubra colonies from nesting in plant pots filled with moist soil compared to water-treated controls, when applied as a dip to pots. Extracts also repelled colonies compared to a water control in a second laboratory experiment, where pots were dipped 15 d prior to the start of the experiment. In a 2008 field comparison, 20 plant pots, filled with moist potting soil, were dipped in either 10% (v/v) spearmint oil or peppermint oil, 70% (v/v) neem oil, or a water control and left in infested sites. Seven control pots were colonized over 3 mo, while none of the extract-treated pots were colonized. This field trial was repeated for a 15-wk duration in 2009 with the addition of a 10% (v/v) d-limonene solution as a treatment, and a change in neem oil concentration to 10% (v/v). Spearmint and peppermint oils repelled M. rubra colonies for the duration of the experiment. Neem oil and d-limonene repelled colonies for 3 and 4 wk, respectively. These extracts, especially mint oils, show potential as low-hazard repellents against M. rubra in greenhouse and nursery settings, and could reduce the number of new infestations incurred by the transport of plant stock.
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The aphid Brevicoryne brassicae is characterized by being a specialist of the Brassicaceae family and is considered one of the most harmful pests in plants of the genus Brassica. In contrast to traditional synthetic insecticides, ecological alternatives control methods are proposed, promoting the use of essential oils. The objectives of the study were to evaluate the deterrent and reproduction effects of essential oil from Geranium maculatum on B. brassicae. To evaluate repellency an experimental arena consisted of two rapeseed leaves, one treated with oil solutions and the other with emulsifier was used. After emulsifier evaporation, ten adult aphids were released in the center of the experimental arena. Stock solutions of test materials were prepared by dissolving essential oils in 1 mL of a solution of ethanol and Tween-20 (0.012: 10). Three replicates were prepared for each treatment. The number of aphids present in each leaf was recorded at 24 hours and at 48 hours and a repellency index was calculated. Data were analyzed by ANOVA and DMS test (p < 0,05). To evaluate the effects on survival and fertility, rapeseed leaves were treated with essential oils emulsions or with emulsifier for controls. After emulsifier evaporation, leaves were placed on 1 % agar beds in petri dishes with an adult female. The total number of live aphid offspring present and adult mortality was recorded daily. At 24 hours the essential oil produced repellency at all concentrations evaluated (p < 0.05). At the highest concentration the oil generated 86 % of repellency. The essential oil of G. maculatum produced a decrease in the number of offspring. Compared with the control, the essential oil achieved a 53 % decrease in the number of B. brassicae offspring after 24 hours, and a decrease of over 60 % after the third day. These results suggest that G. maculatum essential oil could be used as a natural alternative in the control of B. brassicae. Evaluation of the essential oil activity of Geranium maculatum (Geraniaceae) in the aphid Brevicoryne brassicae (Hemiptera: Aphididae) Resumen El áfido Brevycorine brassicae se caracteriza por ser especialista de la familia Brassicaceae y es considerado uno de los más perjudiciales en plantas del género Brassica como la colza. Frente a los tradicionales insecticidas de síntesis, se buscan alternativas ecológicas para su control promoviéndose el uso de aceites vegetales. Los objetivos del trabajo fueron evaluar la repelencia y el efecto sobre la supervivencia y fecundidad del aceite esencial de Geranium maculatum sobre B. brassicae. Para evaluar la repelencia la arena experimental consistió en dos hojas de colza una de las cuales se trató con las soluciones del aceite y la otra con emulsificante. Luego de la evaporación del emulsificante se liberaron en el centro de la arena experimental diez áfidos adultos. Se prepararon soluciones madre disolviendo los aceites esenciales en 1 ml de una solución de etanol y Tween-20 (0,012: 10). Se realizaron tres réplicas. El número de áfidos presentes en cada hoja se registró a las 24 horas y a las 48 horas y se calculó un índice de repelencia. Los datos se analizaron mediante ANOVA y DMS (p < 0,05). Para evaluar los efectos sobre la supervivencia y la fecundidad, hojas de colza se trataron con las soluciones del aceite esencial. Como control se utilizaron hojas tratadas con el emulsificante. Luego de la evaporación del emulsificante, las hojas se colocaron en cajas de Petri con agar al 1 % junto con una hembra adulta. La caja se cerró en su parte superior con malla antiáfidos. Diariamente se registró el número de ninfas paridas y el número de adultos vivos. A las 24 horas el aceite esencial produjo repelencia a todas las concentraciones evaluadas (DMS, p˂ < 0,05). A la mayor concentración el aceite generó un 86 % de repelencia. Al evaluar la fecundidad se observó que el aceite produjo una disminución en el número de descendientes. A las 24 horas, el aceite redujo en un 53 % el número de ninfas paridas en comparación con el control. A partir del tercer día el aceite esencial redujo la fecundidad de B. brassicae en un 60 %. El aceite de G. maculatum podría proteger el cultivo de colza repeliendo y afectando la reproducción del áfido B. brassicae. Evaluación de la actividad del aceite esencial de Geranium maculatum (Geraniaceae) en el áfido Brevycorine brassicae (Hemiptera: Aphididae) 97 Key words: Palabras clave: cabbage aphid-survival-repellency. pulgón de las coles-supervivencia-repelencia.
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Malaria is a mosquito-borne infectious disease, which ranks among the major world health challenges affecting people in the poorest countries of sub-Sahara Africa, Southeast Asia, Western Pacific and Latin America. Among 3.2 billion people living in these regions, 10–15% are at risk of malaria with up to one million deaths annually, mostly children under age five. Following WHO, between years 2010 and 2017, the number of world malaria-infected cases and death were over 200 million annually, from which over 400 thousand people died. This Chapter classify malaria as a very important health, economic and social burden, providing general information about malaria’s impact on human, causes and symptoms, explain interactions between parasite-vector and human and how these processes are regulated by the control and eradication measures, economy, social, politics and what challenges we are still facing. The Chapter show that malaria extremely active in tropical and subtropical areas, is reaching into some temperate zones. The African region carries a disproportionately high share of the global malaria burden. Among extrinsic factors, economic and social conditions, poverty, environment (ecosystem, climate and weather), political commitment, control and prevention efforts and even behavioral customs are the most important determinants of malaria’s burden. Malaria control includes indoor and outdoor residual spraying, insecticide-treated nets, medicine, vaccination. Challenges facing malaria impacts on human include intensive population growth, lack of funding, increasing mosquitos’ resistance to insecticides and parasite resistance to drugs, insufficient surveillance, economic and social problem, climate and weather changes.
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Vector borne diseases can be controlled by managing the mosquito population. So the present study was done to evaluate larvicidal activities of Cajanus cajan mature leaf extracts against the Japanese encephalitis vector Culex vishnui. Crude and three different solvent extracts of C. cajan leaves were applied for larvicidal bioassay against the all instars larvae of Cx. vishnui. For statistical justifications log probit, regression and ANOVA analyses were performed. Non-target organisms were also evaluated against crude and ethyl acetate solvent extract of mature leaves. The IR analysis and GC-MS analyses were carried out to find out the active ingredient. 0.5% concentration of crude extract showed highest larval mortality after 72 h of exposure. Amongst the three tested solvent extracts namely n-Hexane, ethyl acetate and chloroform: methanol (1:1 v/v), ethyl acetate extract exhibited the most potent larvicidal activity. In ethyl acetate extract 100% mortality was found in 100 ppm concentration against 1st instar larvae after 72 h of exposure. Chemical characterization revealed that the active ingredient belongs to the flavonoids group of compound which might be responsible for larval toxicity. However, the bioassay against the non-target organisms revealed that, they were mostly safe to the extracts. The results support that C. cajan mature leaves can be used as an ecofriendly larvicidal agent against the Cx. vishnui in near future.
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Various secondary metabolites such as essential oils (EOs) are produced by plants which, when extracted and concentrated, find their application in pharmaceutical, sanitary, cosmetic, agricultural, and food industries. There is an increasing interest in natural products, intended not only to delay/prevent the onset of chronic degenerative diseases, but also to prevent the deterioration of fats and other constituents of foodstuffs. EOs have been identified as natural food additives which can find useful application in food preservation. The objective of this chapter is to briefly describe the potential usage of EO in food preservation.
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Mosquito bites can give an unpleasant feeling and are attracted to human blood containing protein to develop their eggs, biting human to another human, thereby transmitting the vector disease to human. Many species of mosquitoes are vectors of several disease causing pathogens such as dengue, zika and yellow fever. Dengue fever and yellow fever can cause severe human morbidity and mortality. Over one million people worldwide die from mosquito diseases every year because of the diseases causes by mosquitoes. The ideal method for controlling mosquitoes using larvicides and targeting the breeding places. In this present scenario synthetic compound DEET are effectively used as mosquito repellents whereas to its contradictory numbers of adverse effects were observed. DEET is a N, N-diethyl-m-toluamide, also called N, N-diethyl-3-methylbenzamide. It has an unpleasant odour and strong penetration into the skin which can be harmful to the human. The uses of plant extract can reduce the uses of chemical in mosquito repellent. Marigold flowers contains many chemicals constituents such as cadinol, carotenoids, isorhamnetin, saponins, triterpenes, sesquiterpenoids, scopoletin, flavonoids, quercetin, kaempferol, which has proved to have various biological properties along with mosquito repellent properties. In this research comparison studies of marigold flowers extract and synthetic chemical used as mosquito repellents was carried out.
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Red velvet mite (RVM) is an arachnid arthropod, having bright red colour makes the creatures easy to attract. Among the mite species, it is one of the largest and grows up to 15mm to 20 mm. A thick layers of glossy hairs, gives it a velvety appearance. Usually fore pair legs are used for sensations. Like other mites, the adults have 4 pairs of legs while the larvae have only 3 pairs (fig.1). This creature is not only famous for its bright red velvety body which looks beautiful but also known for its therapeutic usage in the treatment of paralysis and sexual dysfunction (Oudhia, 2003). Further, the deep red color indicates the warning behavior to its predators to refrain their consumption. Apart from this, it is graced with dozens of common names such as rain’s insect, scarlet fly, bride of the sea-farer, queen mite, rain mite, velvet bride, little old lady of monsoon and many more that are used invariably.
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In this work we evaluated the ovicidal activity and the deleterious effects of cashew (Anacardium occidentale) nut shell oil and its fractions on the development of Musca domestica and Chrysomya megacephala, important vectors of several diseases. The insecticidal effects of this plant were also measured on first and second instar larvae of Anticarsia gemmatalis and Spodoptera frugiperda, soy and maize pests, respectively. The fly eggs and the crop pest insect larvae were exposed to the cashew (Anacardium occidentale) nut shell liquid (CNSL) and its fractions: technical CNSL, anacardic acid, cardanol and cardol. The results show that the cardol fraction, for both species of flies, presented the lowest lethal concentration with LC50 of 80.4 mg/L for M. domestica and 90.2 mg/L for C. megacephala. For the mortality of the larvae of the A. gemmatalis and S. frugiperda the most effective fraction was the anacardic acid with LC50 of 295.1 mg/L and 318.4 mg/L, respectively. In all species, the mortality rate of the commercial compounds (cypermethrin 600 mg/L and Temephos 2 mg/L) was higher than that of the evaluated compounds. However, the results obtained suggest their potential in field trials, once the fractions of A. occidentale presented high mortality at low lethal concentrations in laboratory conditions, with the possibility of integrated use in the control of disease vectors and agricultural pests, employing ecofriendly compounds.
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A plant recently introduced into North America as the citrosa, Pelargonium citrosum ('Van Leenii'), has been marketed as a biological repellent against mosquitoes. Citrosa is claimed to repel mosquitoes within a 10 ft.2 (0.93 m2) area due to a continuous fragrant release of citronella oil. The total essential oil yield was 0.2 +/- 0.1% from fresh plant material. Chemical analysis by the authors revealed that combined essential oils of fresh greenhouse- and field-grown citrosa have 35.4 +/- 6.2% geraniol, 10.4 +/- 1.6% citronellol, 8.9 +/- 2.0% isomenthone, and 6.8 +/- 3.8% linalool. Both the morphology and essential oil of citrosa fall within the Pelargonium x asperum hybrid complex and are similar to 'Rosé', the commercial rose geranium. No character of morphology or essential oil of a Cymbopogon species yielding commercial citronella oil could be detected in the citrosa. The effectiveness of the citrosa as a repellent against field populations of spring Aedes spp. mosquitoes was evaluated and compared with a 75% deet (N,N-diethyl-3-methylbenzamide) formulation. Deet provided > 90% reduction in mosquitoes biting subjects for up to 8 h post-treatment. There was no significant difference between citrosa-treated and nontreated subjects.
Article
Natural products, traditionally used as biocides in indigenous cultures, are being reevaluated for safer means of bacterial and pest control, as compared to the synthetics. While unequivocal identification of bioactive components of plant extracts is difficult due to synergy and other type of interactions among the constituents, a variety of terpenoids in the essential oils have been shown to be bioactive. The qualitative and quantitative composition of the extracts vary depending upon the extraction conditions. In this article, studies on four common herbs Murraya koenigii, Lantana camara, Ocimum sanctum and Tagetes patula are presented.These herbs were extracted by liquid CO2 (subcritical liquid extract; SLE), supercritical fluid CO2 (supercritical fluid extract; SFE) and hydrodistillation. The components extracted were characterized by TLC, GC and GC/MS.
Article
The results of optimizing Soxhlet and Simultaneous Distillation-Extraction (SSDE) procedures for the isolation of natural insecticides fromTagetes erecta, Tagetes patula, andTagetes minuta, members of theCompositae family, are presented. Extraction procedures were developed and validated that produced the extract with the highest degree of biocidal activity. The highest activity was obtained with extracts isolated by SSDE using methylene chloride. Initial work was carried out on a micro-SSDE. Preparative SSDE was used to provide large quantities of extracts for bioassays. Bioassays were used to govern optimization procedures usingAedes aegypti andAnopheles stephensi adults and larvae as target organisms.Tagetes minuta was determined to be the most active of the three species studied. Evaluation of activity and recovery versus extraction time was investigated. It was determined that an extraction time of ten hours resulted in the highest activity and over 90% recovery of the oils. Finally, supercritical fluid extraction of the flowers with CO2 was compared to SSDE.
Article
Tagetes species, popularly known as marigold, are grown as ornamental plants and thrive in varied agro-climates. Bioactive extracts of different Tagetes parts exhibit nematocidal, fungicidal and insecticidal activity. Nematocidal activity of roots is attributed to thienyls while the biocidal components of the essential oil from flowers and leaves are terpenoids. Also carotenoid pigments from Tagetes ave useful in food coloring. In this paper various uses of this multipurpose plant are reviewed. (C) 1997 Published by Elsevier Science Ltd.
Article
The median effective dosages (ED50's) of 31 commercial and experimental repellents were determined for Anopheles stephensi, Anopheles albimanus, Aedes taeniorhynchus, Aedes aegypti, and Culex pipiens. Aedes taeniorhynchus and Cx. pipiens were significantly more sensitive to repellents than were Ae. aegypti and An. albimanus. Patterns of sensitivity to the 31 test compounds were not related to the taxonomic relationships of the species tested. Aedes aegypti, the traditional test species for repellent studies, was an exceptionally poor predictor for the responses of An. stephensi to repellents. Testing strategies are discussed for repellent screening programs and for testing specific and broad-spectrum repellents.
Article
Studies were carried out to evaluate the repellent action of Cymbopogan martinii martinii Stapf var. sofia (F. Gramineae) against mosquitoes under field conditions. Results revealed that the oil has strong repellent action and provided absolute protection for 12 h against Anopheles culicifacies, a principal vector of malaria in the country. Similar degree of protection was evident against An. annularis and An. subpictus. The protection against Culex quinquefasciatus, a pest mosquito was 96.3% for 12 h. Results of evaluation in captivity revealed complete protection against this species for 5 h.
Article
Two percent neem oil mixed in coconut oil, when applied to the exposed body parts of human volunteers, provided complete protection for 12 h from the bites of all anopheline species. Application of neem oil is safe and can be used for protection from malaria in endemic countries.
Article
Application of Tagetes minuta floral extract to silica gel column chromatography produced 2 fractions with the hydrogenate part 20-30 times more toxic to larvae and 12-13 times more toxic to adults of Aedes aegypti and Anopheles stephensi, respectively, than the oxygenate part. Further fractionation by column chromatography of the hydrogenate fraction produced 4 thiophenes, 5-(but-3-ene-1-ynyl)-2,2'-bithiophene, 5-(but-3-ene-1-ynyl)-5'-methyl-2,2'-bithiophene, 2,2',5',2"-terthiophene, and 5-methyl-2,2',5',2"-terthiophene. These compounds in Tagetes minuta are largely responsible for the toxicity exhibited against the tested mosquitoes.
Article
The repellent effect of Lantana camara flowers was evaluated against Aedes mosquitoes. Lantana flower extract in coconut oil provided 94.5% protection from Aedes albopictus and Ae. aegypti. The mean protection time was 1.9 h. One application of Lantana flower can provide more than 50% protection up to 4 h against the possible bites of Aedes mosquitoes. No adverse effects of the human volunteers were observed through 3 months after the application.
Article
Field studies were carried out to determine the relative efficacy of repellant action of vegetable, essential and chemical base oils against vector mosquitoes. Results revealed that essential oils viz. Cymbopogan martinii martinii var. Sofia (palmarosa), Cymbopogan citratus (lemon grass) and Cymbopogan nardus (citronella) oils are as effective as chemical base oil namely mylol. These oils provide almost complete protection against Anopheles culicifacies and other anopheline species. Per cent protection against Culex quinquefasciatus ranged between 95-96%. Camphor (C. camphora) oil also showed repellent action and provided 97.6% protection against An. culicifacies and 80.7% against Cx. quinquefasciatus. Vegetable oils namely mustard (B. compestris) and coconut (C. nucisera) showed repellent action, however the efficacy of these oils was not much pronounced against Cx. quinquefasciatus. Results of statistical analysis revealed significant difference between vegetable and essential oils (p < 0.01) against tested species of mosquitoes. Essential oils were found marginally superior in repellancy than camphor and mylol (p < 0.01) against An. culicifacies and Cx. quinquefasciatus.
Mint farming in India
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Indigenous plants and their extracts for the control of pests. Changing villages 14, 15±20. The Wealth of India
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Isolation of the insecticidal components of Tagetes minuta (compositae) against mosquito larvae and adults Comparative sensitivity of representative mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) to repellents Mosquito repellent action of neem (Azadirachta indica) oil
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Perich, M.J., Wells, C., Bertsch, W., Tredway, K.E., 1995. Isolation of the insecticidal components of Tagetes minuta (compositae) against mosquito larvae and adults. J. Am. Mosq. Cont. Assoc. 11 (3), 307±310. Rutledge, L.C., Collater, D.M., Meixsell, V.E., Eisene, C.H.G., 1983. Comparative sensitivity of representative mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) to repellents. J. Med. Entomol. 20, 506. Sharma, V.P., Ansari, M.A., Razdan, R.K., 1993. Mosquito repellent action of neem (Azadirachta indica) oil. J. Am. Mosq. Control Assoc.
Mass rearing procedures for Anopheles stephensi Liston
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Chemical composition of Mentha piperita oils from plants raised in Jammu and Kashmir
  • Chaudhry
Indigenous plants and their extracts for the control of pests
  • Syamala Devi