Remission of Severe CD8(+) Cytotoxic T Cell Skin Infiltrative Disease in Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Infected Patients Receiving Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy

Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale (INSERM) U976 and Department of Dermatology, AP-HP Hôpital Saint-Louis, Université Paris Diderot (Paris 7), France.
Clinical Infectious Diseases (Impact Factor: 8.89). 09/2010; 51(6):741-8. DOI: 10.1086/655895
Source: PubMed


A CD8 cutaneous lymphoinfiltrative disease has been described in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients presenting with a severe erythroderma. The true nature of this severe skin infiltrative disorder is still elusive. Although some clinical features of this syndrome have raised the hypothesis of its malignant nature in initial observations, several studies have provided stronger support to the hypothesis that it is a reactive pseudotumoral process.
From 1995 through 2008, 8 HIV type 1 (HIV-1)-infected patients presenting with a chronic skin eruption, diagnosed as CD8 T cell infiltration of the skin, were studied.
All patients showed diffuse infiltrated skin with superficial lymphadenopathy. A profound CD4(+) lymphocytopenia and eosinophilia were other major features. Histological and immunostaining analysis revealed a predominant dermal and epidermal infiltration by CD8(+) T cells belonging to the cytotoxic lineage, without evidence for a monoclonal status by polymerase chain reaction-based molecular analysis of lesional skin. A remission of skin symptoms occurred in all cases following highly active antiretroviral therapy, which paralleled the decrease of HIV-1 RNA load and the increase of CD4(+) peripheral blood absolute count.
Altogether, these results emphasize the reactive, nonmalignant nature of this syndrome and strongly support the coupling between HIV-induced immune deficiency and uncontrolled CD8 activation.

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Available from: Maxime Battistella, Jan 19, 2016
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    ABSTRACT: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-related CD8+ cutaneous pseudolymphoma (CD8+ cytotoxic T cell skin infiltrative disease) is an inflammatory process resulting from a massive infiltration of the skin by activated, oligoclonal, HIV-specific, cytotoxic T lymphocytes. Usually, CD8+ cutaneous pseudolymphoma affects patients with a deep immunosuppression, and is rare in patients with mild immunosuppression. In deeply immunocompromised patients, highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) is considered as the first-line treatment. In contrast, the choice of therapy in moderately immunocompromised patients and/or patients already receiving HAART remains nonconsensual. We report a case of HIV-related CD8+ cutaneous pseudolymphoma in a moderately immunocompromised patient who was successfully and safely treated with methotrexate. We review the literature on HIV-related CD8+ pseudolymphoma and the use of methotrexate in HIV-positive patients.
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