Subsyndromal Depressive Symptoms After Symptomatic Recovery From Mania Are Associated With Delayed Functional Recovery
This study examined whether the presence of subsyndromal depressive symptoms predicted functional recovery after an acute manic episode. Subjects with bipolar I disorder (according to the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV) who, at the time of symptomatic recovery from an acute manic or hypomanic episode, had a concomitant functional recovery (n = 52) were compared on demographic variables and mood symptoms to those who had symptomatically recovered but not functionally recovered (n = 33). Demographic and mood variables were examined in the nonfunctionally recovered group to assess predictors of time to functional recovery. The primary functional outcome measure used was the Life Functioning Questionnaire, a 5-minute, gender-neutral self-report scale to measure role function in 4 domains: workplace, duties at home, leisure time with family, and leisure time with friends. Participants in the study were recruited from July 2000 through February 2005. Depressive symptoms, even at a subsyndromal level, were significantly associated with persisting functional impairment after symptomatic recovery from a manic episode (P < .02). Subsyndromal depressive symptoms also significantly predicted a slower time to functional recovery over the next 9 months (P = .006). The presence of even mild subsyndromal depressive symptoms may interfere with functional recovery in patients with bipolar disorder after symptomatic recovery from a manic or hypomanic episode.
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective: The assessment of the depressive component during mania has become critical for the accurate diagnosis of mixed states, which were defined very narrowly in the past classification systems before Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (5th ed.). The aim of this study was to compare socio-demographic, clinical and therapeutic characteristics, as well as clinical and functional outcomes, between manic patients with and without mixed features to validate the relevance of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (5th ed.) mixed specifier. Methods: This is a subanalysis of a multicentre naturalistic study MANía Aguda y COnsumo de Recursos (acute mania and health resource consumption [MANACOR]) on the burden of mania in bipolar patients from four hospitals in Catalonia (Spain). The sample consisted of 169 adult patients presenting a manic episode and systematically assessed during a 6-month period. Results: A total of 27% (n = 46/169) of manic patients showed mixed features. Total number of episodes (p = 0.027), particularly depressive and mixed, was greater in manic patients with mixed features, as well as depressive onset (p = 0.018), suicide ideation (p = 0.036), rapid cycling (p = 0.035) and personality disorders (p = 0.071). In contrast, a higher percentage of pure manic subjects were inpatients (p = 0.035), started the illness with mania (p = 0.018) and showed family history of bipolar disorder (p = 0.037), congruent psychotic symptoms (p = 0.001) and cannabis use (p = 0.006). At baseline, pure manic patients received more risperidone (p = 0.028), while mixed patients received more valproate (p = 0.049) and antidepressants (p = 0.005). No differences were found in syndromic recovery at the end of the study. However, depressive change was higher in the mixed group (p = 0.010), while manic change was higher in the pure manic group (p = 0.029). At the end of follow-up, the group with mixed features showed a significant trend towards higher psychosocial dysfunction. Conclusion: A total of 27% of manic patients showed mixed features. Groups differed regarding clinical characteristics, course of illness, psychosocial functioning, prescribed treatment and symptom progress. Depressive symptoms in mania should be routinely assessed and considered to guide treatment.0Comments 2Citations
- "Although differences between groups are not remarkably high, it seems that patients with mixed features require a longer time to achieve good psychosocial functioning. This is not surprising if we consider that both syndromal and residual depressive symptoms appear as one of the factors most robustly associated with poor functional outcome (Bonnin et al., 2010; Gitlin et al., 2011; Judd et al., 2005; Martino et al., 2009; Reinares et al., 2013a; Simon et al., 2007). This study points out that although clinical recovery is similar between patients with and without mixed features, functional recovery seems to be slightly worse or perhaps slower to achieve in the subgroup of manic patients with mixed symptoms. "
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Recently, Functional Remediation (FR) has proven to be effective in improving the functional outcome of euthymic bipolar patients. The aim of this study was to test the efficacy of the FR program in a subsample of euthymic bipolar II patients (BPII). A post-hoc analyses were undertaken using data of 53 BPII outpatients who had participated in a multicenter, rater-blind, randomized, controlled trial exploring the efficacy of FR (n=17) as compared with a Psychoeducation group (PSY) (n=19) and a treatment as usual control group (TAU n=17). The primary outcome variable was the functional improvement defined as the mean change in the Functioning Assessment Short Test (FAST) from baseline to endpoint after the intervention. Regarding the treatment effect, data reveal a significant functional improvement from baseline to endpoint, suggestive for an interaction between program pertinence and time (pre-post). Nevertheless, Tukey's post-hoc test only revealed a trend in favor of a better outcome for FR when compared to the other two groups. We also found an interaction between program pertinence and time when analysing the subdepressive symptoms, with BPII! patients in FR showing a significant reduction when compared to the PSY group. Our results suggest that the FR appears to be effective in improving the overall functional outcome in BPII, as well as in reducing subdepressive symptoms.0Comments 2Citations
- "Future studies focused on elucidating which kind of depressive symptoms would be more functionally disabling are needed in order to proceed to treat them and to increase functional outcome. For instance,Gitlin et al. (2011) found that fatigability was the main depressive symptom that predicted slower functional recovery. Deckersbach et al. (2010) included a module focused on mood monitoring and treatment of residual depressive symptoms with standard techniques , such as activity management and problem solving, among others. "
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background Most studies on the factors involved in the functional outcome of patients with bipolar disorder have identified subsyndromal depressive symptoms and cognitive impairment as key players. However, most studies are cross-sectional and very few have analyzed the interaction between cognition and subclinical depression. The present study aimed to identify the role of cognition, and particularly verbal memory, and subthreshold depressive symptoms in the functional outcome of patients with bipolar I and II disorder at one year follow-up. Method A confirmatory analysis was performed using the path analysis. A total of 111 euthymic patients were included to test the role of verbal memory as a mediator in the relationship of subthreshold depressive symptoms and functional outcome at one year follow-up. Measures of verbal memory, subthreshold depressive symptoms and functioning (at baseline, at 6 months and at one year follow-up) were gathered through the use of a neuropsychological assessment and validated clinical scales. Results The hypothesized mediation model displayed a good fit to data (Chi=0.393, df=2, p=0.625; RMSEA<0.001 with CI: 0.001–0.125 and CFI=1.00). Functional outcome at one year follow-up was predicted by the functional outcome at baseline, which in turn, was related to subthreshold depressive symptoms at baseline and to the verbal composite memory scores as a mediator variable. Conclusion The results of this study prospectively confirm previous findings on the disabling role of subthreshold depressive symptoms and verbal memory impairment on psychosocial functioning. However, these results come from a sample with moderate to severe functional impairment; hence, as a limitation, this may hinder the generalization of these results.0Comments 10Citations
- "For a comprehensive review, see Moreno et al. (2009). Among all the studied variables, the presence of depressive symptoms has been reported as the strongest predictor of poor outcome (Judd et al., 2005; Gitlin et al., 2011; Bonnin et al., 2010; Martino et al., 2009; Strejilevich et al., 2013; Gonzalez-Pinto et al., 2010). This symptomatology also affects neurocognitive performance, even at low levels of depressive symptoms (Bonnin et al., 2012; Torrent et al., 2012). "