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Changes in Dispositional Empathy in American College Students Over Time: A Meta-Analysis

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Abstract

The current study examines changes over time in a commonly used measure of dispositional empathy. A cross-temporal meta-analysis was conducted on 72 samples of American college students who completed at least one of the four subscales (Empathic Concern, Perspective Taking, Fantasy, and Personal Distress) of the Interpersonal Reactivity Index (IRI) between 1979 and 2009 (total N = 13,737). Overall, the authors found changes in the most prototypically empathic subscales of the IRI: Empathic Concern was most sharply dropping, followed by Perspective Taking. The IRI Fantasy and Personal Distress subscales exhibited no changes over time. Additional analyses found that the declines in Perspective Taking and Empathic Concern are relatively recent phenomena and are most pronounced in samples from after 2000.

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... This negative correlation between empathetic behaviour and narcissistic behaviour scales up to the societal level. Societies that have populations with higher levels of empathy have correspondingly lower levels of narcissism, and vice versa (Konrath et al. 2011). 1 Thus, if empathy and narcissism are polar opposite behavioural patterns, it is much better overall to have more empathetic individuals in a group. ...
... 1 Worryingly, across many diverse populations social scientists are finding a decline in empathic behaviour and an increase in narcissistic behaviour (Konrath, O'Brien, and Hsing 2011, Neumann et al. 2011, Nunes et al. 2011). 2 I am focused on the critiques of empathy related to conflict. There are other critiques of empathy, as well. ...
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... Empathy may be described as an emotional ability to experience the mental state of another individual as if feeling the emotions yourself (Borke, 1971;Konrath et al., 2010). This characteristic is regarded as an essential part of maintaining a healthy society since it allows individuals of a population to relate with one another via an inherent sense which permeates past differences in interest and action (Ansbacher, 1991). ...
... This characteristic is regarded as an essential part of maintaining a healthy society since it allows individuals of a population to relate with one another via an inherent sense which permeates past differences in interest and action (Ansbacher, 1991). A 2011 meta-analytical study on the degree of empathy of members adhering to the younger populations signs an alarm that empathy is becoming increasingly uncommon, decreasing by 48 % between 1990 and 2010 (Konrath et al., 2010) This aligns with the rapid 350% increase in technological presence within young adults' daily lives between 1979 and 2009 (Bohn & Short, 2009). ...
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The aim of the study is to examine whether and to what extent nature connectivity directly impacts an individual’s level of empathy. The results may suggest a positive correlation, potentially serving as a humanitarian tool in the future. The compiled information regarding the beneficial impact of the natural world on an individual’s degree of mental awareness may be relevant in the field of social work due to the increased global demand for adjustments and presence on an emotional level to improve the well-being of society.
... Previous research has indicated that individual differences in self-evaluated skills can be explained in part by age, cognitive abilities, and ethnic and socioeconomic background (Schneider, 2018;see Zell & Krizan, 2014, for a metasynthesis). For example, an inverted U-curve was found regarding adults' self-evaluated cognitive skills across the lifespan (Konrath et al., 2011) in a meta-analysis of transversal studies suggesting age effects in self-evaluations. ...
... Frequent use of numeracy and social skills at T1 did not relate to the number of close friends three years later at T3. Frequent use of numeracy or literacy did not relate to household size. Note that the covariates (i.e., gender, age, numeracy and literacy performance, the proxy for ethnicity, average weekly working hours, socioeconomic background) were included in this model because they affected individuals' self-evaluations in previous studies (Konrath et al., 2011;Maehler et al., 2017;Schneider, 2018;Zell & Krizan, 2014). Thus, a closer look at the effects of the covariates on the criterion variables is valuable. ...
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p style="text-align: justify;">Previous research focused on individuals’ background, contexts and cognitive performance in education, work, and life. Given the increasing number of people living alone temporarily, the question arises whether the frequent use of skills, including social skills, relates to individuals’ later positively self-evaluated skills and social lives. Based on an integrated framework, the current analysis aimed to disentangle these relationships with longitudinal data from Germany over three years. The target sample consisted of n = 3263 working adults. A Bayesian structural equation model included adults’ frequent use of skills, self-evaluated skills, household size, close friends, and seven covariates (e.g., numeracy and literacy test scores, weekly working hours. The results suggested positive relationships between adults’ frequent use of numeracy, literacy, and social skills and later self-evaluations (except literacy used on self-evaluated numeracy). Those who less frequently used social skills three years earlier were also less likely to have a larger household size than those who reporting frequently using their social skills. Adults who frequently used literacy skills three years earlier reported higher numbers of close friends than those who less frequently used literacy. The findings highlight the importance of adults’ social skills and frequently used skills for self-evaluated numeracy and literacy.</p
... Conceptualised as the ability to see from another's perspective through emotion, imagination, and experience, empathy is crucial in understanding and celebrating difference, which has significant implications in today's multicultural world. Considering the vast and lasting benefits of empathy (Aspy, 1975;Bal & Veltkamp, 2013;Mirra, 2018), and its apparent decline in modern contexts (Gonski Institute for Education, 2020; Konrath et al, 2011), it is becoming increasingly important to consider how empathy can be cultivated in young people. ...
... This trend has led to a socially and politically recognised 'empathy deficit' (Obama, 2006;Mirra, 2018). Additionally, some scholars posit that there may be an egocentrism and individualism in today's youth that is more deeply pronounced than in previous generations (Borba, 2018;Konrath et al, 2011). Similarly, there are arguments for and against the idea that this reduction in empathy for others and emphasised focus on self stems from the rise of social media and technology (Gonski Institute for Education, 2020; Krznaric, 2015). ...
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A significant body of research points to the benefits of empathy for young people’s personal, social, and educational development. However, some research indicates that youth empathy levels are declining. The COVID-19 pandemic has provided a unique opportunity to research empathy in education during times of global crisis and local educational disruption. This study explored Australian English teachers’ beliefs, pedagogical approaches, and experiences in relation to teaching with, for, and about empathy, including during the pandemic. Drawing from a state-wide survey and representative teacher case studies, this study revealed a couple key findings. First, the majority of participants recognised the value of empathy for student learning and engagement; however, teachers disagreed on whether empathy impacts academic performance. Second, teachers tended to avoid teaching explicitly about empathy because they felt it was not prescribed in the English Syllabus. Each of these findings was underpinned by a tension between teacher beliefs about the value of empathy in learning and the limitations of including empathy in English education due to curriculum mandates and assessment requirements.
... In the literature, there are studies on the empathic approaches and caring behaviors of students receiving education in several felds of health [4,21,22]. However, according to some studies on the topic, many students have limited capacity to empathize during their clinical learning experiences [4,20,23]. An empathic approach is highly valuable for the establishment of a meaningful relationship between the midwife and the patient [11,15]. ...
... Te mean age of the participants was 21.13 ± 1.56 (min-max [18][19][20][21][22][23][24][25][26][27][28][29], 63 (28.0) of them were 3rd year students, the monthly income of 137 (60.9%) was equivalent to their expenses, 180 (80%) had nuclear families, 140 (62.2%) were living in the city center, 117 (52%) had 5 or more siblings, 162 (72%) stated that their attitude toward the profession of midwifery changed positively after they started their degree, 142 (63.1%) said they chose this profession due to employment concerns, and 92 (40.9) wanted to work as midwives after graduation in hospitals. ...
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Purpose. This study was conducted to investigate the effects of the empathy levels of midwifery students on their caring behaviors. Design and Methods. This descriptive study was carried out with 225 midwifery students. The data were collected via the Participant Information Form, the Midwifery Empathy Scale-Revised, and the Caring Behaviors Inventory-24. Findings. The mean Midwifery Empathy Scale-Revised score was 63.64 ± 7.47, which showed moderate levels of empathy. The mean Caring Behaviors Inventory-24 score was 5.13 ± 0.84, and this showed good levels of caring behaviors. In this study, the empathy was determined to explain 17% of the total variance in the caring behaviors (F = 45.371, R2 = 0.170; p = 0.001 ). Practise Implications. The empathy levels of students affect their caring behaviors positively.
... In her writing Hooker (2015) uses a hermeneutical or interpretational approach to theorizing practices of perception or perceiving in connection with empathy and sociality to argue how empathy might come to be considered performative, as something we do (Hooker, 2015). This is in opposition to current discourses viewing empathy as something one has in some quantifiable amounts (Konrath, O'Brien, & Hsing, 2011). Viewing empathy as performative requires that close attention be given to the specificities of the context in which it is occurring (Marshall & Hooker, 2016). ...
... For example, measurement tests such as the Jefferson Empathy Scale (JES), the Interpersonal Reactivity Index (IRI), and the Empathy Quotient (EQ) have been used to assess levels of empathy in studies conducted across healthcare education, psychological, and social psychology studies (Hojat et. al, 2018;Konrath, O'Brien, & Hsing, 2011;Lawrence, Baker, Baron-Cohen & David, 2004). Hooker (2015) points out that such empirical investigations of empathy are unable to "delineate anything about what empathy is or how it 'works'" and rather what the information collected actually relays is "something fairly general and crude about those that 'have' it" (Hooker, 2015, p. 545). ...
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This dissertation study focuses on exploring connections between the artistic practices of art viewing and artmaking, with empathetic behaviors. The study is located at the intersection of visual art education, qualitative and post-qualitative methodologies. Motivated by a desire to improve our understanding of how art education practices might cultivate empathy. I used arts-based research methods (ABR) to investigate how art viewing and creating artworks conjures up empathy phenomena. The specific research questions addressed are: what does using arts-based methods to study empathy allow researchers to see differently? And what potential pedagogies does examining the ongoing relationality between artistic practices and empathy set in motion? In addressing these research questions, I also suggest how art education, and education more broadly, might work to establish an ethics of response-ability and accountability, given the ambiguous nature of empathetic behaviors. Here I summarize my three studies examining the relationalities between art and empathy and provide deeper insights into the ways in which empathetic behaviors might come to be pedagogically integrated into art education. By examining more deeply the entangled nature of art and empathy, this study has evolved from its initial theoretical application of constructivist theories to a posthuman, performative perspective of empathy. Here I trace entanglements of material matter and meaning, as these are generative in artistic practices and the role that empathetic behaviors play in helping to ascertain new meanings for the material objects engaged during artistic practices. As Karen Barad’s (2007) theory of agential realism comes to ontoepistemologically shift the doctoral research at hand, empathy and how it forms connections with art consequently gets re-membered anew. Study I explores empathetic behaviors as they occur during a facilitated art viewing activity called Visual Thinking Strategies (VTS) conducted with a group of ten adults at the 2016 International Society for Education through Art’s European congress regional conference. It used a mix of arts-based methods along with survey and discourse analysis in conjunction with Batson’s (2009) eight empathetic behaviors to examine which empathetic behaviors are elicited by participating in (VTS) art viewing exercises. The study illuminates how the empathetic behaviors elicited during the VTS exercise coincided with the viewers’ ability to shift initial assumptions held about the image, alternating their own perceptions to consider what other participants suggest. Study II took place at an upper-secondary visual arts school in Helsinki with 45 16-19-year-old students. Using ABR as video artmaking, the study explores objects, materials, matter(s), and empathetic behaviors in their specific entanglements. Written recountings were used to map entanglements of non-human actors (i.e., objects/materials/matter(s) as cats and dogs) working agentically in co-constituting empathetic behaviors. Its findings illuminate how objects/materials/matter(s) are agentic in co-constituting conditions for empathy during artmaking. Study III, again using ABR, examines two video artworks created by 10 undergraduate education studies students. Here, Karen Barad’s (2007) theory of agential realism onto-epistemologically informs the research by re-thinking time alternatively as spacetimemattering to illuminate entanglements of artistic practices and empathy. Post-qualitative methods of ‘plugging in’, in conjunction with affects experienced while watching the video, were used in identifying events of empathy as students artistically conveyed ideas around a central ‘garden’ theme. The potential of visual art pedagogy to evoke heterogeneous understandings of empathetic behaviors by re-thinking non-human objects/materials/matter(s) as phenomena emergent through spacetimematter are discussed in the study. The findings highlight the importance of understanding empathy performativity, subject/object unification, spacetimematter, objects/materials/matter(s) as phenomena, and responsibility and accountability, as important matter(s) for integrating empathy in art education. I suggest that art educators and researchers focus on issues concerning empathy and ‘what it does’ and that using ABR methods and artistic practices can help achieve this in research practices. I also discuss ways to pedagogically integrate more-than-human empathy through art education so that it incorporates an ethicality of response-ability and accountability.
... Empathy is composed of both emotional and cognitive factors whose integration contributes to share and understand another person's perspective. Importantly, scholars have described empathy as a muscle, and as such it should be capable of growth and even regeneration with sufficient effort [3]. Following this logic, a variety of empathy training programs have been designed to explicitly teach empathy (e.g., [3]), and in fields such as medicine, where such programs are used regularly, they generally have sizable positive effects (g = 0.63, [4] for meta-analysis). ...
... Importantly, scholars have described empathy as a muscle, and as such it should be capable of growth and even regeneration with sufficient effort [3]. Following this logic, a variety of empathy training programs have been designed to explicitly teach empathy (e.g., [3]), and in fields such as medicine, where such programs are used regularly, they generally have sizable positive effects (g = 0.63, [4] for meta-analysis). These programs are generally based on taking the perspective of someone else with the aim to feel the others emotions, to understand them, and to regulate one's own feelings [5]. ...
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Virtual reality (VR) has been described as the ultimate empathy machine; but does it deserve this reputation? Thanks to its features of embodied technology, VR can let users virtually walk in someone else's shoes. In addition, multi-sensory VR experiences can present evocative and heart-wrenching stimuli. For these reasons, VR seems to be a likely candidate to foster empathy. However, the published literature indicates that the impact of VR on empathy is complex and depends both on the type of VR and also the type of empathy being evaluated. The present chapter compares two meta-analyses which suggest that VR can elicit empathy, but the theoretical factors on which the technology has more efficacies are in contrast. In this chapter, these discordant meta-analyses are discussed, and the reasons why they find different results are theorized. We attempt to answer when and how VR could be an empathy machine. We conclude that low-tech but evocative storytelling is most likely to yield emotional empathy, and embodied experiences that encourage perspective-taking will improve cognitive empathy. Although we attempt to present the latest empirical evidence about empathy and VR, we are aware that the scientific consensus around this topic is likely to evolve in the future.
... Longer screen time means more frequent and longer exposure to such media, allowing medical students to focus more on themselves with fewer interactions with real others. Furthermore, increasing screen time makes it more impossible for them to have enough time to reach out to others and show empathy, let alone adopt the perspectives of others (Konrath et al., 2011). Notably, our current research is one of few proofs of the relationship between screen time and empathy. ...
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Medical students are at high risk of psychological subhealth under heavy stress with increasing screen time. This study aimed to explore the association between screen time and depressive symptoms and determine empathy as a mediating factor. In this cross‐sectional study, a total of 945 medical students were surveyed, and 924 medical students were ultimately included after standard exclusion criteria. They reported their daily screen time and completed the Chinese version of the Jefferson Scale of Empathy‐Student Version (JSE‐S) and the Self‐Rating Depression Scale (SDS). t tests and analysis of variance showed a significant difference in empathy and depressive symptoms by sex, stage, and screen time. The correlation analysis revealed that both affective and cognitive empathy have inverse associations with depressive symptoms. The mediation model confirmed that cognitive empathy played a positive mediating role between screen time and depressive symptoms, reducing the impact of screen time on depressive symptoms. Our study may add empirical evidence to prevent and intervene in depressive symptoms. These findings call for considering controlling screen time and enhancing cognitive empathy as interventions for medical students' depressive symptoms.
... The neoliberal emphasis on individualism has deprived students of the opportunity to care for others who experience marginalization. This is evidenced by the fact that college students experienced a 40% decline in empathic concern for others between 2000 and 2011 (Konrath et al., 2011). To counter this problem, communication pedagogy can draw on the broad base of critical literature that exists in the discipline, specifically through the lens of CCP. ...
Article
The university’s mission involves educating students to become civic leaders, balancing both individual and collective goals. However, neoliberal influences have shifted the balance to focus on the individual over the collective. Communication curriculum has also shifted over time, with a sizeable percentage of its classes designed to prepare students for individual economic success, with the byproduct being a deemphasis on collective thinking. The communication discipline can resist this neoliberal encroachment by redefining three of its goals and applying commitments of critical communication pedagogy to aid in the process. Doing has the potential to work toward the development of an ethic of empathy, an ethic that can assist students in pursuing their goals while concomitantly (re)learning compassion for marginalized groups.
... Scholars have described empathy as a muscle, and as such, it should be capable of growth and even regeneration with sufficient effort (Konrath et al., 2011). Following this logic, many effective empathy training programs have been designed to explicitly teach empathy, especially among university students and health professionals (meta-analytic effect sizes range from 0.46 to 1.27; Fragkos & Crampton, 2020;Ngo et al., 2022;van Berkhout & Malouff, 2016;Winter et al., 2020). ...
... Además, pese a que varios estudios ha indicado que la empatía, tiende a incrementar en los profesionales de la salud, los han relacionado principalmente con otros indicadores sociodemográficos, entre ellos, el ser mujer, tener una persona cercana que tiene algún tipo de enfermedad, hacer algún tipo de voluntariado, entre otros factores, lo cual indicaría la influencia del contexto en el desarrollo de la empatía (Esquerda et al., 2016), así también, el contacto con los individuos, sean estos consultantes o el entorno social, permitiría el desarrollo de las conexiones neuronales que explicaría la conducta empática (Olson, 2013); sin embargo, la muestra a quienes se aplicó el instrumento, apenas retornaba del aislamiento por la pandemia debido a COVID 19; esto podría ser una hipótesis, que debería ser contrastada más adelante, realizando estudios longitudinales que permitan evaluar al mismo grupo, en los años finales de la carrera, a sabiendas que la conducta dinámica y los cambios sociales que sea ha tenido principalmente por la pandemia pueden ser uno de los causales para que los jóvenes tengan una más baja puntuación a nivel general (Konrath et al., 2011). ...
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La empatía es la capacidad de comprender y de sentir las emociones y sentimientos expresados por otros; por tanto, necesaria para el quehacer profesional en el ámbito de la salud mental, por lo que se ha planteado como objetivo el comparar las medias de puntuación de la empatía en estudiantes de primer y el último año de formación de Psicólogos Clínicos. Método: Estudio descriptivo, no experimental, transversal, con la participación de 159 estudiantes de Psicología Clínica; hombres: 24.5% y mujeres: 75.5%, a quienes se les aplicó Test de Empatía Cognitiva y Afectiva. Resultados: La media de puntuación total de empatía para el grupo de primer año (118) fue significativamente distinta que el grupo de último año (116) (t (157) = 1.795, p <0.05), con un tamaño del efecto moderado (d de Cohen= 0,598). Conclusiones: Los estudiantes de último año presentan menor empatía, que los estudiantes de primer año de formación.
... The enhanced prominence of psychopathy in males vs. females has been meta-analytically validated, even after controlling for other personality traits (Muris et al., 2017;Sanz-García et al., 2021). Sex-empathy interaction is far more intricate, as current evidence suggests that sex differences may (or may not) arise from a complex interaction between methodological (self-report vs. experimental tasks), biological, and environmental factors (Konrath et al., 2011;Christov-Moore et al., 2014;Warrier et al., 2018;Abramson et al., 2020;Rochat, 2022;Zhao et al., 2022). Recent metaanalytical evidence also indicated that male subjects display enhanced cardiac interoceptive accuracy, despite findings being consistent with other interoceptive modalities (Prentice and Murphy, 2022). ...
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This study examined the associations between psychopathy dimensions (triarchic phenotypes and classical factors), empathy domains (cognitive and affective), and interoception (interoceptive attention and accuracy) while accounting for the putative role of alexithymia. A community sample ( n = 515) completed an online survey encompassing: Triarchic Psychopathy Measure (boldness, meanness, disinhibition); Levenson Self-Report Psychopathy Scale (primary and secondary psychopathy); Body Perception Questionnaire (interoceptive attention); Interoceptive Accuracy Scale; Toronto Alexithymia Scale. Hierarchical linear regression models were implemented for hypothesis-driven analyses examining the associations between psychopathy, empathy, and interoception while controlling for sex, age, and alexithymia. Exploratory path models were employed to investigate alexithymia and/or cognitive empathy as mediators between interoception and psychopathy. Our results largely confirmed the postulated empathy profiles across psychopathy dimensions, as meanness and primary psychopathy displayed a broad empathy impairment, while disinhibition and secondary psychopathy were only associated with diminished cognitive empathy. Importantly, boldness displayed a unique pattern (enhanced cognitive empathy and reduced affective empathy), further reinforcing its importance within the constellation of psychopathy traits. Contrary to our hypotheses, self-perceived interoceptive attention and accuracy were not associated with either psychopathy dimension after controlling for alexithymia. However, interoceptive accuracy and alexithymia were associated with cognitive empathy, while alexithymia was also positively related to all psychopathy dimensions (as expected), despite the unexpected strong and negative association with boldness. Exploratory analyses suggested significant indirect effects (mediation) between interoceptive accuracy and psychopathy via alexithymia and/or cognitive empathy. These mediating effects must be interpreted with caution and future studies should be designed to formally test this model.
... Narrator A and B are more likely to empathize with one another over their shared feelings of isolation. 2021; Konrath, 2013;Konrath et al., 2011). While these challenges cannot be solved with technology alone, AI systems can be developed to bolster emotional support, empathy, and truly meaningful connections through fostering personal experience sharing (Chaturvedi et al., 2023;Berridge et al., 2023;Sagayaraj et al., 2022). ...
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The most meaningful connections between people are often fostered through expression of shared vulnerability and emotional experiences in personal narratives. We introduce a new task of identifying similarity in personal stories based on empathic resonance, i.e., the extent to which two people empathize with each others' experiences, as opposed to raw semantic or lexical similarity, as has predominantly been studied in NLP. Using insights from social psychology, we craft a framework that operationalizes empathic similarity in terms of three key features of stories: main events, emotional trajectories, and overall morals or takeaways. We create EmpathicStories, a dataset of 1,500 personal stories annotated with our empathic similarity features, and 2,000 pairs of stories annotated with empathic similarity scores. Using our dataset, we fine-tune a model to compute empathic similarity of story pairs, and show that this outperforms semantic similarity models on automated correlation and retrieval metrics. Through a user study with 150 participants, we also assess the effect our model has on retrieving stories that users empathize with, compared to naive semantic similarity-based retrieval, and find that participants empathized significantly more with stories retrieved by our model. Our work has strong implications for the use of empathy-aware models to foster human connection and empathy between people.
... Previous research has proposed different methods of empathy education using games, VR, and other technology. Evidence exists that video games are found to be effective for fostering empathy, cooperation and other positive social behavior in many populations, even if the players are concerned about winning the game (Konrath et al., 2011). For example, a Korean study showed the effectiveness of video games in enhancing empathy and prosocial behaviors among elementary school students and adolescents (Kim, 2005). ...
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Empathy is an essential human skill that can be divided into two types: (i) cognitive empathy, which is the capacity of understanding others’ thoughts and emotions; and (ii) affective empathy, which is the capacity to feel others’ emotional states. Many educational contents exist for both types, and immersive virtual reality (VR) has been shown to be effective for empathy education. However, there is a lack of educational content on recognizing and accepting that people can have different perspectives and feelings in the same situation, which is a prerequisite for cognitive empathy. To this end, we developed an immersive VR game “Mysterious Museum” where the player solves various puzzles based on ambiguous images and three-dimensional models. Moreover, we implemented six versions of a level in the game based on design concepts for camera perspective (combinations of first-person and third-person with camera techniques) and content exhibition (gallery, conveyor belt). We then conducted a mixed-method formative evaluation with 19 participants (11 females, eight males, average age 25.4 years) measuring usability of the game, as well as cybersickness and preferences for the design concepts. The game’s usability was satisfactory except for the quality of instructions. Moreover, the conveyor belt, where the player does not need to move, was preferred over the gallery, while the fixed first-person perspective was the most preferred camera perspective. The latter along with the conveyor belt exhibition method caused the least cybersickness. These results can be useful to designers, developers, researchers, and psychologists interested in VR-based empathy education.
... Another important issue potentially lost in online education is the emotional contagion, that is developed during the preverbal period and constitutes the first step in the empathic functioning (Carré et al., 2013). Although researchers agree on the positive role of empathy in interpersonal relationships (Stephan & Finlay, 1999), there is evidence that CMC altered interpersonal dynamics (Konrath et al., 2011) and it is currently acknowledged that empathy is influenced by age, gender, and other attributes of the individual, including situational context (Feshbach & Feshbach, 2009). Therefore, we hypothesize:  H1. ...
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This study aims to present the extent to which online education influenced the level of empathy displayed by university students. The research relies on a self-evaluated applied survey in two European countries: Portugal and Romania. The participants in this research are 1,085 students enrolled in Communication Studies programs. The purpose of this study is to unfold the connection between gender, exposure to digital technology, empathy level according to the Basic Empathy Scale applied to young adults, and online education self-perception that involves the use of webcams. Empathy can have positive effects on students’ satisfaction and increase students’ outcomes. The shift from a physical environment to a digital one brought significant challenges that most students and teachers were not ready for. The digital environment influences how empathy is expressed. The present research found evidence of a relationship between exposure to technology usage, emotional contagion, and gender. This suggests that understanding the emotions of others might be inhibited during digital education. Also, the most relevant factor of empathy variation in online education is gender. The findings of the present research may contribute to the design of activities or programs that could foster empathy expression during online education for young adults.
... These generational cycles have manifested in the United States since the 1620s, the four generational types occurring in the same order, with significant events shaping generational characteristics. Many authors portray that significant events of generations' informative years shape personality traits and differ among generations (Konrath, O'Brien, & Hsing, 2011;Smits, Dolan, Vorst, Wicherts, & Timmerman, 2011;Twenge, Campbell, & Gentile, 2012). Thus, one might use generational theory to predict attitudes and behaviors of generations. ...
... En conclusión, este instrumento de empatía será una herramienta relevante para su uso en investigación clínica pretendiendo facilitar un estudio más sucinto de las relaciones interpersonales de adolescentes con trastornos del comportamiento, trastornos del desarrollo del sistema nervioso, como el autismo o condiciones psiquiátricas, como la despersonalización. En los ámbitos educativo y familiar, la detección precoz de una capacidad empática deficiente es importante para crear planes de intervención dirigidos a estimular las competencias sociales que permiten a los adolescentes reconocer y comprender las emociones de los demás, teniendo en cuenta las consecuencias de estas competencias en el fomento del crecimiento emocional y prosocial de los adolescentes (Konrath, 2011;Thompson, et al., 2019). CA10 Frecuentemente, al verme parte de una discusión, la gente me dice que voy demasiado lejos defendiendo mi punto de vista. ...
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La empatía es una habilidad que permite la identificación e interpretación de experiencias subjetivas de otros. El objetivo de este estudio fue validar el “Cociente de empatía” (CE) en adolescentes mexicanos a partir de una muestra de 573 estudiantes (350 mujeres y 223 hombres) con una edad media de 14,8 años (DT= 1,96). Se realizó un análisis factorial exploratorio, identificando dos factores, uno con 16 ítems asociados a la dimensión afectiva y otro de 13 ítems con la dimensión cognitiva (índices de bondad de ajuste: GFI= 0,984, RMSEA= 0,034 y RMSR= 0,072). Para evaluar el modelo bifactorial obtenido, se realizó un análisis factorial confirmatorio, presentando adecuados índices de ajuste (RMSEA= 0,020, RMSR= 0,045, CFI= 0,998, GFI= 0,988). En la consistencia interna se encontró un coeficiente de correlación ω de McDonald de 0,941 para la dimensión afectiva y 0,772 para la dimensión cognitiva (p< 0,001). La validación de este instrumento de empatía apoyará su uso como herramienta de evaluación en investigación clínica en adolescentes mexicanos.
... In conclusion, this empathy instrument will be a relevant tool for use in clinical research and is intended to facilitate a more succinct study of the interpersonal relationships of adolescents with behavioral disorders, nervous system development disorders, such as autism, or psychiatric conditions, such as depersonalization. In the areas of education and family, the early detection of poor empathic capacity is important to create intervention plans aimed at stimulating the social competencies that allow adolescents to recognize and understand the emotions of others, taking into account the consequences of these competencies in fostering the emotional and prosocial growth of adolescents (Konrath, 2011;Thompson, et al., 2019 CA10 Frecuentemente, al verme parte de una discusión, la gente me dice que voy demasiado lejos defendiendo mi punto de vista. CA11 No me preocupa mucho llegar tarde a una cita con un amigo o amiga. ...
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Empathy is a skill that enables the identification and interpretation of others' subjective experiences. The purpose of this study was to validate the Empathy Quotient (EQ) in adolescents in Mexico. A sample of 573 Mexican adolescent students (350 female and 223 male) with an age range of 12-19 years was employed (Mage= 14.8 years, SD= 1.96). An exploratory factor analysis (EFA) was carried out, which identified two factors, one with 16 items associated with the affective dimension and one with 13 items related to the cognitive dimension (model fit indices: GFI= .984, RMSEA= .034, and RMSR= .072). To evaluate the resultant bifactor model, a confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was performed, showing good fit indexes (RMSEA= .020, RMSR= .045, CFI= .998, GFI= .988). Regarding internal consistency, we found a McDonald's ω correlation coefficient of= .941 for the affective dimension and ω= .772 for the cognitive dimension, with p< .001. The validation of this empathy instrument will support its use as a clinical research assessment tool in Mexican adolescents.
... In conclusion, this empathy instrument will be a relevant tool for use in clinical research and is intended to facilitate a more succinct study of the interpersonal relationships of adolescents with behavioral disorders, nervous system development disorders, such as autism, or psychiatric conditions, such as depersonalization. In the areas of education and family, the early detection of poor empathic capacity is important to create intervention plans aimed at stimulating the social competencies that allow adolescents to recognize and understand the emotions of others, taking into account the consequences of these competencies in fostering the emotional and prosocial growth of adolescents (Konrath, 2011;Thompson, et al., 2019 CA10 Frecuentemente, al verme parte de una discusión, la gente me dice que voy demasiado lejos defendiendo mi punto de vista. CA11 No me preocupa mucho llegar tarde a una cita con un amigo o amiga. ...
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Empathy is a skill that enables the identification with and interpretation of others' subjective experiences. The purpose of this study was to validate the Empathy Quotient (EQ) in adolescents in Mexico. A sample of 573 Mexican adolescent students (350 female and 223 male) with an age range of 12-19 years was employed (Mage= 14.8 years, SD= 1.96). An exploratory factor analysis (EFA) was carried out which identified two factors, one with 16 items associated with the affective dimension and one with 13 items related to the cognitive dimension (model fit indices: GFI= .984, RMSEA= .034, and RMSR= .072). To evaluate the resultant bifactor model, a confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was performed, showing good fit indexes (RMSEA= .020, RMSR= .045, CFI= .998, GFI= .988). Regarding internal consistency, we found a McDonald's ω correlation coefficient of= .941 for the affective dimension and ω= .772 for the cognitive dimension, with p< .001. The validation of this empathy instrument will support its use as a clinical research assessment tool in Mexican adolescents.
... This study focused on college students' self-reports of their perceptions of parental practices and their own types of ER and peer reports on target participants' sympathy and personal distress. Like other studies in the field, our sample comprised community college students (Hayes & Turner, 2021;Kim & Rohner, 2003;Konrath et al., 2011;Schaffer et al., 2009). Students in a psychology course were offered extra credit in exchange for participation. ...
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Research suggests that empathy may lead to either sympathy, involving emotional identification with another person, accompanied by caring and concern, or personal distress, that is emotional reaction to another's condition that is aversive and self-centered (Eisenberg et al., 2010). While the former frequently predicts prosocial behavior, the latter is hypothesized to predict it only when helping is the easiest way to alleviate the distress of the helper (Batson, 1991). Drawing on self-determination theory, we hypothesized that autonomy supportive parenting (taking the child’s perspective and providing choice) may predict the child’s integrative emotion regulation, and this may predict emotional identification with others in need (i.e., sympathy). In contrast, the autonomy suppressive practice of conditional regard may predict dysregulation of emotions, leading to personal distress when facing a close friend’s adversity. Participants included 147 college students and 147 close friends. Target participants reported perceptions of their mothers’ behaviour and their own emotion regulation styles, while close friends reported perceptions of target participants’ sympathy and personal distress responses. Results support the study’s hypotheses and provide insights into the socialization of emotion regulation and empathy. Keywords: parental conditional regard, autonomy support, emotion regulation, empathetic capacity
... Alarming data support that this topic should be considered high priority for current research. A meta-analytic study found that the empathy displayed by college students has sharply declined from 1979 to 2009 and the speed of the decline was accelerating over time (Konrath, 2011). Research also shows that young people are not effectively receiving the message to serve others in their upbringings at home. ...
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INTRODUCTION: Research supports that serving others and practicing altruism is beneficial for one’s health, wellbeing, and success compared to solely serving oneself. However, it is unclear if this mindset is effectively communicated to young people, particularly college students. My objective was to perform a quantitative analysis of other-serving versus self-serving instructions in commencement speeches at graduation ceremonies of top-ranked U.S. colleges. METHODS: I analyzed transcripts of commencement speeches at the 20 “Best Colleges” according to U.S. News and World Report rankings. Two trained independent raters coded each sentence of the speeches as either containing instruction (i.e., imperative/command sentence) versus no instruction. Next, the two raters classified each instruction as either (1) other-serving, (2) self-serving, or (3) neutral (serving neither). I tested inter-rater agreement using Cohen’s kappa coefficient (κ), and resolved any disagreement by consensus with a third rater. I pooled the data and performed descriptive statistics with sensitivity analyses to ensure that a small proportion of speeches were not skewing results. RESULTS: Inter-rater agreement was very good (κ >0.85). Of 305 total instructions (mean 15/speech, range 2-44/speech), 148 were neutral. Of the 157 non-neutral instructions, 71 (45%) were other-serving and 86 (55%) were self-serving. Within individual speeches, there was wide variation in the proportion of other-serving versus self-serving instructions (range 0-100%); however, sensitivity analyses did not substantially affect results. CONCLUSION: I found that other-serving and self-serving instructions were balanced in commencement speeches at top-ranked U.S. colleges. Additional research is needed to test the impact of these different messages on students.
... Using a wide ranging meta-analysis in 2011, Konrath found that empathy displayed in college students from the 1970's and 1980's onward declined significantly. The decline was especially marked in the 2000's (Konrath, O'Brien & Hsing, 2011). (Just as increases in narcissism occurred especially in the 2000's.) ...
Article
This article examines the recent debates within the scholarship on narcissism considering whether too high self-esteem is the problem, or whether the grandiose exterior acts as a mask for low self-esteem. It considers the possibility that the difficulty is resolved by the existence of two types of narcissism existing on a continuum: “overt”, “grandiose”, “oblivious” and “thick-skinned” narcissism on the one hand and “covert”, “vulnerable” or “thin-skinned” narcissism on the other. Using recent psychodynamic thinking on narcissism, this article integrates recent attachment scholarship including Allan Schore’s seminal idea of attachment as a source of emotional regulation, and Daniel Stern’s concept of attunement, arguing that this gives a richer and more plausible explanation of a possible aetiology of the development of both kinds of narcissism. Manne then raises the question: Why is narcissism on the rise? Why is empathy declining? Why are avoidant attachments increasing? Why are parents more likely to behave such that, as John Fiscalini argued, “These children get what they do not need and do not get what they do need”? The article moves beyond the individual to the ways our contemporary economic and cultural context – the harsh and hypercompetitive world of neo liberalism – has profoundly reshaped our attitudes to nurture, care and the self, and made narcissism into a strategy for survival. “This article is a condensed version an argument made in greater depth in Manne’s book The life of I: The new culture of narcissism” (2014).
... This academic interest in empathy is mirrored in popular culture as seen by the proliferation of popular books on empathy and the numerous new initiatives to promote empathy in schools, businesses, and other organizations. In addition, there are growing claims that empathy is on the decline (e.g., Konrath et al., 2011), with widening empathy gaps between groups exacerbating intergroup tensions, like political polarization, which makes understanding empathy an urgent and timely endeavor. ...
Article
In the last century since the word “empathy” was first introduced to the English vernacular, it has gained wide attention within academia and society more broadly. However, empathy has proven particularly challenging to define. We suggest that persistent disagreements about its conceptualization partially result from the tendency of researchers to simplify, remove, or ignore the context in which empathy is experienced. But context matters. For instance, we experience empathy when we encounter a grieving friend, but also when our partner expresses frustration with our past behavior. We illustrate how context shapes the experience of empathy by focusing on the diversity of emotional contexts that give rise to empathy and presenting a case study of context-specific empathy in response to another’s pain versus sadness. We conclude with recommendations for academics and those in the public arena who are interested in understanding empathy.
... baren Andersheit des Anderen zuschreibt, die auch bei der körperlich-leiblichen Begegnung mit dem Anderen eine gewisse Projektionsfläche eröffnet (vgl.Fuchs, 2014, 164). 8 Auf diese Weise kann, so Fuchs, parallel zum Anstieg entkörperlichter Kommunikation der Rückgang empathischer Fähigkeiten insbesondere seit den 2000er Jahren erklärt werden (vgl.Konrath et al., 2011). Einerseits kann mit den technischen Veränderungen der letzten Jahrzehnte sowohl von einer fundamental veränderten Lebenswelt als auch von einem neuen Selbst-Verständnis des Menschen gesprochen werden. Durch den Fokus auf Relationalität im Allgemeinen und die konkrete Relationalität, die durch neueste Technologien ermöglicht wird und die ...
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Digitale Technologien sind nicht mehr Teil utopischer oder dystopischer Beschreibungen, sondern selbstverständlicher Teil der heutigen Lebenswelt. Diese bildet den Boden für Sozialisations-, Bildungs- und Erziehungsprozesse. Im Zentrum des Bandes steht diese postdigitale Alltäglichkeit, die sich begleitet von Sachzwängen, Ernüchterungen, Normalisierungen und Pragmatik etabliert hat und hier bildungstheoretisch reflektiert wird. Untersucht werden lebensweltliche Differenzerfahrungen, die sich aus der konkreten Praxis und ihren Brüchen ergeben, hinsichtlich bedeutsamer Fragen nach Formen und Orten pädagogischen Handelns, nach Erfahrbarkeit von Anderen und Anderem, nach Verantwortung, Sozialität, Subjektivität und Unbestimmtheit. Der Band zielt auf eine Aktualisierung bildungstheoretischen Denkens, das sich anschlussfähig erweist an lebensweltliche Bezüge in einer sich rasch verändernden Welt.
... However, practical and scientific discussions consistently point to a deterioration of perspective-taking across society and work in recent years (e.g. Konrath et al., 2011). The interpersonal problems resulting from perspective-taking deficiencies (Cooper & Anderson, 2019), including arrogance and hostility (Richardson et al., 1994), suggest that perspective-taking interventions may be capable of addressing a variety of social ills. ...
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Constant connectivity is prevalent in modern workplaces, aided by smartphones and email. Supervisors may further pressure their subordinates to remain connected to work through their after-hours communications. We develop the concept of supervisor off-work boundary infringements (SBI) or supervisor intrusions during subordinates’ nonwork hours, which are becoming widespread due to expectations of immediate accessibility. Through the conservation of resources theory lens, we explore whether these unnecessary intrusions by supervisors increase subordinate strain outcomes (i.e. job tension and depressed mood at work). We also examine the role of perspective-taking, a cognitive resource deployed as a coping strategy that allows individuals to understand the viewpoint of others, which in turn facilitates changes in one’s attitudes and behaviours. Specifically, we propose that employee perspective-taking can lessen the adverse effects of SBI. Across a four-study constructive replication, we find evidence that SBI positively relates to job tension and a depressed mood at work. Heightened levels of perspective-taking attenuated this relationship. Our study presents evidence that individuals who engage in perspective-taking can protect themselves by buffering the adverse effects of SBI. Importantly, we advocate for corporate policies and laws that protect workers from SBI and encourage supervisors to cease such infringements on their employees.
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Dra. Berta Paz Lourido. Presidenta de la Asociación de Aprendizaje-Servicio Universitario. Directora del European Observatory of Service-Learning in Higher Education. Existen libros que invitan a la reflexión, al disfrute de la palabra, a vivir retales de nuestro cotidiano en las voces escritas de otras personas, a la ensoñación de que un mundo mejor es posible. Existen también libros que encaminan a la acción con la convicción de una flecha, que imbuida de la tensión del arco se dirige a la redondez de su diana de forma irrefrenable. Y finalmente, hay libros que combinan todas las anteriores características. Este es el caso de EL APRENDIZAJE-SERVICIO TRANSFORMADOR Pertinencia Social de la Universidad. Estamos ante un libro que es a la vez semilla y fruto: sugiere, apunta transformaciones posibles, y al tiempo las presenta conclusas en forma de ejemplos concretos a los cuales ancla el marco epistemológico previamente descrito. De esta manera, los distintos capítulos se van construyendo a modo traslacional, dando forma a un texto que casi podría leerse en ambos sentidos, pues vincula en cada párrafo la teoría y la práctica. Estas características formales hacen de él un referente por su frescura, su capacidad de sugerencia y paralelamente, de retrato histórico-social ubicado en contextos particulares que requieren análisis en profundidad. Esto en sí tiene mucho mérito. Pero, además, hemos de analizar el momento en que aparece esta propuesta. En los albores del primer cuartil del cuartil del siglo XXI, hemos sido testigos de la creciente publicación de trabajos académico-científicos en los que el aprendizaje-servicio ha sido objeto de estudio. No todos, sin embargo, se sustentan en enfoques epistemológicos del sur, rompiendo en cada párrafo los mismos pilares en que se asienta el capitalismo salvaje, el colonialismo de la exclusión y el patriarcado de la diferencia injusta. Surge también, en el espacio de las contradicciones en la educación: entre los riesgos de la innovación y la seguridad de las fórmulas teóricamente infalibles; entre los ajustes presupuestarios y el desarrollo de dinámicas coparticipadas sustentadas en los recursos necesarios; entre la globalidad y las fronteras; entre las palabras institucionales y las acciones inequívocas; entre la visibilidad marmolea del ranking académico y científico, y las arenas movedizas del compromiso sostenido conjunto con las comunidades. Reconozcámoslo. Es imposible leerlo sin reencontrarnos como docentes, sin reafirmar nuestra responsabilidad social desde la pasión y no desde la obligación materialista. El aprendizaje-servicio transformador tiene nombre y tiene apellido y con ello, nos recuerda que la verdadera transformación no incumbe únicamente el diseño pedagógico, la experiencia del aprendizaje o el impacto social, si no también, a los equipos docentes y a las instituciones en que se enmarcan las prácticas educativas. Estas micro, meso y macro transformaciones que también han de medirse desde enfoques metodológicos cualitativos, cuantitativos y mixtos, a fin de disponer de evidencias múltiples desde las cuales arrancar juicios de valor incardinados con acciones coherentes y consecuentes con los hallazgos. Puesto que el aprendizaje-servicio es participación, es servicio, es aprendizaje y es reflexión, no se entiende su puesta en práctica sin considerar los marcos sistémicos complejos en los que el diseño pedagógico cristaliza, a fin de contribuir a modelos de desarrollo social más inclusivos y tolerantes, solidarios y no discriminatorios. Esta mirada desde la “transcomplejidad” supone un punto de partida para la tesis del libro y a la vez, de posicionamiento y reflexividad del equipo de autores. De nuevo, se brinda al lector otra flor en la primavera temprana de este libro. Los proyectos de aprendizaje-servicio no son gotas de lluvia singulares. Son procesos también complejos en sí mismos que no se entienden aislados del compromiso, las dinámicas sociales, culturales y políticas, las perspectivas colectivas y la diversidad. Una diversidad que se construye con las pinceladas de la sensibilidad, la tolerancia, los valores, el respeto, la igualdad de oportunidades y los diferentes puntos de vista. El aprendizaje-servicio aparece vinculado al diálogo, la reciprocidad, a vínculos emocionales, a participación social activa, al análisis crítico, a experiencias de aprendizaje transformadoras, para que los y las estudiantes se conviertan en sujetos activos, productos y productores de su propia experiencia colectiva. El concepto de inclusión se aterriza en la pedagogía del aprendizaje-servicio bajo la fuerza gravitatoria de la sostenibilidad, la justicia social, las estructuras cognitivas, la reflexión, la mejora de la calidad de la educación y de la vida. El aprendizaje-servicio aquí descrito es creador de alternativas posibles, de tiempos no lineales, de reencuentro con las raíces de la historia y la cultura, de la humanidad con mayúsculas. Supone un puzle donde encajan múltiples piezas, pero sólo es aprendizaje-servicio transformador cuando no quedan geometrías vacías y podemos observar la forma completa en su máximo potencial. No caben fragmentos en el aprendizaje-servicio. Este libro aleja el rigor de la exclusividad canónica y se abre a descubrimientos imprevistos de emociones, evaluaciones y significados emergentes. Posiciona el aprendizaje-servicio en el sentido de la diversidad de conocimientos, la expansión simbólica y las alternativas de vida digna, así como la profundización del canon democrático, la representación y la participación social. De esta manera, el aprendizaje-servicio se nos muestra encuadrado entre sus 4R fundamentales (reflexión, reciprocidad, relativismo y responsabilidad), fundamentos de un proceso pedagógico perenne. Finalmente, el libro teje el aprendizaje-servicio en un sentido teórico más ecológico que monocultural, no oculta que la realidad social ha sido una confrontación constante entre estas dos ontologías y que el aprendizaje-servicio tiene suficiente plasticidad para acomodar estos diversos cambios en la praxis social. De nuevo, se abre una puerta a futuras investigaciones y propuestas novedosas con las que con certeza estos autores nos deleitarán en los años venideros.
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p style="text-align: justify;"> Objective. To identify the relationship between value-semantic orientations and the ability to empathize among high school students and university students. Background. The ability to show empathy is an important factor in interpersonal and intergroup interaction. In the context of the total digitalization of society and the consequences of partial deprivation from direct interpersonal interaction during the pandemic years, schoolchildren and students tend to reduce empathy. Understanding the connections between empathic abilities and the value-semantic sphere of the personality is necessary for the development of adequate socio-psychological means of developing the skills of prosocial interaction among students. Study design. The relationship between value-semantic orientations and empathy abilities among high school students and first-year university students was studied, taking into account their integral intragroup status. The presence and nature of the relationship were checked using correlation, multiple regression and discriminant data analysis. Participants. Moscow secondary schools (88 (48%) girls and 96 (52%) boys) and 192 (51%) university students in Moscow (109 (57%) girls and 83 (43%) boys). The total sample was 376 people aged 16 to 19. Measurements. To study the value-semantic sphere of the respondents, the method “Value Orientations” by M. Rokeach, the test “Meaningful Orientations” by D.A. Leontiev. Empathy was analyzed using the Interpersonal Reactivity Index questionnaire (M. Davis, adapted by T.D. Karyagina, N.A. Budagovskaya, S.V. Dubrovskaya). To determine the intragroup integral status of the respondents, the proposed by M.Yu. Kondratiev methodological algorithm for determining the integral intra-group status of a member of the contact community. Results. Positive connections between the empathic ability indicators and the importance of prosocial values of students were revealed. In high school students the index of empathic personal distress is positively connected with the value of friendly relationships. The higher the students’ locus of control – self and locus of control – life scores, the lower the empathic personality distress. Predictors of empathic abilities in high school and college students are developed sense-life orientations and personal values reflecting positive attitude toward people (“sensitivity”, “tolerance”, “happiness of others”, etc.). Personally oriented values (“pleasure”, “self-control” etc.) are blockers of empathy. Predictors of the division of students into status categories in high school students are “empathic empathy” and the values “sensitivity” and “nurturance”, and in students – “empathic care” and the values “sensitivity”, “freedom”, “tolerance”. Conclusions. The more significant for high school and college students are values characterizing altruism and acceptance of others, and the higher the indicators of life meaningfulness, the more developed are empathic abilities. Among the predictors of empathic abilities in high school and college students we studied, the main ones are indicators of meaningful life orientations and values of acceptance of others. Individual-oriented values are blockers of empathy. Predictors of students’ division into status categories are empathic abilities and values of acceptance of others: the higher the indicators of empathy and prosocial values, the lower the probability of low status. Consequently, high school and college students give preference to peers with pronounced empathic abilities, which indicates the high importance of empathy for building favorable interpersonal relationships and achieving social success.</p
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Cenacolo community is a Catholic association whose mission is to help people overcome addiction. It originated as a grassroots movement in 1983. by sister Elvira Petrozzi and has over 50 houses worldwide, with headquarters in Italy. Over the years, the community has become known as a place where people change their addictive habits through work and prayer, by living together for an extended period of three years on average. To understand how the method works, we analysed 49 testimonials of former addicts who, at the time of giving testimony, were members of the community. What emerged from the research is that, besides work and prayer, the central motivation for the former addicts to complete the programme, is friendship. This was not clear from the outset, but gradually emerged through the application of the grounded theory. Grounded theory is the methodology developed by sociologists Barney Glaser and Anselm Strauss. It allows the researcher to extract the main features of the studied reality by giving voice to the participants in the first place. Grounded theory has rarely been used in theology, and this research is one of the few done so far in the theological realm. The results show that, while work and prayer have a certain importance, the former addicts find friendship to be the main force which helps them to change their habits and start a new life.
Article
Our research develops a framework that explores how to fuel the climate movement by accelerating grassroots, community‐based climate action. Drawing on insights from consumer psychology, our framework identifies the psychological mechanisms that encourage and motivate people, both individually and collectively, to take climate action, thereby contributing to our understanding of how to advance social action and propel a social movement. Our climate action framework builds on: (1) individuals we describe as climate upstanders who rise up to take climate action with like‐minded others, and (2) communities of climate upstanders who engage in collective action aimed at addressing the climate crisis. Our framework expands the field of consumer psychology by redefining the role of consumers to include the practice of social action and broadening the study of consumers to include collective, community‐based action. We call on consumer psychologists to research individual and collective consumer practices related to social action and contribute to making social good central to the study of consumer psychology.
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Background: Empathy is widely recognized as a multi-dimensional construct, involving emotional and cognitive components. These may cause distinct experiences and behaviors that can be both beneficial and deleterious to individuals' well-being and mental health. Aim: We wished to examine the association between emotional and cognitive empathy of Danish university students as measured by the multidimensional Interpersonal Reactivity Index (IRI) and study major, sex, age, and parental status. Additionally, we aimed to gauge the validity of the Jefferson Scale of Empathy - Student version (JSE-S) as a measure of primarily cognitive empathy in the context of medical majors by comparing JSE-S scores with IRI cognitive scores. Methods: In our national, cross-sectional study, conducted in October 2020, we used survey data from students in their first, third, and final study year. All students from University of Southern Denmark were invited to fill out IRI, and all medical students at Denmark's four medical educations were additionally invited to fill out the JSE-S. Associations were estimated by linear regression models. Results: Of 14,072 invited, 2,595 students completed the questionnaire. Health majors scored statistically significantly higher on cognitive empathy than students from other study majors. The JSE-S correlated significantly with the cognitive empathy subscales of the IRI. Furthermore, the effects found in relation to sex, age-, and parental status were significant. Conclusion: Our study results show that large differences in empathy exist between university students and study majors. Overall, our results highlight (1) the relevance of investigating empathy as a multidimensional versus a global construct in young adult populations (including university students) and (2) the importance of focusing on differences in empathy across different student characteristics.
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Introduction: The objective of this study is to research personality trait differences across generations and the impact of age, gender and self-presentation on these traits. Methods: A total of 82,147 applicants (aged 17–24) for aviation training (pilot, air traffic controller), born between 1965 and 2002, were divided into three cohorts (Generation X, Y, Z). We analysed data from the temperament structure scales (TSS) personality questionnaire, which was collected during selection procedures between 1987 and 2019. Generational differences were analysed by ANCOVAs with generation and gender as group factors, controlled by age and self-presentation (social desirability).
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Background: As the population ages, the incidence of Alzheimer's disease and related dementias (ADRD) increases. Health care students participated in a simulated dementia experience to increase their understanding of the lived reality of people diagnosed with ADRD. A foundation for therapeutic relationships is understanding which incorporates empathy. Health care professionals possessing empathy have demonstrated improved patient satisfaction. Methods: This quantitative study used Kolb's experiential learning theory as a foundation for assessing empathy of health care students using a pre- postsurvey design. Health care students included 248 baccalaureate nursing students and doctor of physical therapy students. Empathy was measured by the Interpersonal Reactivity Index, perspective taking (PT), and empathic concerns (EC) subscales. Results: This study found a statistically significant increase in overall empathy postsimulation measured by the combined PT and EC subscales. The PT subscale also had a statistically significant increase indicating that students increased in the cognitive dimension of empathy post simulated dementia experience. There was no statistically significant change in the EC subscale or affective dimension of empathy post experience. Conclusions: The immersive simulation experience increased the cognitive dimension of empathy in nursing and physical therapy students.
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Critics of empathy argue that empathy is exhausting, easily manipulated, exacerbates rather than relieves conflict, and is too focused on individual experiences. Apparently, empathy not only fails to stop negative acts like sadism, bullying, and terrorism, it motivates and promotes such acts. These scholars argue that empathy will not save us from partisanship and division. In fact, it might make us worse off. I will argue that empathy exhibits bias in the ways critics describe because empathy is motivated . Conceiving of empathy as motivated leads to surprising conclusions about our tools for moral decision‐making.
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There are a variety of empathy training programs have been designed to explicitly teach empathy. These programs are generally based on perspective-taking, and aim to feel the others’ emotions, to understand them, and to regulate one’s own feelings. Virtual reality (VR) allows users to have an “embodied experience”. Embodied technology may be a key feature of VR that allows users to practice and improve their cognitive empathy skills, specifically perspective taking. Research that has included the use of VR interventions has found increased empathy towards people with special needs. In the present study, we used VR to develop an empathy curriculum for primary school students. The study applied instructional design principles of ADDIE model, including analysis, design, development, implementation, and evaluation phases, to develop an empathy training program to facilitate educators to meet learning objectives through iterative users’ feedback and instructional designers’ reflection. The study recruited seven interdisciplinary team members who have experiences in empathy curriculum design, class teaching, academic research, school counseling, and instructional design. The main instructional content includes eight VR videos presenting four common school conflicts in first-person and bystander view, and an interactive function at the end of the VR videos for students to choose a voluntary response in a particular conflict situation. The class instruction is constructed by four sections including VR experiencing, self-reflection, group discussion, and a group activity respectively. The results show that the VR-based empathy training program highly engage students and effectively facilitate students to change perspectives and raise empathic concern. The design of this program sheds light on how to integrate VR technology into classroom teaching with to meet instructional goals.KeywordsVirtual realityEmpathy trainingPerspective-takingEmpathic concernADDIEInstructional design
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Based on the question of the relationship between “deep reading” and “skim reading”, this article explores the question of which techniques, contents and competences can be promoted and taught in the context of a literary studies programme in English. It outlines a number of techniques, contents and competences that students can or should acquire in the course of their studies in literary studies in English. These include the techniques of deep reading and skim reading as well as self-expression in academic exchange. After a brief presentation of the most important “educational contents” (Dehn et al., Lesesozialisation, Literaturunterricht und Leseförderung in der Schule, in: Bodo Franzmann et al. (Ed.): Handbuch Lesen. Baltmannsweiler: Schneider Verlag Hohengehren 2001, pp. 568–637, 2001), five central competences are outlined on the basis of selected examples of English literature (and above all from Shakespeare’s plays), which can be fostered and developed in the examination of English literature in the context of an English studies programme.KeywordsEnglish studiesLiterary studiesTechniquesContentSkillsDeep readingSkim readingPerspective takingEmpathy
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The cybernetic scopic regime analyzed here considers how the increased presence of computers and smartphones in the 2000s inform and inspire two narratives. Eve Gil’s dystopia Virtus (2008) is read through the lens of Guy Debord’s Society of the Spectacle framework, but also updates and extends this theory to include interactive spectacle and megaspectacle present in the narrative, while also considering how the novel prefigured the mediatic figure of Enrique Peña Nieto in the form of the novel’s hologram president that embodies late neoliberal politics in Mexico. Guillermo Lavín’s “Él piensa que algo no encaja” (2014) metaphorizes the rapid entrance and rise of the smartphone into Mexican society, and critiques the socio-political phenomenon of fake news that leads to a post-truth milieu and epistemological crisis.KeywordsEve GilGuillermo LavínHologramSpectacleFake news
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Ambiguity in our experience of embodiment online has prevented us from confidently extending existing scholarship to the domain of online sociality. In recent decades, research across the disciplines has been undergirded by themes related to embodiment, restoring to prominence a theme previously neglected in part thanks to the rise of feminist scholars within the academy. We have not, however, adequately appealed to this corpus when theorizing forms of life happening online. In this paper I hope to bridge this gap by bringing forward phenomenological evidence about the nature of online embodiment. This paper presents the findings from a research project that used phenomenological interviews to elicit descriptions of lived embodiment from participants singing in online choirs during the COVID-19 pandemic. I argue that these descriptions reveal anchoring and discounting as central features of their experience, two dynamics of the body schema as described by Merleau-Ponty in the Phenomenology of Perception that underpin participant experiences of sensory disjunction. I furthermore take pains to show how the form of embodiment operative in the online choirs has the characteristics of intercorporeality, a reciprocal two-sided form of embodied subjectivity. After explaining how Husserl and Merleau-Ponty each define intercorporeality, I suggest that what I am calling an auditory intercorporeality underlies reported features of participant experience in the choirs, such as we-experience and coordination.
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The current study aims to examine the mediational effects of explicit weight stigma and moral disengagement (MD) and moderating effects of empathy on the relationship between implicit weight stigma and bullying perpetration. Two hundred and twenty‐eight college students (112 men, mean age of 19.89 ± 1.82 years) completed implicit (the Single Category Implicit Association Test) and explicit (the development of the weight stigma scale) measures of weight stigma, and responded to questionnaires regarding MD, empathy, and bullying perpetration. Structural equation modeling was conducted and mediating effects were tested using AMOS 17.0 software. The results indicated that implicit weight stigma significantly predicted bullying perpetration. After controlling for gender, this association was jointly mediated by explicit weight stigma and MD. Furthermore, empathy moderated the relationship between implicit weight stigma and bullying perpetration. Specifically, college students who have high levels of implicit weight stigma and low levels of empathy would score higher on the bully questionnaire. These findings may provide a possible explanation for when and how implicit weight stigma relates to bullying perpetration.
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In the field of design, empathy, which is often addressed in design research and practice, has also become an essential aspect of design education. It is both one of the core components of learning processes and a foundation for teaching activities. This paper aims to explore and discuss the impacts of empathy on learning and teaching in the relevant design education literature. Regarding this, eight themes appear in this study as cognitive, affective, interactive, collaborative, operative, perceptive, formative and connective impacts. While all these themes have considerable effects on the learning process, the impacts of empathy on teaching activities are relatively limited. In relation to the themes, research gaps are addressed, methodological and pedagogical implications for further studies are also presented.
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Der fremde Blick wird im Kontext von Digitalisierung vornehmlich unter dem Aspekt der Überwachung thematisiert. Daneben können dem Blick philosophiegeschichtlich auch andere Funktionen zugeschrieben werden. So gereicht die unmittelbare leibliche Begegnung im Blickaustausch bei Jean-Paul Sartre zur reflexiven Bewusstwerdung des Subjekts oder geht bei Emmanuel Levinas mit einem ursprünglichen ethischen Anspruch einher. Innerhalb digitalisierter Lebenswelten werden demgegenüber immer mehr Begegnungsräume eröffnet, die ohne physische Präsenz auskommen. Vor diesem Hintergrund wird in diesem Beitrag diskutiert, welche Stellung Technologien im Welt-Selbst-Verhältnis des Individuums einnehmen und wie Virtualität sich auf die Erfahrung von Andersheit auswirkt. Im Vordergrund steht dabei immer die Frage, ob eine existentialistische Ethik, die auf leiblicher Begegnung basiert, im Zuge zunehmend entkörperlichter Kommunikation noch gangbar ist – und ob nicht gerade die Offenheit, die die unmittelbare leibliche Erfahrung kennzeichnet, zentral für Bildungsprozesse ist.
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This article presents an exploratory mapping of millennial individualism. In doing so, it complicates the common popular and scholarly narrative that millennials as a generation are less committed to the broader social order. Instead, drawing from recent advances in the study of American culture, I show that millennial individualism can be compatible with extra-individual commitment. Analyses draw from in-depth interviews with a sample of underemployed millennials regarding their experiences with work and education, as well as their future orientations and life goals. Findings demonstrate that respondents relate to the broader social order using three styles of millennial individualism – self-realization, reflexive moralism, and utilitarian traditionalism. While the sample does not allow for generalization to the entire generation, the findings presented here demonstrate the clear potential of millennial individualism to translate into traditional institutional milestones, higher life purposes, and the greater good. Respondents with backgrounds from across the social class spectrum draw from individualistic discourses to construct an array of extra-individual commitments. Nevertheless, those from working-class backgrounds are more likely to orient their lives around the attainment of traditional milestones. In demonstrating how a group of millennials actually think about their lives in relation to society, findings suggest that millennial orientations may represent the latest iteration of American individualism rather than a break from the traditional social order.
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Dieser Beitrag befasst sich mit der Chance, abgelehnte Bewerber:innen als Werbeträger:innen für die Organisation zu gewinnen und somit den Aufbau einer Arbeitgebermarke zu erleichtern/unterstützen bzw. eine bislang etablierte Arbeitgebermarke nachhaltig zu stärken. Es werden folgende Aspekte beleuchtet: Welche Anforderungen stellt die heutige Zeit an Menschen grundsätzlich? Und welche Konsequenzen ergeben sich hieraus für Organisationen und die in diesen tätigen Personen wie Fach- und Führungskräfte und insbesondere Mitarbeiter:innen in Personalabteilungen? Welche Chancen bietet Feedback in diesem Zusammenhang – vor allen Dingen in Auswahlverfahren (Assessment Center, Management Audit …)? Wie kann Feedback AGG-konform eingebunden werden? Worauf ist als Feedbackgeber:in zu achten? Wie ist das Gegenüber als Feedbackempfänger:in gut einzubinden? Den angeführten Fragestellungen folgend gibt dieser Beitrag zunächst einen einleitenden Überblick über die aktuelle Situation, in der sich die Gesellschaft und im Besonderen Organisationen, deren Mitarbeitende und Bewerbende befinden und integriert „Transformationale Führung“ auch im Kontext von Personalmarketingaktivitäten als Konzept und Haltung mit diesen Anforderungen umzugehen. Auf diesen Überlegungen aufbauend werden die in der Praxis erprobten Wege/Formen angeführt, wie ein professioneller und zur eigenen Weiterentwicklung förderlicher Rückmeldeprozess/Feedbackprozess etabliert werden kann. Lassen Sie sich durch diesen Artikel einladen, das juristische Risiko mit Bedacht Ihrem ethischen Anspruch gegenüberzustellen und zugunsten von mehr Feedbacks abzuwägen.
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This chapter presents the topic on social-psychological intervention: competency and skills development in cognitive empathy. The evidence-based approach takes an effective psychological intervention to elicit cognitive growth in a variety of contents and translates it into a university setting to develop students’ cognitive empathy as part of the leadership skills. The intervention aims to prepare students for development in cognitive empathy and by extension, leadership skills in a university business course. Social-psychological interventions provoke individuals to address potential cognitive blocks that may inhibit positive learning behaviours. Prior research has found this class of interventions to be effective tools for redressing negative mindsets liked views of intelligence and learned helplessness. This research is significant for three reasons (1) It attempts to prime students for the development of a non-content-based skill with a generalizable activity sequence; (2) It compares the effects of this priming activity against students receiving more domain-specific content; (3) It introduces methods of analysing student work for holistic solutions and for indicators of graduate attributes instead of merely addressing content knowledge and domain-specific skills. This chapter presents some specific deliverables, which are easily adopted to be inculcated and for training others on the aspects of competency and skills in the area of cognitive empathy. A set of activities and learning measures for developing cognitive empathy as part of development is shared. Empathy and leadership, as competencies, fall under the university’s graduate outcomes. They relate to communication, civic-mindedness, character, competency and creativity. As such, curriculum that develops empathy and leadership is valuable not only for business school courses, but across university-wide. Additionally, this study provides ways of using survey questions and coding students’ work to measure the development of these constructs which could be easily applied university-wide and beyond. A template for developing social-psychological interventions is developed to facilitate the development of cognitive empathy in a measurable way. Likewise, similar interventions can be used to develop other non-content-based skills. The key to making the intervention cycle transferable is to identify the psychological blocks that are hindering the development and creating materials to force students to address those blocks. Different skills will have different blocks. This project will provide a tested template for the development and use of social-psychological interventions that can be modified for the development of materials for interventions that address other “tough to teach” skills and abilities. Many universities are pursuing ways of engaging instructors to look at their courses as research opportunities to further teaching and learning throughout the university. The discussion of how we built a set of processes to make such research not only viable but also valuable to all parties is discussed. The process of how the set of processes and binding infrastructure developed to facilitate such research is also discussed. This study does serve as a pioneering opportunity for the development of these resources and a concrete example to be pointed to when advocating for more scholarship of teaching and learning.
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Consistency of measures of a prosocial personality and prosocial moral judgment over time, and the interrelations among them, were examined. Participants' and friends' reports of prosocial characteristics were obtained at ages 21-22, 23-24, and 25-26 years. In addition, participants' prosocial judgment was assessed with interviews and with an objective measure of prosocial moral reasoning at several ages. Reports of prosocial behavior and empathy-related responding in childhood and observations of prosocial behavior in preschool also were obtained. There was interindividual consistency in prosocial dispositions, and prosocial dispositions in adulthood related to empathy/sympathy and prosocial behavior at much younger ages. Interview and objective measures of moral reasoning were substantially interrelated in late adolescence/early adulthood and correlated with participants' and friends' reports of a prosocial disposition.
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Most people's actions serve goals that, defined abstractly enough, are quite similar to one another. The authors thus proposed, and found, that construing action in abstract (vs. concrete) terms relates to perceiving greater similarity among persons both within and across different social groups (Studies 1-3). By fostering perspective taking, viewing action abstractly also related to empathizing with and expressing willingness to help nonstigmatized and stigmatized others (e.g., AIDS patients; Studies 3-5) and to donating money to help those in need (Study 6). These findings held when controlling for ideological, motivational, and broad personality variables. Abstract action construals, then, appear to blur social distinctions, fostering perspective taking and empathy on the one hand but also perceptions of group homogeneity on the other.
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Four studies examine the construct validity of the Tendency to Forgive Scale (TTF), a brief measure of dispositional forgiveness. Study 1 showed that romantic partners' ratings of targets converged with targets' self-ratings, and Study 2 demonstrated that higher scores on the TTF were associated with lower offense accessibility. Study 3 examined the TTF`s relation to self-reported depression symptoms, both independent of and interacting with attitudes toward forgiveness and dispositional vengeance. Lower TTF scores were associated with higher degrees of depression, especially for individuals with positive attitudes toward, forgiveness or those low in dispositional vengeance, although neither of these latter variables displayed significant zero-order relations with depression. Finally, Study 4 examined relations between the TTF, dispositional empathy, another recent measure of dispositional forgiveness, and the dimensions of the Big Five, providing both convergent and discriminant validity evidence for the TTF.
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Examined the prediction of adults' situational and dispositional empathy-related responses from measures of emotionality (emotional intensity and positive and negative affect) and regulation. A multimethod approach including self-reported, facial, and heart rate (HR) responses was used to assess situational vicarious emotional responding; Ss' (and sometimes friends') reports were used to assess the dispositional characteristics. In general, dispositional sympathy, personal distress, and perspective taking exhibited different, conceptually logical patterns of association with indexes of emotionality and regulation. The relations of situational measures of vicarious emotional responding to dispositional emotionality and regulation varied somewhat by type of measure and gender. Findings for facial and HR (for men) measures were primarily for the more evocative empathy-inducing stimulus. In general, the findings provided support for the role of individual differences in emotionality and regulation in empathy-related responding.
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In this study we examine the relationship between age and self-reported empathy. Using data from a 1985 community sample of 1,567 individuals from southwestern Ontario we document a strong negative association between age and empathy. The results show that age-associated patterns in socioeconomic status, widowhood, physical impairment, and dispositional attributes contribute to more than 65 percent of the total negative association between age and empathy. Conversely, a more positive balance of interpersonal relationships and greater religious involvement among older adults conceals about 20 percent of the size of the age-empathy association; that is, those factors tend to conceal older people's otherwise lower self-reported level of empathy. Other findings show that women report significantly more empathy and that the gender gap closes at older ages. Also, higher education significantly moderates the negative age-empathy association. Collectively our findings highlight the emotional significance of age-associated personal and social factors over the life course.
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Path models of the effects of gender, gender roles, and personality variables (achievement and affiliation orientation, locus of control, empathy) on coping and symptoms were tested to explore the risk and protective effects of gender roles and personality on psychological symptoms, and to test whether or not gender roles or personality accounted for gender differences in coping and symptoms. In a sample of university undergraduates (35% Asian American, 59% European American or Caucasian, 6% other ethnic/racial background), masculinity predicted lower depression but higher antisocial and substance use problems, whereas femininity predicted lower antisocial and substance use problems. Personality variables did not account for the effects of gender or gender roles on coping or symptoms, but rather gender roles and personality each predicted unique variance in those variables. Significant gender differences in the relations among gender roles and personality emerged; however, there were no gender differences in the relations between coping and symptoms. Findings highlight the importance of studying gender differences in the effects of gender roles and personality on coping and symptoms, because it appears that gender roles and personality operate differently for males and females.
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Social commentators have argued that changes over the last decades have coalesced to create a relatively unique generation of young people. However, using large samples of U.S. high-school seniors from 1976 to 2006 (Total N = 477,380), we found little evidence of meaningful change in egotism, self-enhancement, individualism, self-esteem, locus of control, hopelessness, happiness, life satisfaction, loneliness, antisocial behavior, time spent working or watching television, political activity, the importance of religion, and the importance of social status over the last 30 years. Today's youth are less fearful of social problems than previous generations and they are also more cynical and less trusting. In addition, today's youth have higher educational expectations than previous generations. However, an inspection of effect sizes provided little evidence for strong or widespread cohort-linked changes. © The Author(s) 2010.
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Past difficulties in demonstrating a link between accuracy in person perception and "empathy" are reviewed. The advantages of a forced choice accuracy assessment technique, in which observers view target subjects on video tape and then attempt to match targets with three-word self-descriptions, are discussed. Two studies designed to validate the method were performed. In both studies observers' accuracy in matching targets with self-descriptions exceeded chance. The effects on accuracy of observers' perspective-taking ability and targets' self-consciousness were also explored. Study I revealed that subjects scoring high on a measure of perspective-taking (Davis, 1980) were more accurate than low perspective-takers as predicted. Study II showed that target subjects high in private self-consciousness (Fenigstein, Scheier, & Buss, 1975) were more easily matched with their self-descriptions than were targets low in private self-consciousness. Study II also showed that the effects on accuracy of both observers' perspective-taking abilities and targets' selfconsciousness were related to the length of time targets were observed. The theoretical connections between perspective-taking and both stereotype and differential accuracy are discussed.
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In this study, the ways in which older siblings’personal qualities and sibling relationship experiences were associated with younger siblings’levels of empathy during early adolescence and preadolescence were explored. Participants were 199 sibling dyads (mean years of age = 11 and 8, respectively) who were interviewed using two procedures: (a) in their homes about their family relationships and personal qualities and (b) in a sequence of seven nightly telephone interviews about their daily activities and companions. Multiple regression analyses were conducted separately by younger siblings’gender to examine the relations of older siblings’personal qualities and sibling relationship experiences to younger siblings’ empathy. Analyses revealed that younger sisters’ as compared to younger brothers’ empathy was related differentially to their older siblings’ personal qualities and to the nature of their sibling relationship. Additional analyses to examine younger siblings’ personal qualities and sibling relationship experiences as potential predictors of older siblings’ empathy generally were nonsignificant, indicating that older siblings enhance younger siblings’empathy rather than vice versa.
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The tragic events on April 20, 1999, in Littleton, Colorado, provide an opportunity to reflect on the nature and consequences of not just the shootings but also the meanings that were ascribed to various facets of those events, including an emergent definition of the “Columbine Syndrome.” Based on a qualitative media analysis, this article examines part of the public presentations and news accounts of the “meanings of Columbine,” with particular emphasis on violence, crime, youth, popular culture, surveillance, social control, and terrorism. Analysis suggests that Columbine was merged with terrorism as part of the broader frame of fear and national security.
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Telephone helplines have long been recognised to provide an effective way to reach individuals in crisis and several advantages of this anonymous form of intervention have been described. Most helplines use volunteers to respond to calls, including those specifically set up for students. Our study investigates differences in the personality traits neuroticism, extroversion openness, conscientiousness and agreeableness, empathy as measured using the Interpersonal Reactivity Index (IRI) and mental health experiences between 54 volunteers and 52 non-volunteer students for a student delivered telephone helpline. Volunteers showed higher scores on the perspective taking and empathetic concern subscales of the IRI and scored higher on agreeableness. We could not identify any differences in mental health experiences between the two groups. Our findings suggest that volunteering for helplines may not be driven by volunteers’ own experiences but rather by their personality characteristics.
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The present study used autobiographical memory to investigate the social experience and short- and long-term effects of seeing frightening movies on a date, extending Zillmann and Weaver's (1996) model of differential gender-role behaviors to persons' own real-life dating experiences. Young adult participants (a) recalled the experience of watching a scary movie on a date, and (b) were assessed for levels of gender-role traditionality, sensation seeking, and dispositional empathy. Results showed that almost all individuals could recall such a date. Although men reported more positive reactions to the film and women more negative reactions, the experience appeared to have some social utility for both. Sex was a better predictor than the gender-role measures for Negative Reactions, Sleep Disturbances, and the likelihood of being Scared Today by the movie. Sensation-Seeking and Empathy were modest predictors of the same variables. In sum, the dating context seemed to encourage both men and women to behave and react in highly gender-stereotypical ways.
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A meta-analytic review finds that college students' self-esteem increased substantially between 1968 and 1994 when measured using the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSE). Children's scores on the Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory (SEI) show a curvilinear pattern over time, decreasing from 1965 to 1979 and increasing from 1980 to 1993. Children's SEI scores are directly correlated with social statistics (e.g., divorce rate, unemployment) for the corresponding years. Analyses for age differences find that SEI scores decrease slightly during the transition from elementary school to junior high and then rise progressively through high school and college. RSE scores increase steadily with age. Results are discussed in terms of the antecedents of self-esteem, including social acceptance, competencies, and the culture of self-worth.
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This study examined perspective taking, empathic concern, and attitude toward women as potential mediators of age and gender effects on college students’ attitudes toward sexist language. Perspective taking fully mediated the small age effect found in men. Attitude toward women partially mediated the gender effect, reducing it by 51%.Empathic concern mediated neither age nor gender effects.
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This study examined the relationship among parenting, empathy, and antisocial behavior. Two hundred forty-four undergraduate students attending an urban university completed self-report questionnaires assessing their antisocial behavior, empathy, and mothers’ and fathers’ parenting styles. Support was found for a model in which maternal permissive parenting contributed directly and indirectly to antisocial behavior, through its effects on cognitive and emotional empathy development. Findings are discussed in relation to the current literature on empathy, parenting, and adult antisocial behavior.
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Intervention studies represent webs a interrelated substantive and methodological characteristics that take on different patterns in different rent studies and different intervention areas. All too often, meta-analysts do not give close attention to the possibility that these interrelated differences among studies are related in complex ways to study effect sizes and, consequently, run considerable risk of reporting results that are misleading or flatly wrong. To remedy this situation, improvements are needed in both the method and practice of meta-analysis so that greater attention can be given to effect size variation, the generalizability of study results, and the systematic multivariate relationships between study characteristics and the effect sizes reported in those studies.
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If we knew more about the character of both offenders and victims, the nature of their relationships and the circumstances that create a high probability of crime conduct, it seems likely that crime prevention and control programs could be made much more effective. The President's Commission on Law Enforcement and the Administration of Justice, 1967a For more than 30 years, the National Crime Victimization Survey (NCVS) and its predecessor the National Crime Survey (NCS) have provided detailed information about the nature and extent of personal and property victimization in the United States. Much of our current understanding about crime, such as the most vulnerable segments of the population, the proportion of crime involving weapons, the types of injuries sustained in violent crimes, and the extent of reporting to police, is derived from the NCS and NCVS. The NCVS also serves as a model for victimization surveys implemented throughout the world because it incorporates many innovative methodological protocols that enhance its ability to produce reliable estimates of the nature and extent of criminal victimization. These methodological techniques combined with the large sample size and the extensive details collected by the survey on crime events are all reasons that the current NCVS remains the “most comprehensive and systematic survey of victims in the United States” (Mosher et al., 2002, p. 137). The NCVS and the Uniform Crime Reporting System (UCR) comprise the two ongoing national measures of crime in the United States.
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There is considerable evidence that trait empathy affects single-episode helping behavior. However, the influence of empathy on more continuous altruistic behavior, such as voluntarism, has not been investigated. This study utilizes a four-dimensional empathy scale, the Davis Interpersonal Reactivity Index, to assess the relationship between trait empathy and voluntarism. Structural equation analysis results indicate that Perspective Taking, Empathic Concern, and Personal Distress dimensions of empathy are positive antecedents of voluntarism as hypothesized. The Fantasy dimension was not related to voluntarism.
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In this article we argue for the need to develop a more adequate understanding of the connections between psychological research subjects' experience of social history and their personality development. We present the outlines of a general model according to which individuals' relative receptivity to the impact of social events is mediated by their life stage. Secondary analyses based on several data sets illustrate how women's work and family lives may be understood in terms of the general model. These analyses include data collected over the past 40 years from women in birth cohorts ranging from World War I to the baby boom.
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This chapter reviews the friendship literature, focusing mainly on the meaning of friendship and the con-comitant emotional experience. It discusses four major topical areas or primary themes of the friendship research—friends vis-á-vis family, dimensions of friendship, gender differences, and life events and circumstances. The life course is highlighted in each of these areas, although the literature has been inconsistent in its focus on this aspect; that is, the life course is explicitly represented in analyses of friends and family and life events, and infrequently represented in analyses of gender differences and friendship dimensions. Understanding the effects of friendship has been the focus of much of this research; the understanding of friendship itself has been implicit in these accounts. The chapter concludes with an attempt to make explicit such understanding, including a brief examination of friendship bereavement.
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Witnessing an ingroup member acting against his or her belief can lead individuals who identify with that group to change their own attitude in the direction of that counterattitudinal behavior. Two studies demonstrate this vicarious dissonance effect among high ingroup identifiers and show that this attitude change is not attributable to conformity to a perceived change in speaker attitude. Study 1 shows that the effect occurs-indeed, is stronger-even when it is clear that the speaker disagrees with the position espoused, and Study 2 shows that foreseeable aversive consequences bring about attitude change in the observer without any parallel impact on the perceived attitude of the speaker. Furthermore. the assumption that vicarious dissonance is at heart a group phenomenon is supported by the results indicating that attitude change is not impacted either by individual differences in dispositional empathy or measures of interpersonal affinity.
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The purpose of the study was to test the unique contribution of certain personality components to loneliness. It was hypothesized that the influence of attribution style, self-disclosure, and perspective-taking ability would be mediated by social anxiety and deficits in social skills knowledge because the latter components are more likely to directly inhibit social interaction. A hierarchical regression analysis revealed that social anxiety accounted for a substantial amount of loneliness score variance, and once this variable entered the regression, attribution style and perspective-taking ability were unrelated to loneliness. Self-disclosure evidenced a unique relationship with loneliness and added a significant increment to loneliness score variance. Results are discussed relative to the theoretical literature on personality predictors of loneliness.
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Sexual harassment proclivities in both men and women were studied in 222 college students. They were administered the newly developed Sexual Harassment Proclivities Scale and their scores were compared with a large number of measures, including sex-role stereotyping, adversarial sexual beliefs, sexual conservatism, acceptance of interpersonal violence, rape myth acceptance, likelihood of rape, acceptance of feminism, empathetic concern, sexual activity, and sexual exploitation. Most of the results were statistically significant for both males and females, although correlations tended to be higher for males. A factor analysis of the Sexual Harassment Proclivities Scale yielded a one-factor solution for both men and women, supporting the view that the scale measures likelihood of sexual harassment.
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Two meta-analyses find that Americans have shifted toward substantially higher levels of anxiety and neuroticism during recent decades. Both college student (adult) and child samples increased almost a full standard deviation in anxiety between 1952 and 1993 (explaining about 20% of the variance in the trait). The average American child in the 1980s reported more anxiety than child psychiatric patients in the 1950s. Correlations with social indices (e.g., divorce rates, crime rates) suggest that decreases in social connectedness and increases in environmental dangers may be responsible for the rise in anxiety. Economic factors, however, seem to play little role. Birth cohort, as a proxy for broad social trends, may be an important influence on personality development, especially during childhood.
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MySpace and YouTube have affected election campaigns in simple, but significant, ways. These social networking sites, which are used by a substantial segment of the U.S. voting age population, represent the next Internet generation, which is primarily user driven. They have created benefits such as increasing the potential for candidate exposure at a low cost or no cost, providing lesser known candidates with a viable outlet to divulge their message, and allowing campaigns to raise contributions and recruit volunteers online. In conjunction with these benefits, YouTube and MySpace have also posed a new set of challenges to campaign staff, the most important of which is the reduced level of control that campaigns have over the image and message of the candidate, which is of critical importance to election outcomes. This article discusses these benefits and challenges and the influence of YouTube and MySpace on the 2006 election and future campaigns.
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Empathy development is believed to be an important element in adolescent sex offender treatment. Adolescence is a time of considerable self-absorption among adolescent boys. This study investigates levels of empathy among adolescent offenders in comparison with their nonoffending counterparts. Participants were 23 male sex offenders and 23 male nonoffenders between the ages of 13 and 18. Participants were administered Davis's Interpersonal Reactivity Index as a measure of empathy. The sex offender group scored significantly lower in empathy on the overall score. There was some variation on the individual subscales. Implications for research and practice are discussed.
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Principled and expedient ideologies guide people along different ethical paths. A principled ideology, indicative of higher claimed integrity, involves a stronger personal commitment to a moral identity that facilitates positive social activities and helps resist the temptation of illicit activities. Prior research shows that individual differences in integrity are accurately perceived by friends, are reflected in self-beliefs, and affect social judgment. Results of four studies showed that integrity (a) predicts reported antisocial activities (lying, cheating, stealing) even after controlling for other individual difference measures, (b) predicts reported helping and volunteering, especially for nobler reasons and after controlling for empathy, and (c) is associated with a variety of personality and attitudinal qualities that signify greater psychological well-being, buffering from stress, and effective social functioning.
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Two studies provide evidence that dispositional sympathy and perceived control interact to predict choices for and against situations likely to elicit sympathy. Sympathetic persons choosing among previewed experiments on the basis of the emotion elicited by each were particularly likely to choose a sympathy induction, and appeared to interpret that prospect in positive terms, but only when they expected substantial control over the procedure. In a second study, sympathizers were the most likely to volunteer for studies of people in distress, so long as the sympathizers expected a means of helping the distressed persons. In contrast, assurances of situational control did not encourage less sympathetic subjects to participate in either context Results provide for the expansion of models relating affect to prosaically behavior to include preferences for contact with distressed persons and for an interpretation of trait sympathy as less of a personal liability than prevalent views suggest.
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Two studies tested the prediction that having had prior experience with a need increases empathy for another person currently experiencing that need. In Study 1, subjects reported their feelings of empathy after observing a same-sex peer endure mild but uncomfortable electric shocks. Compared with those given no prior experience with the shocks, women who had prepared to receive the shocks themselves reported more empathy, whereas men who had prepared reported less. In Study 2, subjects reported their feelings of empathy after reading a transcript in which a same-sex adolescent described an upsetting life experience. Women who had had a similar experience during adolescence reported more empathy than women who had not; men who had had a similar experience reported no more empathy than men who had not. Across both studies, then, prior experience with the need increased empathy among women but not among men.
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A study was conducted to explore the effects of empathic predispositions on viewing and contributing to the annual muscular dystrophy telethon. A multidimensional measure of empathy (the Interpersonal Reactivity Index) was used to assess empathic predisposition, and respondents answered questions concerning their past viewing of the telethon and contributions to it. As predicted, only one facet of empathy-a tendency to experience sympathy and concern for others-was associated with more viewing of and contributing to the telethon. Other aspects of empathy, such as role-taking, fantasizing ability, and feelings of personal distress, were unrelated to either viewing or contributing.
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This paper is addressed to the relevance of an empathy training program for school children as an alternative to the use of corporal punishment for the management of aggressive behavior in the classroom. After reviewing the theoretical relationship of empathy and aggression, the training procedures and findings from field studies concerned with Empathy Training are presented. The educational and developmental implications of using skill???oriented training programs in the classroom are discussed.
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In this article I describe a method of fostering empathy in undergraduate and graduate students of abnormal psychology. Students depicted a psychological disorder by writing a brief biography and then role playing the characters they developed. Students demonstrated understanding of the disorders by acting and interacting in a manner consistent with their character and diagnosing other student ''characters'' using criteria from the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-IV (American Psychiatric Association, 1994). Interpersonal Reactivity Index (Davis, 1980) results indicated student empathy increased significantly after the exercises. Qualitative analyses of focus group interview data supported and augmented the quantitative findings. Students attributed complex gains to the exercises.
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We compared male and female psychology majors to psychology minors and nonmajors to understand the trends in a growing major in which women outnumber men. A total of 451 psychology majors, minors, and nonmajors from 4 institutions completed a questionnaire measuring empathy, career goals, and perceptions of the importance of empathy for therapy. Perspective taking and a desire to enter a helping profession mediated the relation between gender and major, suggesting that personality contributes to the choice of a psychology major. Highly empathic students may choose psychology because they believe that empathy is important for success in clinical and counseling psychology.
Article
Despite the general presence of reality-based television programming for more than a decade and its recent increasing popularity, the extant literature on the phenomenon is limited. In Study 1, we considered how the viewing public constructs the so-called genre of reality-based TV. Multidimensional space analysis based on the Q-sort responses of 38 city residents indicated reality-based TV shows (a) are largely distinct from most major programming genres, although they do not form a particularly cohesive genre of their own, and (b) are viewed as only moderately real. In Study 2, we evaluated the lay hypothesis that reality-based TV is popular because it appeals to the voyeuristic nature of the U.S. population. We also considered other gratifications received from viewership as well as personality traits that might predict reality-based TV consumption. The results of a survey of 252 city residents suggested that (a) the role of voyeurism in the appeal of reality-based television is questionable, (b) regular viewers receive different and more varied gratifications from their viewing than do periodic viewers, and (c) impulsivity seeking and need for cognition do not predict overall reality-based TV viewing, although they might predict viewing of particular programs. Future research directions proposed include investigating dimensions that might distinguish different breeds of reality-based programming and studying the more specific cognitive and emotional elements that contribute to the "genre's" appeal.
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Prosocial motivation is egoistic when the ultimate goal is to increase one's own welfare; it is altruistic when the ultimate goal is to increase another's welfare. The view that all prosocial behavior, regardless how noble in appearance, is motivated by some form of self-benefits may seem cynical. But it is the dominant view in contemporary psychology. Most contemporary psychologists who use the term have no intention of challenging the dominant view that all human behavior, including all prosocial behavior, is motivated by self-serving, egoistic desires. Contemporary pseudoaltruistic views can be classified into three types: altruism as prosocial behavior, not motivation, altruism as prosocial behavior seeking internal rewards, and altruism as prosocial behavior to reduce aversive arousal. If altruistic motivation exists, then one has to make some fundamental changes in the conception of human motivation and indeed of human nature. As yet, the evidence is not sufficiently clear to justify such changes. If the conceptual analysis and research outlined in the chapter have merit, then the threshold of an empirical answer to the question why one care for other will be reached.
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Traditionally, researchers have focused on the positive outcomes associated with empathy-related traits. However, in the present study, empathy-related traits were examined as possible mediators in the relationship between neuroticism and depressive symptoms among a sample of 204 college students. As expected, fantasy acted as a partial mediator in the neuroticism–depression connection. Although personal distress was not a mediator, it did interact with neuroticism to influence depression scores. Overall, these findings point to the importance of considering empathy not only in terms of positive, but negative outcomes as well.
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We used the Narcissistic Personality Inventory (NPI) to assess the degree of narcissism among celebrities. Results indicate that celebrities are significantly more narcissistic than MBA students and the general population. Contrary to findings in the population at large, in which men are more narcissistic than women, female celebrities were found to be significantly more narcissistic than their male counterparts. Reality television personalities had the highest overall scores on the NPI, followed by comedians, actors, and musicians. Further, our analyses fail to show any relationship between NPI scores and years of experience in the entertainment industry, suggesting that celebrities may have narcissistic tendencies prior to entering the industry.
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Contrasts are statistical procedures for asking focused questions of data. Researchers, teachers of research methods and graduate students will be familiar with the principles and procedures of contrast analysis included here. But they, for the first time, will also be presented with a series of newly developed concepts, measures, and indices that permit a wider and more useful application of contrast analysis. This volume takes on this new approach by introducing a family of correlational effect size estimates. By returning to these correlations throughout the book, the authors demonstrate special adaptations in a variety of contexts from two group comparison to one way analysis of variance contexts, to factorial designs, to repeated measures designs and to the case of multiple contrasts.
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This paper describes unpublished data compiled by the Bureau of Labor Statistics concerning the employment status of the civilian noninstitutional population by level of educational attainment and by age, sex and race. In addition to describing the data and identifying its source, the paper investigates the differences in the labor force participation rate, the employment-to-labor-force ratio, and the employment-to- population ratio by sex and as the level of education attainment increases among the white, black and other race classifications. Not surprisingly, significant differences in the labor market outcomes between sexes and among races are found to exist. While the data described here cannot be used to estimate worklife expectancies, differences found among educational attainment levels suggests that estimates of worklife expectancies might be improved if the categories relating to persons with associate's, professional and doctoral degrees were analyzed.