Immunoregulatory Roles for Fc Receptor-Like Molecules
Fc receptor-like (FCRL) molecules comprise a family of imunoregulatory transmembrane proteins that are preferentially, but not exclusively expressed on B lineage cells. A strong regulatory potential on B cell activation has been characterized for the different FCRL proteins, but their biological roles are just beginning to be elucidated. We review recent advances in the understanding of FCRL1-6 expression and function, and indicate their potential roles in the pathogenesis of immunodeficiencies, lymphoid malignancies and autoimmune diseases.
Available from: Sayran Amin
- "In addition to the classical FcRs, a new family of related receptors was discovered upon the completion of full genome sequences from a number of mammalian species , . Eight different such Fc receptor-like (FcRL) genes have been identified in the human genome, FcRL1-FcRL6 as well as FcRLA and FcRLB. "
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ABSTRACT: Receptors interacting with the constant domain of immunoglobulins (Igs) have a number of important functions in vertebrates. They facilitate phagocytosis by opsonization, are key components in antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity as well as activating cells to release granules. In mammals, four major types of classical Fc receptors (FcRs) for IgG have been identified, one high-affinity receptor for IgE, one for both IgM and IgA, one for IgM and one for IgA. All of these receptors are related in structure and all of them, except the IgA receptor, are found in primates on chromosome 1, indicating that they originate from a common ancestor by successive gene duplications. The number of Ig isotypes has increased gradually during vertebrate evolution and this increase has likely been accompanied by a similar increase in isotype-specific receptors. To test this hypothesis we have performed a detailed bioinformatics analysis of a panel of vertebrate genomes. The first components to appear are the poly-Ig receptors (PIGRs), receptors similar to the classic FcRs in mammals, so called FcRL receptors, and the FcR γ chain. These molecules are not found in cartilagous fish and may first appear within bony fishes, indicating a major step in Fc receptor evolution at the appearance of bony fish. In contrast, the receptor for IgA is only found in placental mammals, indicating a relatively late appearance. The IgM and IgA/M receptors are first observed in the monotremes, exemplified by the platypus, indicating an appearance during early mammalian evolution. Clearly identifiable classical receptors for IgG and IgE are found only in marsupials and placental mammals, but closely related receptors are found in the platypus, indicating a second major step in Fc receptor evolution during early mammalian evolution, involving the appearance of classical IgG and IgE receptors from FcRL molecules and IgM and IgA/M receptors from PIGR.
Available from: Alexander V Taranin
- "Human FCRLA is a B cell-specific protein belonging to the FcR family    . In contrast to other members of the family, which are cell surface receptors  , FCRLA resides in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Recent studies revealed the Ig binding abilities of FCRLA and suggested its possible chaperone-like role in the regulation of the Ig maturation and/or secretion   . "
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ABSTRACT: FCRLA is an ER-resident B-cell specific protein. The exact function of this protein remains unclear although human FCRLA has been recently shown to interact with IgM, IgG and IgA. The retention of FCRLA in ER is mediated by the N-terminal domain. The major human FCRLA isoform is encoded by five exons, of which one encodes a short signal peptide (SSP) and the others code four protein domains. Here we show that human tissues also produce transcripts which contain an additional exon and encode proteins with signal peptide that is six residues longer (LSP). Transfection experiments demonstrated that the extension of the signal peptide had no visible effect on the topology and molecular mass of the processed four-domain FCRLA isoform. However, the length of the signal peptide was found to affect processing of two-domain FCRLA isoforms composed of the third and fourth domains (FCRLAd2). The signal peptide was not cleaved in the SSP-FCRLAd2 and this isoform was found to accumulate in the ER. In contrast, the LSP-containing FCRLAd2 isoform was processed, O-glycosylated and secreted. The secreted FCRLAd2 isoform did not interact with IgG- or IgM-immunosorbents.
Available from: Xu-jie Zhou
- "Fc receptor-like (FcRL) proteins are a family of cellular receptors homologous to FcγRs that are preferentially expressed on B lineage cells. The extracellular ligands as well as functions of these receptors are still unknown or controversial , , , . However, several genetic studies also revealed FCRL gene variants were associated with multiple immune-related diseases, no matter in genome-wide association studies or in candidate gene based studies , , , , . "
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ABSTRACT: IgA nephropathy (IgAN) is a complex syndrome characterized by deposition of IgA and IgA containing immune complexes (ICs) composed of IgG and complement C3 proteins in the mesangial area of glomeruli. The low-affinity receptors for the Fc region of IgG (FcγRs) are involved in autoantibody/immune complex-induced organ injury as well as ICs clearance. The aim of the study was to associate multiple polymorphisms within FCGR gene locus with IgAN in a large Chinese cohort.
60 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) spanning a 400 kb range within FCGR gene locus were analyzed in 2100 DNA samples from patients with biopsy proven IgAN and healthy age- and sex-matched controls from the same population in Chinese.
Among the 60 SNPs investigated, 15 gene polymorphisms within FCGR gene locus (25%) were associated with susceptibility to IgAN. The most significantly associated SNPs within individual genes were FCGR2B rs12118043 (p = 8.74*10(-3), OR 0.76, 95% CI 0.62-0.93), and FCRLB rs4657093 (p = 2.28*10(-3), OR 0.77, 95% CI 0.65-0.91). Both conditional analysis and linkage disequilibrium analysis suggested they were independent signals associated with IgAN. Associations between FCGR2B rs12118043 and proteinuria (p = 3.65×10(-2)) as well as gross hematuria (p = 4.53×10(-2)), between FCRLB rs4657093 and levels of serum creatinine (p = 2.67×10(-2)) as well as eGFR (p = 5.41*10(-3)) were also observed. Electronic cis-expression quantative trait loci analysis supported their possible functional significance, with protective genotypes correlating lower gene expressions.
Our data from genetic associations and expression associations revealed potentially pathogenic roles of Fc receptor gene polymorphisms in IgAN.
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