Article

Modulation of Ingestive Behavior and Gastrointestinal Motility by Ghrelin in Diabetic Animals and Humans

Division of Gastroenterology, Department of Medicine, Taipei Veterans General Hospital, 201, Section 2, Shih-Pai Road, Taipei 112, Taiwan, R.O.C.
Journal of the Chinese Medical Association (Impact Factor: 0.85). 05/2010; 73(5):225-9. DOI: 10.1016/S1726-4901(10)70048-4
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT

Acyl ghrelin, a 28-amino acid peptide hormone, is the endogenous cognate ligand for the growth hormone secretagogue receptor. Ghrelin is involved in stimulating growth hormone release, eliciting feeding behavior, inducing adiposity and stimulating gastrointestinal motility. Ghrelin is unique for its post-translational modification of O-n-octanoylation at serine 3 through ghrelin O-acyltransferase, and is the only peripheral signal to enhance food intake. Plasma ghrelin levels manifest "biphasic changes" in diabetes mellitus (DM). In the early stage of DM, the stomach significantly increases the secretion of ghrelin into the plasma, and elevated plasma ghrelin levels are correlated with diabetic hyperphagic feeding and accelerated gastrointestinal motility. In the late stage of DM, plasma ghrelin levels may be lower, which might be linked with anorexia/muscle wasting, delayed gastrointestinal transit, and even gastroparesis. Therefore, the unique ghrelin system may be the most important player compared to the other hindgut hormones participating in the "entero-insular axis". Further studies using either knockdown or knockout of ghrelin gene products and ghrelin O-acyltransferase may unravel the pathogenesis of DM, and show benefits in combating this disease and metabolic syndrome.

Download full-text

Full-text

Available from: Shou-Dong Lee
  • Source
    • "It suggests that in obesity, des-acyl-ghrelin may undergo faster degradation, possibly via increased peptidase activity [27], while acyl-ghrelin is relatively well preserved. Thus, analyzing separately plasma ghrelin and des-acyl ghrelin should be more informative for understanding the ghrelin's role in obesity [28]. It has been shown that protection of ghrelin from degradation is possible due "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Mechanisms of high fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity may involve ghrelin, an orexigenic and adipogenic hormone secreted by the stomach. Previous studies showed that obese subjects may display higher number of ghrelin producing cells and increased affinity of plasma immunoglobulins (Ig) for ghrelin, protecting it from degradation. In this study, we investigated if HFD in mice may increase the number of ghrelin expressing cells and affinity of ghrelin-reactive IgG.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2015
  • Source
    • "Besides, another mechanism that may lead to lower energy intake in preload consumers is the higher plasma levels of anorexigenic hormones such as CCK at the beginning of serving main course since gastrointestinal hormones secretion occurs 10 – 30 min after meal initiation (Liddle et al. 1985; Moran and Kinzig 2004; Stengel and Taché 2011). Furthermore, postprandial decrease of acyl ghrelin, the peripheral orexigenic hormone, participates in feedback signalling between nutrient intake, gastric motor function and the central nervous system (Chen et al. 2010; Lee et al. 2011). However, we did not assess orexigenic and anorexigenic peptides in this study. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Few investigations reported the reductive effect of preload consuming on energy intake. The objective of the study was to compare the effects of consuming a mix of low glycaemic index foods such as vegetable salad, yogurt and water before or with meal on anthropometric measures and cardio vascular diseases (CVD) risks. In this randomized controlled clinical trial, 25 men and 35 women were recruited to consume similar amounts of macronutrients within a hypocaloric diet for 3 months. Although subjects in the preload group consumed preload 15 min before the main meal, subjects in the control group consumed them with meal. The results showed that body weight, waist circumference, triglyceride, total cholesterol and systolic blood pressure decreased in more amount in the preload group ( - 7.8 ± 0.5%, - 2.7 ± 0.2%, - 5.7 ± 1.1%, - 3.1 ± 0.53% and - 4.4 ± 0.4%, respectively; p < 0.05 for all). Fasting blood sugar and low density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol decreased significantly only in the preload group. Consuming vegetable salad, yogurt and water as preload leads to greater changes in anthropometric measures and CVD risks.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2012 · International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The current principle of the flow velocity measurement method is based on the detection of the echoes of ultrasonic pulse Doppler method (UDM). However, in some applications, for example, a flow rate measurement in clean water, any particle does not exist in the flow and hence, the conventional UDM cannot be applied. The authors group proposed to employ the ultrasonic cavitation bubbles as reflectors in the flow measurement by UDM. The low frequency Langevin transducer attached to the outside wall of the pipe produces the cavitation bubbles in the flow. Therefore, UDM can be applied to the flow rate measurement without any suspending particle tracers. In this report, applicability and accuracy of the flow rate measurement are investigated in the case of the cavitations bubbles as reflectors. The measurement system with the cavitation production system is also designed and fabricated.
    No preview · Conference Paper · Nov 2002
Show more