Timing of the Availability and Administration of Influenza Vaccine Through the Vaccines for Children Program
influenza vaccine must be distributed and administered each year during a limited time interval. To our knowledge, no previous studies have simultaneously evaluated the delivery and administration of privately purchased vaccines and influenza vaccines acquired through the Vaccines for Children (VFC) program.
a prospective, observational study was conducted in US outpatient pediatric offices, tracking all influenza vaccinations during the season by age group, first or second vaccination, the child's need for 1 or 2 doses, type of vaccine, and VFC status.
a total of 42 and 84 practices completed the study in 2007 to 2008 and 2008 to 2009, respectively. In both seasons, initial shipments of VFC influenza vaccine generally arrived 4 to 5 weeks later than non-VFC shipments; VFC vaccine administration also started 1 month later than administration of privately purchased vaccine. Vaccine administration peaked in early November and late October in years 1 and 2, respectively, and declined rapidly thereafter. Overall, approximately one-half of all children who required 2 doses of vaccine were estimated to have received 2 doses. In both years, 2-dose compliance rates in the VFC population were 17% to 19% lower than those in the non-VFC population, possibly resulting from the VFC population's shorter time interval for second dose receipt.
the VFC program is critical to ensuring financially vulnerable children have access to vaccination. Manufacturers, distributors, and public health officials should deliver VFC influenza vaccine to providers as quickly as possible. Pediatric healthcare providers should increase efforts to vaccinate all populations, especially the VFC population, in later months.
Available from: Ozgur Tunceli
- "coverage have demonstrated a steady increase in influenza vaccination rates after implementation of these expanded recommendations ; however, it remains substantially below the Healthy People 2020 goal. Historically, the majority of influenza vaccinations have been administered between October and December    . In 2007, the ACIP recommended initiation of seasonal influenza vaccination as soon as vaccines became available . "
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To ensure adequate protection from seasonal influenza in the US, the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices recommends vaccination of all persons aged 6 months or older, with rare exceptions. It also advises starting vaccination as soon as available and continuing throughout the influenza season. This study examined US seasonal vaccination trends during five consecutive influenza seasons in privately-insured children and adults.
This retrospective, observational cohort study examined trends in influenza vaccination during the 2007-2008 through 2011-2012 influenza seasons using administrative claims data from a large national insurer.
The size of analysis population ranged from 1144,098 to 1245,487 (children, ≥6 months-17 years of age) and from 3931,622 to 4158,223 (adults, 18-64 years of age). Vaccination frequency increased through 2010-2011, was most frequent in young children, and decreased with age. Vaccination rates were highest in the Northeast and lowest in the West and were higher in individuals with frequent outpatient office visits than in those with no or rare visits, with larger differences seen in children. Between 2007 and 2011, the use of preservative-free inactivated vaccine increased, the use of multidose vaccines containing preservatives decreased, and the use of live attenuated influenza vaccines increased among children 2-17 years of age. From 2007-2008 through 2009-2010, the timing of vaccination each year began earlier than the previous one; it remained stable from 2009-2010 through 2011-2012.
Annual influenza vaccination claims for privately-insured children and adults increased and shifted earlier from 2007 through 2009-2011. During the 2011-2012 influenza season, 25.4% of children aged 6 months-17 years and 12.3% of adults aged 18-64 years were vaccinated. Increasing influenza vaccination should remain a priority, and alternative venues for seasonal influenza vaccination should be considered in order to meet the Healthy People 2020 goal of 80% to 90% coverage among children.
Available from: braintrusters.com
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ABSTRACT: Vaccine preventable diseases have been responsible for a significant portion of childhood mortality in low-income countries, and have been re-emerging in medium- and high-income countries. The effectiveness of routine childhood immunization programs relies on multiple factors. Social determinants have the potential to affect immunization programs around the world, with globalization and ease of communication facilitating their effect. Exploring the types of social determinants affecting immunization efforts in various countries is of great importance to the ability of nations to address them, prevent the spread of disease and lower mortality rates. The social determinants affecting vaccination programs can vary among countries of different income levels, with some social determinants overlapping among these country groups. In this article we explore the various social determinants affecting routine immunization programs in low-, middle- and high-income countries and possible interventions to address them.
Available from: Elyse Olshen Kharbanda
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ABSTRACT: Influenza infection results in substantial costs, morbidity, and mortality. Vaccination against influenza is particularly important in children and adolescents who are a significant source of transmission to other high-risk populations, yet pediatric and adolescent vaccine coverage remains low. Traditional vaccine reminders have had a limited effect on low-income populations; however, text messaging is a novel, scalable approach to promote influenza vaccination.
To evaluate targeted text message reminders for low-income, urban parents to promote receipt of influenza vaccination among children and adolescents.
Randomized controlled trial of 9213 children and adolescents aged 6 months to 18 years receiving care at 4 community-based clinics in the United States during the 2010-2011 influenza season. Of the 9213 children and adolescents, 7574 had not received influenza vaccine prior to the intervention start date and were included in the primary analysis.
Parents of children assigned to the intervention received up to 5 weekly immunization registry-linked text messages providing educational information and instructions regarding Saturday clinics. Both the intervention and usual care groups received the usual care, an automated telephone reminder, and access to informational flyers posted at the study sites.
Receipt of an influenza vaccine dose recorded in the immunization registry via an electronic health record by March 31, 2011. Receipt was secondarily assessed at an earlier fall review date prior to typical widespread influenza activity.
Study children and adolescents were primarily minority, 88% were publicly insured, and 58% were from Spanish-speaking families. As of March 31, 2011, a higher proportion of children and adolescents in the intervention group (43.6%; n = 1653) compared with the usual care group (39.9%; n = 1509) had received influenza vaccine (difference, 3.7% [95% CI, 1.5%-5.9%]; relative rate ratio [RRR], 1.09 [95% CI, 1.04-1.15]; P = .001). At the fall review date, 27.1% (n = 1026) of the intervention group compared with 22.8% (n = 864) of the usual care group had received influenza vaccine (difference, 4.3% [95% CI, 2.3%-6.3%]; RRR, 1.19 [95% CI, 1.10-1.28]; P < .001).
Among children and adolescents in a low-income, urban population, a text messaging intervention compared with usual care was associated with an increased rate of influenza vaccination. However, the overall influenza vaccination rate remained low.
clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT01146912.
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