Influence of the ten sessionsof the whole body cryostimulationon aerobic and anaerobic capacity

Institute of Human Physiology, Department of Physiology and Biochemistry, University School of Physical Education, Kraków, Poland.
International Journal of Occupational Medicine and Environmental Health (Impact Factor: 0.7). 01/2010; 23(2):181-9. DOI: 10.2478/v10001-010-0019-2
Source: PubMed


The aim of this study was to determine the influence of whole body cryostimulation on aerobic and anaerobic capacities.
To test the hypothesis that whole body cryostimulation improves physical capacity, thirty subjects (fifteen males and fifteen females) undertook two ergocycle trials before and after the ten sessions of cryogenic chamber treatment. To assess baseline aerobic capacity, the progressive cycle ergometer test was applied. This allowed determination of maximal oxygen uptake and ventilatory thresholds. Twenty-second Wingate test was performed to assess baseline levels of anaerobic power. After finishing the treatments in the cryogenic chamber, the exercise protocol was repeated. Before the first, and after the last whole body cryostimulation, venous blood samples were drawn to determine basic blood values, including levels of erythrocytes, leukocytes and thrombocytes, hemoglobin concentration, and hematocrit.
There were no changes in aerobic capacity, in both females and males, after ten sessions of 3-minute-long exposures to cryogenic temperature (-130 degrees C). Participation in the whole body cryostimulation caused an increase in maximal anaerobic power in males (from 11.1 to 11.9 W x kg(-1); P < 0.05), but not in females.
It can be concluded that whole body cryostimulation can be beneficial, at least in males, for increasing anaerobic capacity in sport disciplines involving speed and strength.

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Available from: Zbigniew Szygula, Jun 09, 2015
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    • "It has also been offered as a prophylactic treatment to reduce the risk of muscle lesions during intense training periods and to increase the antioxydant status after multiple exposures [14]. Despite the increasing popularity of WBC in sports, only few studies have assessed its efficiency in accelerating the recovery of the athlete [9,15,16]. Very recently, post-exercise cold water immersion has been shown to aid recovery by altering blood flow [17], and improving perceptions of recovery [18] which may be reflected by changes in cardiac autonomic activity [19]. WBC may also exert important effects on post-exercise recovery at the cardiovascular level. "
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to compare the effects of a single whole-body cryostimulation (WBC) and a partial-body cryostimulation (PBC) (i.e., not exposing the head to cold) on indices of parasympathetic activity and blood catecholamines. Two groups of 15 participants were assigned either to a 3-min WBC or PBC session, while 10 participants constituted a control group (CON) not receiving any cryostimulation. Changes in thermal, physiological and subjective variables were recorded before and during the 20-min after each cryostimulation. According to a qualitative statistical analysis, an almost certain decrease in skin temperature was reported for all body regions immediately after the WBC (mean decrease±90% CL, -13.7±0.7°C) and PBC (-8.3±0.3°C), which persisted up to 20-min after the session. The tympanic temperature almost certainly decreased only after the WBC session (-0.32±0.04°C). Systolic and diastolic blood pressures were very likely increased after the WBC session, whereas these changes were trivial in the other groups. In addition, heart rate almost certainly decreased after PBC (-10.9%) and WBC (-15.2%) sessions, in a likely greater proportion for WBC compared to PBC. Resting vagal-related heart rate variability indices (the root-mean square difference of successive normal R-R intervals, RMSSD, and high frequency band, HF) were very likely increased after PBC (RMSSD: +54.4%, HF: +138%) and WBC (RMSSD: +85.2%, HF: +632%) sessions without any marked difference between groups. Plasma norepinephrine concentrations were likely to very likely increased after PBC (+57.4%) and WBC (+76.2%), respectively. Finally, cold and comfort sensations were almost certainly altered after WBC and PBC, sensation of discomfort being likely more pronounced after WBC than PBC. Both acute cryostimulation techniques effectively stimulated the autonomic nervous system (ANS), with a predominance of parasympathetic tone activation. The results of this study also suggest that a whole-body cold exposure induced a larger stimulation of the ANS compared to partial-body cold exposure.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2013 · PLoS ONE
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    ABSTRACT: In Poland and all over the world, whole-body cryostimulation is becoming more and more popular in the treatment of different diseases and in sport. However, changes that occur in the human body subjected to cryogenic temperatures are still not completely understood. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate changes in blood circulation and aerobic capacity induced by repeated exposure to whole-body cryostimulation of young and clinically healthy male subjects. The study included 25 young men, aged 21 ± 0.9 years, average body weight 74.65 ± 6.98 kg and height 179.5 ± 5.12 cm. The participants were exposed to extremely low temperatures in a cryogenic chamber once a day for 15 days. Each session lasted 3 min at -130°C and was preceded by 30-second, adaptation in a vestibule at -60°C. Blood pressure and heart rate were measured before entering the chamber, immediately after exiting and 10 min later. We also calculated pulse pressure and the mean arterial blood pressure. Before and after the treatment the maximal oxygen uptake was measured. Our results showed a significant increase in systolic blood pressure after each cryostimulation (by an average of 19 mmHg) and an increase in diastolic blood pressure only after the first cryostimulation (by 6 mm Hg). The increase in systolic blood pressure was accompanied by a significant decrease in heart rate (by about 7 bpm). No adaptation changes were observed after 15 treatments. There were no changes in aerobic capacity after 15 sessions of WBC, however we observed a significant decrease in RBC and hemoglobin concentration. Due to the increase in systolic blood pressure after WBC, this kind of physiotherapy treatment is not recommended for people with advanced or not pharmacologically controlled hypertension.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2010 · International Journal of Occupational Medicine and Environmental Health

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