Fasting hyperglycemia upon hospital admission is associated with higher pneumonia complication rates among the elderly

Department of Medicine, Staten Island University Hospital, 450 Seaview Ave, Staten Island, NY 10305, USA. .
International Archives of Medicine (Impact Factor: 1.08). 08/2010; 3(1):16. DOI: 10.1186/1755-7682-3-16
Source: PubMed


Hyperglycemia is an independent predictor of adverse outcomes during hospitalization. In patients who have pneumonia, significant hyperglycemia is associated with poor outcomes. This study evaluates the interaction of the degree of hyperglycemia and complication rates stratified by age in non-critically ill patients admitted to the hospital for care of community-acquired pneumonia.
Retrospective review of patient records coded for pneumonia. Analysis included 501 non-critically ill patients admitted to a tertiary care hospital in New York City. Data were stratified by diabetes status, age (less than 65 and 65 and over), and fasting blood glucose (FBG) within the first 24 hours of hospitalization. Among patients with no history of diabetes, FBG was stratified as "normal" [FBG </=100 mg/dl (5.6 mmol/l)], "mild-hyperglycemia" [101-125 mg/dl (5.7-6.9 mmol/l)], and "severe-hyperglycemia" [>/=126 mg/dl (7 mmol/l)]. The diabetic group included known diabetics regardless of FBG. The Pneumonia Severity Index (PSI) was calculated for all patients. Complications rates, hospital length of stay and mortality were compared among the groups.
In patients age 65 and older, complication rates were 16.7% in normoglycemics, 27.5% in the "mild-hyperglycemia" group, 28.6% in the "severe hyperglycemia" group, and 25.5% in those with known diabetes. The mild and severe-hyperglycemics had similar complication rates (p = 0.94). Compared to the normal group, mild and severe groups had higher rates of complications, p = 0.05 and p = 0.03, respectively. PSI tended to be higher in those over the age of 65. PSI was not significantly different when the normal, mild, severe, and known diabetes groups were compared. PSI did not predict complications for new hyperglycemia (normals' mean score 87, mild 84.7, severe 93.9, diabetics 100). Hospital mortality did not differ among groups. Length of stay was longer (p = 0.05) among mild-hyperglycemics (days = 8.4 s.e. 14.3) vs. normals (days = 6.2 s.e.6.5).
This study shows that FBS between 101-125 mg/dl (5.7-6.9 mmol/l) on hospital admission increases pneumonia complication rates among the elderly with no previous diagnosis of diabetes.

Download full-text


Available from: Chadi Saifan, Mar 31, 2014
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Whether addition of corticosteroids to antibiotic treatment benefits patients with community-acquired pneumonia who are not in intensive care units is unclear. We aimed to assess effect of addition of dexamethasone on length of stay in this group, which might result in earlier resolution of pneumonia through dampening of systemic inflammation. In our double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, we randomly assigned adults aged 18 years or older with confirmed community-acquired pneumonia who presented to emergency departments of two teaching hospitals in the Netherlands to receive intravenous dexamethasone (5 mg once a day) or placebo for 4 days from admission. Patients were ineligible if they were immunocompromised, needed immediate transfer to an intensive-care unit, or were already receiving corticosteroids or immunosuppressive drugs. We randomly allocated patients on a one-to-one basis to treatment groups with a computerised randomisation allocation sequence in blocks of 20. The primary outcome was length of hospital stay in all enrolled patients. This study is registered with, number NCT00471640. Between November, 2007, and September, 2010, we enrolled 304 patients and randomly allocated 153 to the placebo group and 151 to the dexamethasone group. 143 (47%) of 304 enrolled patients had pneumonia of pneumonia severity index class 4-5 (79 [52%] patients in the dexamethasone group and 64 [42%] controls). Median length of stay was 6·5 days (IQR 5·0-9·0) in the dexamethasone group compared with 7·5 days (5·3-11·5) in the placebo group (95% CI of difference in medians 0-2 days; p=0·0480). In-hospital mortality and severe adverse events were infrequent and rates did not differ between groups, although 67 (44%) of 151 patients in the dexamethasone group had hyperglycaemia compared with 35 (23%) of 153 controls (p<0·0001). Dexamethasone can reduce length of hospital stay when added to antibiotic treatment in non-immunocompromised patients with community-acquired pneumonia. None.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2011 · The Lancet
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: We report the case of an 11-month-old girl with congenital axonal neuropathy and West syndrome. She had generalized hypotonia and an abnormal posture since birth, and apparently, her development was stalled. Deep tendon reflexes were absent, and at 5 months of age, she developed West syndrome followed by refractory seizures. Magnetic resonance imaging of the brain revealed mild cerebral and cerebellar atrophy, high-signal-intensity areas in the white matter, and hypoplasia of the corpus callosum. No action potentials were detected in both lower and upper extremities in motor and sensory conduction velocity analysis performed at 11 months of age. Sural nerve biopsy was performed, and analysis of the biopsied specimen revealed axonal degeneration. Originally designed resequencing analysis using microarray was carried out for the 27 genes associated with Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease, but no disease-causing mutations were identified. So far, there have been no reports on simultaneous development of congenital axonal neuropathy and West syndrome.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2011 · Brain & development
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: This review provides an update on the risk of several important community-acquired infections seen in patients with diabetes: respiratory tract infections, urinary tract infections, and bacteremia. Respiratory tract infections: Recent epidemiological evidence shows a modest (1.25 to 1.75-fold) risk increase for hospitalization with pneumonia associated with diabetes. The increase of risk for tuberculosis is of similar magnitude in highly developed countries, and possibly higher in low-income countries. Poor glycemic control and long diabetes duration predict higher risk for both pneumonia and tuberculosis. Limited data is available for diabetes and influenza, yet both influenza and pneumococcal vaccination is recommended in patients with diabetes. Urinary tract infections: The risk of asymptomatic bacteriuria and cystitis is 1.5 to 2 times increased in diabetes patients, while their risk of pyelonephritis may be 2 to 4 times increased. Treatment of asymptomatic bacteriuria in diabetes is generally not recommended. Diabetes duration and chronic complications including cystopathy appear to be more important risk factors than current glycemic control, but further evidence is needed. Modifiable risk factors for urinary tract infection are the same as in persons without diabetes. Bacteremia: The risk of bacteremia due to pneumococci is approximately 1.5 times increased in diabetes, similar to the increased risk for pneumonia. In comparison, diabetes is associated with 2.5 to 3 times increased risk for bacteremia due to E. coli and other enterobacteria, often due to a urinary tract focus. Diabetes is also associated with a 2 times increased risk for hemolytic streptococcal bacteremia, and 3 times increased risk for invasive group B streptococcal infection. Limited data is available for staphylococcal bacteremia. Conclusions: Increased infection surveillance and unmeasured confounding factors among diabetic patients may contribute to the observed increased infection risk, yet outcomes following infection are similar or worse in diabetes patients. In conclusion, there is epidemiological evidence that individuals with diabetes have a substantially increased risk of a number of important infections. Clinicians should remain vigilant for infections in this increasing group of patients.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2012 · The Open Infectious Diseases Journal
Show more