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Human populations are increasingly exposed to microwave/radiofrequency (RF) emissions from wireless communication technology, including mobile phones and their base stations. By searching PubMed, we identified a total of 10 epidemiological studies that assessed for putative health effects of mobile phone base stations. Seven of these studies explored the association between base station proximity and neurobehavioral effects and three investigated cancer. We found that eight of the 10 studies reported increased prevalence of adverse neurobehavioral symptoms or cancer in populations living at distances < 500 meters from base stations. None of the studies reported exposure above accepted international guidelines, suggesting that current guidelines may be inadequate in protecting the health of human populations. We believe that comprehensive epidemiological studies of long-term mobile phone base station exposure are urgently required to more definitively understand its health impact.
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Human populations are increasingly exposed to
microwave/radiofrequency (RF) emissions from wire-
less communication technology, including mobile
phones and their base stations. By searching PubMed,
we identified a total of 10 epidemiological studies that
assessed for putative health effects of mobile phone
base stations. Seven of these studies explored the asso-
ciation between base station proximity and neurobe-
havioral effects and three investigated cancer. We
found that eight of the 10 studies reported increased
prevalence of adverse neurobehavioral symptoms or
cancer in populations living at distances < 500 meters
from base stations. None of the studies reported expo-
sure above accepted international guidelines, suggest-
ing that current guidelines may be inadequate in pro-
tecting the health of human populations. We believe
that comprehensive epidemiological studies of long-
term mobile phone base station exposure are urgently
required to more definitively understand its health
impact. Key words: base stations; electromagnetic field
(EMF); epidemiology; health effects; mobile phone;
radiofrequency (RF); electromagnetic radiation.
Mobile phone base stations are now found ubiquitously
in communities worldwide. They are frequently found
near or on shops, homes, schools, daycare centers, and
hospitals (Figure 1). The radiofrequency (RF) electro-
magnetic radiation from these base stations is regarded
as being low power; however, their output is continu-
ous.1This raises the question as to whether the health
of people residing or working in close proximity to base
stations is at any risk.
By searching PubMed and using keywords such as base
station, mast, electromagnetic field (EMF), radiofre-
quency (RF), epidemiology, health effects, mobile
phone, and cell phone, and by searching the refer-
ences of primary sources, we were able to find only 10
human population studies from seven countries that
examined the health effects of mobile phone base sta-
tions. Seven of the studies explored the association
between base station proximity and neurobehavioral
symptoms via population-based questionnaires; the
other three retrospectively explored the association
between base station proximity and cancer via medical
records. A meta-analysis based on this literature is not
possible due to differences in study design, statistical
measures/risk estimates, exposure categories, and end-
points/outcomes. The 10 studies are therefore summa-
rized in chronological order (Table 1).
We found epidemiological studies pertaining to the
health effects of mobile phone base station RF emis-
sions to be quite consistent in pointing to a possible
adverse health impact. Eight of the 10 studies reported
increased prevalence of adverse neurobehavioral symp-
toms or cancer in populations living at distances < 500
meters from base stations. The studies by Navarro et
al.,2Santini et al.,3Gadzicka et al.,4and Hutter et al.5
reported differences in the distance-dependent preva-
lence of symptoms such as headache, impaired con-
centration, and irritability, while Abdel-Rassoul et al.6
also found lower cognitive performance in individuals
living 10 meters from base stations compared with the
more distant control group. The studies by Eger et al.7
and Wolf and Wolf8reported increased incidence of
cancer in persons living for several years < 400 meters
from base stations. By contrast, the large retrospective
study by Meyer et al.9found no increased incidence of
cancer near base stations in Bavaria. Blettner et al.10
reported in Phase 1 of their study that more health
problems were found closer to base stations, but in
Phase 211 concluded that measured EMF emissions
were not related to adverse health effects (Table 1).
Each of the 10 studies reviewed by us had various
strengths and limitations as summarized in Table 1. Per-
Epidemiological Evidence for a Health Risk
from Mobile Phone Base Stations
Received from: Department of Neurosurgery, The Canberra Hos-
pital, The Australian National University Medical School, Garran,
Australia (VGK); Department of Oncology, University Hospital,
Orebro, Sweden (LH, MC); Research Institute for Nature and Forest
[INBO], Brussels, Belgium (JE); Department of Work Physiology
and Ergonomics, Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine, Lodz,
Poland (AB); Department of Computer Science, University Hospital,
Orebro, Sweden (MA). Send correspondence to: Dr. Vini G. Khu-
rana, Department of Neurosurgery, The Canberra Hospital, PO Box
103, Woden ACT 2606, Australia; email: <>.
Disclosures: The authors declare no conflicts of interest.
taining to those base station studies in which EMF meas-
urements were not carried out,3,4,7,9 it should be noted
that distance is not the most suitable classifier for expo-
sure to RF-EMF. Antennae numbers and configurations,
as well as the absorption and reflection of their fields by
houses, trees, or other geographic hindrances may
influence the exposure level. Further, self-estimation of
distance to nearest base station is not the best predictor
of exposure since the location of the closest base station
is not always known. Such exposure misclassification
inevitably biases any association towards null. Multiple
testing might also produce spurious results if not
adjusted for,3,5 as might failure to adjust for participant
age and gender.7Latency is also an important consider-
ation in the context of cancer incidence following or
during a putative environmental exposure. In this
regard, the study by Meyer et al.9found no association
between mobile phone base station exposure and
cancer incidence, but had a relatively limited observa-
tion period of only two years. On the other hand, the
studies by Eger et al.7and Wolf and Wolf8found a sig-
nificant association between mobile phone base station
exposure and increased cancer incidence, although the
approximate five-year latency between base station
exposure and cancer diagnosis appears to be unexpect-
edly short in both of these studies.
Other problems in several population-based ques-
tionnaires are the potential for bias, especially selection8
and participation2,3,5,6,11 biases, and self-reporting of
outcomes in combination with the exposure assessment
methods used. For example, regarding limitations in
exposure assessment, in a large two-phase base station
study from Germany,12,13of the Phase 1 participants (n =
30,047), only 1326 (4.4%) participated with a single
“spot” EMF measurement recorded in the bedroom for
Phase 2. Further, health effect contributions from all
relevant EMF sources and other non-EMF environmen-
tal sources need to be taken into account.12 We acknowl-
edge that participant concern instead of exposure
could be the triggering factor of adverse health effects,
however this “nocebo effect” does not appear to fully
explain the findings.4,5 Further, the biological relevance
of the overall adverse findings (Table 1) is supported by
the fact that some of the symptoms in these base-station
studies have also been reported among mobile phone
users, such as headaches, concentration difficulties, and
sleep disorders.13,14 Finally, none of the studies that
found adverse health effects of base stations reported
RF exposures above accepted international guidelines,
the implication being that if such findings continue to
be reproduced, current exposure standards are inade-
quate in protecting human populations.15
Figure 1—Mobile phone base stations ("antennae" or "masts") in Australia. Upper left: Community shop roof showing
plethora of flat panel antennae. Upper right: Hospital roof with flat panel antennae painted to blend in. Lower left:
Top of a street light pole. Lower center: Mast erected next to a daycare center. Lower right: Antennae mounted on
an office block top floor.
VOL 16/NO 3, JUL/SEP 2010 Health Risks from Mobile Phone Base Stations 265
TABLE 1 Summary of Epidemiological Studies of Mobile Phone Base Station Health Effects
Publication Clinical Study Station EMF
(Year; Country) Assessment Design Details Participants Measured Key Findings Strengths Limitations
Navarro2Neuro- Survey- GSM-DCS 101 Yes More symptoms with Detailed questionnaire, Low participation, self-
(2003; Spain) behavioral questionnaire 1800 MHz closer proximity to base EMF measured, distan- estimated distances,
station (< 150 m) ces studiedasubjects awareb
Santini2Neuro- Survey- n/s 530 No More symptoms with Detailed questionnaire, As above, plus no EMF
(2003; France) behavioral questionnaire closer proximity to base distances & other EMF measurements, no base
station (< 300 m) exposures assessed station details
Eger7Cancer Retrospective GSM 967 No 3 x risk of cancer after Maximum beam Other environmental risk
(2004; incidence case review 935 MHz 5 yrs of exposure intensity calculated, factors not assessed;
Germany) (< 400 m); early age reliable cancer data analysis not adjusted for
of cancer diagnosis collection age and sex.
Wolf & Wolf8Cancer Retrospective TDMA 1844 Yes > 4 x risk of cancer Reliable cancer & dem- Not all environmental risk
(2004; Israel) incidence case review 850 MHz after 3–7 yrs exposure ographic data, no other factors assessed; possible
(< 350 m); early age major environmental selection bias; no age,
of cancer diagnosis pollutant identified sex adjustment.
Gadzicka4Neuro- Survey- n/s 500 No More headache with Detailed questionnaire, Subjects aware, no base
(2006; Poland) behavioral questionnaire proximity < 150 m; distances & EMF studied, station details
nocebo unlikelycnocebo studied
Hutter5Neuro- Cross- 900 MHz 336 Yes Headaches & impaired Detailed questionnaire Subjects aware, low
(2006; Austria) behavioral sectional concentration at higher and testing, EMF mea- participation rate
power density; nocebo sured, distances studied;
unlikely nocebo effect studied
Meyer9Cancer Retrospective n/s 177,428 No No increased cancer Wide population Observation period only 2
(2006; incidence case review incidence in municipal- assessed (Bavaria) years, vague definitions of
Germany) ities with or without exposure, exposure onset
base stations unknown, distance to base
station unknown
Abdel-Rassoul6Neuro- Cross- n/s 165 Yes More symptoms & lower Detailed questionnaire Exact base station details
(2007; Egypt) behavioral sectional cognitive performance and testing, EMF mea- n/s, low number of
if living under or < 10 m sured, distances studied, participants
from base station subjects unaware
Blettner10 Neuro- Cross- n/s 30,047 No More health complaints Wide population EMF measurements not car-
(2009; behavioral sectional closer to base station assessed, detailed survey, ried out (see phase II in Berg-
Germany) (< 500 m) nocebo effect assessed Beckhoff et al., 2009; below)
Berg-Beckhoff11 Neuro- Cross- GSM 900 MHz 1326 Yes Health effects probably Measured EMF emissions, Low participation, no
(2009; behavioral sectional GSM 1800 MHz caused by stress and not standardized detailed list of symptoms
Germany) UMTS 1920–1980 by RF-EMF questionnaires published, single “spot” mea-
MHz surement in one place in
dwelling, no occupational
exposure assessed, time lag
from assessment of symptoms
and EMF measurement
n / s = not specified.
a“Distance” refers to distance between base station and subjects’ households.
b“Subjects aware” refers to study participants being aware of the nature of the study.
c“Nocebo” effect unlikely because the majority of subjects in the study reported little or no concern for base station proximity.
Despite variations in the design, size and quality of
these studies as summarized in Table 1, it is the con-
sistency of the base-station epidemiological litera-
ture from several countries that we find striking. In
particular, the increased prevalence of adverse neu-
robehavioral symptoms or cancer in populations
living at distances < 500 meters from base stations
found in 80% of the available studies. It should be
pointed out that the overall findings of health prob-
lems associated with base stations might be based on
methodological weaknesses, especially since expo-
sure to RF electromagnetic radiation was not always
There are some proposed mechanisms via which
low-intensity EMF might affect animal and human
health,16,17 but full comprehensive mechanisms still
remain to be determined.18,19 Despite this, the accu-
mulating epidemiological literature pertaining to the
health effects of mobile phones13,20 and their base sta-
tions (Table 1) suggests that previous exposure stan-
dards based on the thermal effects of EMF should no
longer be regarded as tenable. In August 2007, an
international working group of scientists, researchers,
and public health policy professionals (the BioInitia-
tive Working Group) released its report on EMF and
health.21 It raised evidence-based concerns about the
safety of existing public limits that regulate how much
EMF is allowable from power lines, cellular phones,
base stations, and many other sources of EMF expo-
sure in daily life. The BioInitiative Report21 provided
detailed scientific information on health impacts
when people were exposed to electromagnetic radia-
tion hundreds or even thousands of times below limits
currently established by the FCC and International
Commission for Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection in
Europe (ICNIRP). The authors reviewed more than
2000 scientific studies and reviews, and have con-
cluded that: (1) the existing public safety limits are
inadequate to protect public health; and (2) from a
public health policy standpoint, new public safety
limits and limits on further deployment of risky tech-
nologies are warranted based on the total weight of
evidence.21 A precautionary limit of 1 mW/m2 (0.1
microW/cm2or 0.614 V/m) was suggested in Section
17 of the BioInitiative Report to be adopted for out-
door, cumulative RF exposure.21 This limit is a cau-
tious approximation based on the results of several
human RF-EMF studies in which no substantial
adverse effects on well being were found at low expo-
sures akin to power densities of less than 0.5 – 1
mW/m2.2,5,22–26 RF-EMF exposure at distances > 500 m
from the types of mobile phone base stations reviewed
herein should fall below the precautionary limit of
0.614 V/m.
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VOL 16/NO 3, JUL/SEP 2010 Health Risks from Mobile Phone Base Stations 267
... The rapid development of electronic and telecommunications technologies has led to significant changes in the general population's exposure to electromagnetic fields (EMF), particularly the massive use of wireless electronic devices in modern society inevitably implies exposure to electromagnetic waves (Kim et al., 2019) from cell phones, communication towers, wireless devices, wireless internet (Wi-Fi) and power lines (Mortazavi, 2015). This situation is alarming as constant exposure to NIR in the form of radiofrequency (RF) and extremely low frequency (ELF) radiation has been associated with adverse health effects including immune system disorders, arrhythmias, vascular problems, depressive disorders, memory problems, behavioral disorders, learning problems, hearing problems, free radical production, and DNA breakdown (Bayat et al., 2017;Chauhan et al., 2017;Da Silva et al., 2015;Kelfkens, 2017;Khurana et al., 2010;Paulraj & Behari, 2006). Likewise, the relationship between chronic RF exposure and subfertility (Forgács et al., 2006), brain tumors (Persson et al., 1997;Salford et al., 2003), and other types of non-cerebral cancers (Richter et al., 2000;Velizarov et al., 1999) has been reported. ...
... Urban growth leads to the development of electrical and telecommunications infrastructure derived from the increasing demand for energy and communication services every year. This infrastructure is distributed ubiquitously across urban areas and is the main emitting source and most relevant contributor to artificial NIR (Jalilian et al., 2019;Khurana et al., 2010). In this context, the objective of our study was to evaluate contamination by NIR in two locations of Xochimilco, CDMX. ...
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The objective of this study was to estimate electromagnetic pollution by radio frequency (RF) and magnetic field (CM) over one year by measuring the intensity near schools, hospitals, business premises, and homes in a commercial and a residential zone of Xochimilco, México City. The RF and the CM were measured using an EXTECH® EMF450 meter. We compared the values of nonionizing radiation (NIR) found in the environment with the levels reported to affect the biological systems of both humans and animals. We also compared these values with the limits established both nationally and internationally. The highest average CM and RF values in the central zone were 6.38 μT and 1316 μW/m2, respectively, while in the housing area, they were 5.08 μT and 66 μW/m2. The values we registered were below the permissible limits both nationally and internationally. However, they were above the reported threshold that could trigger adverse health effects according to some authors. These values are within the limits established by the International Commission on Non- Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP). Further studies are required as there is still nothing conclusive regarding this type of radiation and its effects.
... Several studies during the 21 st century have shown increased risk for the microwave syndrome symptoms among those living close to base stations, although highest exposure levels were far below the limits recommended by ICNIRP [20]. For example a study from Spain reported exposure from base station associated with increased prevalence of fatigue, irritability, headaches, nausea, loss of appetite, sleeping disorder, depressive tendency, and feeling of discomfort, difficulty in concentration, loss of memory, visual disorder, dizziness and cardiovascular problems although the highest exposure group was exposed to only between 165 to 4 400 µW/m ² in the bedroom [21]. ...
... Other studies have investigated various microwave syndrome symptoms in relation to distance from base stations. Increased prevalence has been found within 500 meters [20,26]. ...
... Blettner et al., 2009;Röösli et al., 2010;Baliatsas et al., 2016) whereas others found increases in cancer and other health problems in humans living around antennas (e. g. Santini et al., 2002;Navarro et al., 2003;Bortkiewicz et al., 2004;Eger et al., 2004;Wolf and Wolf, 2004;Abdel-Rassoul et al., 2007;Khurana et al., 2010;Dode et al., 2011;Shinjyo and Shinjyo, 2014;Gandhi et al., 2015;López et al., 2021;Rodrigues et al., 2021). There is a specific symptomatology linked to radar and RF exposure at low levels, characterized by functional disturbances of the central nervous system (headache, sleep disturbance, discomfort, irritability, depression, memory loss, dizziness, fatigue, nausea, appetite loss, difficulty in concentration, dizziness, etc.), that has been termed 'RF sickness' (Lilienfeld et al., 1978;Johnson Lyakouris, 1998;Navarro et al., 2003). ...
... From among all these studies, most of them found effects (73.6%). Thus, despite some limitations and differences in study design, statistical measures, risk estimates and exposure categories (Khurana et al., 2010), together they provide a consistent view of the effects on the health of people living in the vicinity of base station antennas. ...
The objective of this work was to perform a complete review of the existing scientific literature to update the knowledge on the effects of base station antennas on humans. Studies performed in real urban conditions, with mobile phone base stations situated close to apartments, were selected. Overall results of this review show three types of effects by base station antennas on the health of people: radiofrequency sickness (RS), cancer (C) and changes in biochemical parameters (CBP). Considering all the studies reviewed globally (n = 38), 73.6% (28/38) showed effects: 73.9% (17/23) for radiofrequency sickness, 76.9% (10/13) for cancer and 75.0% (6/8) for changes in biochemical parameters. Furthermore, studies that did not meet the strict conditions to be included in this review provided important supplementary evidence. The existence of similar effects from studies by different sources (but with RF of similar characteristics), such as radar, radio and television antennas, wireless smart meters and laboratory studies, reinforce the conclusions of this review. Of special importance are the studies performed on animals or trees near base station antennas that cannot be aware of their proximity and to which psychosomatic effects can never be attributed.
... A review by Khurana et al. (2010) found in 80% of the available studies neurobehavioral symptoms or cancer in populations living at distances <500 m from base stations (Khurana et al., 2010). In another review exposure from base stations and other antenna arrays showed changes in immunological and reproductive systems as well as DNA double strand breaks, influence on calcium movement in the heart and increased proliferation rates in human astrocytoma cancer cells (Levitt and Lai, 2010). ...
... A review by Khurana et al. (2010) found in 80% of the available studies neurobehavioral symptoms or cancer in populations living at distances <500 m from base stations (Khurana et al., 2010). In another review exposure from base stations and other antenna arrays showed changes in immunological and reproductive systems as well as DNA double strand breaks, influence on calcium movement in the heart and increased proliferation rates in human astrocytoma cancer cells (Levitt and Lai, 2010). ...
In urban environment there is a constant increase of public exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic fields from mobile phone base stations. With the placement of mobile phone base station antennas radiofrequency hotspots emerge. This study investigates an area at Skeppsbron street in Stockholm, Sweden with an aggregation of base station antennas placed at low level close to pedestrians' heads. Detailed spatial distribution measurements were performed with 1) a radiofrequency broadband analyzer and 2) a portable exposimeter. The results display a greatly uneven distribution of the radiofrequency field with hotspots. The highest spatial average across all quadrat cells was 12.1 V m⁻¹ (388 mW m⁻²), whereas the maximum recorded reading from the entire area was 31.6 V m⁻¹ (2648 mW m⁻²). Exposimeter measurements show that the majority of exposure is due to mobile phone downlink bands. Most dominant are 2600 and 2100 MHz bands used by 4G and 3G mobile phone services, respectively. The average radiofrequency radiation values from the earlier studies show that the level of ambient RF radiation exposure in Stockholm is increasing. This study concluded that mobile phone base station antennas at Skeppsbron, Stockholm are examples of poor radiofrequency infrastructure design which brings upon highly elevated exposure levels to popular seaside promenade and a busy traffic street.
... En las últimas décadas se han reportado una gran cantidad de efectos adversos a la salud como resultado de la exposición crónica a radiofrecuencias (RF) desde trastornos de sueño (Lebedeva et al., 2000;Mohler et al., 2010), subfertilidad (Forgács et al., 2006;Alchalabi et al., 2015), debilitación del sistema inmune (Bayat et al., 2017;Russell, 2018) y arritmias cardiacas (Guerrero & Pérez, 2006;Khurana et al., 2010), hasta producción de radicales libres (Chauhan et al., 2017), ruptura de ADN (Paulraj & Behari, 2006), y algunos tipos de cáncer (Persson et al., 1997;Velizarov et al., 1999;Richter et al., 2000;Salford et al., 2003;IARC, 2011). ...
The use of different nuclear data libraries and physics models can be a source of discrepancies in neutron transport simulation. Different Monte Carlo simulation toolkits can be used to characterize neutron monitors, these codes usually employ by default different nuclear data libraries and physics models. This work presents, for the first time, a comparison of MCNP and PHITS for the characterization of a LUPIN-II neutron rem-meter. The most significant discrepancies between the codes have been found around 100 MeV.
... This clearly showed that each effect was produced largely or completely via VGCC activation. Furthermore, the effects can be produced via mechanisms described in Fig. (1), showing an excellent fit for the proposed mechanisms of action of EMFs [62][63][64][65]. ...
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Electronically generated electromagnetic fields (EMFs) including those used in wireless communication such as cell phones, Wi-Fi and smart meters, are coherent, producing very high electric and magnetic forces which act on the voltage sensor of voltage-gated calcium channels to produce increases in intracellular calcium [Ca2+]i. The calcium hypothesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) has shown that each of the important AD-specific and nonspecific causal elements are produced by excessive [Ca2+]i. [Ca2+]i acts in AD via excessive calcium signaling and the peroxynitrite/oxidative stress/inflammation pathway which are each elevated by EMFs. An apparent vicious cycle in AD involves amyloid-beta protein (A) and [Ca2+]i. Three types of epidemiology each suggest EMF causation of AD including early onset AD. Extensive animal model studies show that low intensity EMFs cause neurodegeneration including AD, with AD animals having elevated levels of A, amyloid precursor protein and BACE1. Rats exposed to pulsed EMFs every day are reported to develop universal or near universal very very very early onset neurodegeneration including AD; these findings are superficially similar to humans with digital dementia. EMFs producing modest increases in [Ca2+]i can also produce protective, therapeutic effects. The therapeutic pathway and peroxynitrite pathway inhibit each other. A summary of 18 different findings is provided, which collectively provide powerful evidence for EMF causation of AD. The author is concerned that smarter, more highly pulsed "smart" wireless communication may cause widespread very, very early onset AD in human populations.
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In recent years, communication using electromagnetic (EM) radiation became an integral part of our lives. As a result, there is a large number of base transceiver stations (BTSs) which act as a source of high EM exposure for inhabitants mainly in the “hot-spot” areas. They employ higher values of radiation, thus, providing potentially harmful effects on living or working environment. The aim of this pilot study was to study a distribution of hot-spots and EMF power in a vicinity of BTSs. BTS was located in an extra-village area at least 500 m away from the nearest city or surrounded villages in the district of Martin. The targeted area of EM radiation from the BTS was divided into two smaller zones, the right and the left. For a better visualization, topographic maps were created. Using spectral analyzer Aaronia Spectran HF-6085, intensities of EMF within the frequency range from 880 – 960 MHz (GSM900) were recorded. Maximum values of EMF power flux density were 146.827 μW/m2 in horizontal and 96.448 μW/m2 in vertical plane. Minimal va lues were 0.052 μW/m2 in horizontal and 0.179 μW/m2 vertical plane respectively. The maps revealed two hotspots in the left zone and also two (smaller and larger) hotspots in the right zone. Our values were below the actual limits given by the Slovak Republic and the International Commission for Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) safety guidelines. However, the values from the hotspots were above the limits suggested by the BioInitiative Report. Our results indicate an elevation of EMF values in the hot-spots even in the extra-village areas. Further studies are needed to analyze in detail EMF parameters in the hot-spots, and their effects on living and working environments.
Electromagnetic Hypersensitivity is categorised as a multisymptomatic 'el-allergy' in the Nordic classification of 2000 (R.68.8). Its symptoms are 'certainly real' and it can be a 'disabling condition' (W.H.O., 2005). It was first recorded in the mid 20th century as an occupational illness, but it has now spread into the general population through environmental exposure from increasing levels of electromagnetic fields and radiation. This Summary covers current research on this syndrome, covering EM Sensitivity and EM Hypersensitivity. It includes tables of symptoms, EMF sources and exposure guidelines, along with references to scientific studies. This New Edition adds updates, international doctors' protocols, aspects of quantum biology, evidence for sensitivity in animals and plants, case studies, disability issues and human rights.
PurposeBTS waves are one of the most important environmental pollutants, but there is inadequate data of its effects on living creatures. Birds have major role in environmental balance and hematologic factors are good describers of animal health. Therefore, we studied hematological factors in pigeons to assess the health effects of BTS waves in urban birds.Methods This experiment has been run on 120 six month-old pigeons. After adaptation to laboratory settings, they divided to six random groups of distance from BTS and daily exposure time. G1: 50 cm/30 min, G2: 100 cm/30 min daily, G3: 150 cm/30 min, G4: 50 cm/60 min, G5: 100 cm/60 min and G6: 150 cm/60 min. Daily exposure done for 30 consecutive days. Hematologic studies done before and after exposure for analysis of WBC, Neut, Mono, Lymph, RBC, Hb, HCT, MCV, MCHC and platelets. Results processed statistically by SPSS software.ResultsThe results of this study showed a significant difference between the six experimental groups. The results showed distance from the BTS source had the largest effect on PLT followed by HCT, MCV, MCHC, Neut, Hb, RBC, Lymph, WBC, and Mono, respectively. Moreover, the duration of exposure to BTS wave had the largest effect on Mono followed by PLT, Neut, MCV, MCHC, WBC, HCT, Lymph, RBC and Hb, respectively.Conclusions Study showed that increasing exposure time and decreasing distance from the wave source have significant effect on hematologic factors. The distance has more effect than exposure time. Further investigation on protection and reducing the side effects are recommended.
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2012-2018 - Peer Reviewed Published Research Studies On Wi-Fi And 2.4 GHz Wireless Frequencies
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In her widely cited News of the Week story “Fraud charges cast doubt on claims of DNA damage from cell phone fields” (29 August, p. [1144][1]), G. Vogel writes, “The only two peer-reviewed scientific papers showing that electromagnetic fields (EMFs) from cell phones can cause DNA breakage are
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A health survey was carried out in Murcia, Spain, in the vicinity of a Cellular Phone Base Station working in DCS‐1800 MHz. This survey contained health items related to “microwave sickness” or “RF syndrome.” The microwave power density was measured at the respondents' homes. Statistical analysis showed significant correlation between the declared severity of the symptoms and the measured power density. The separation of respondents into two different exposure groups also showed an increase of the declared severity in the group with the higher exposure.
Conference Paper
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Life on earth was formed during billions of years, exposed to, and shaped by the original physical forces such as gravitation, cosmic irradiation, atmospheric electric fields and the terrestrial magnetism. The Schumann resonances at 7.4 Hz are an example of oscillations possibly important for life.¹⁾ The existing organisms are created to function in harmony with these forces. However, in the late 19th century mankind introduced the use of electricity, in the early 20th century long-wave radio and in the 1940-ies short-wave radio. High frequency RF was introduced in the 50-ies as FM and television and during the very last decades, microwaves of the modern communication society spread around the world. Today, however, one third of the world's population is owner of the microwave-producing mobile phones and an even larger number is exposed to the cordless RF emitting systems. To what extent are all living organisms affected by these, almost everywhere present radio frequency fields? And what will be the effects of many years of continuing exposure? Since 1988 our group has studied the effects upon the mammalian blood-brain barrier (BBB) in rats by non-thermal radio frequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF). These have been shown to cause significantly increased leakage of the rats' own blood albumin through the BBB of exposed rats, at energy levels of 1W/kg and below, as compared to non-exposed animals in a total series of about two thousand animals.²⁾⁻⁶⁾ One remarkable observation is the fact that the lowest energy levels, with whole-body average power densities below 10mW/kg, give rise to the most pronounced albumin leakage. If mobile communication, even at extremely low energy levels, causes the users' own albumin to leak out through the BBB, also other unwanted and toxic molecules in the blood, may leak into the brain tissue and concentrate in and damage the neurons and glial cells of the brain. In later studies we have shown that a 2-h exposure to GSM 915 MHz, at non-thermal SAR-values of 0.2, 2 and 200 mW/kg, gives rise to significant neuronal damage, seen not only 50 days after the exposure⁷⁾ but also after 28 days but not after 14 days. Albumin extravasations and uptake into neurons was enhanced after 14 days, but not after 28.⁸⁾ In our continued research, also the non-thermal effects on tissue structure and memory function of long-term exposure for 13 months are studied.⁹⁾ We have also performed micro-array analysis of brains from rats exposed to short term GSM both at 1,800 MHz and at 900MHz and have found significant effects upon gene expression of membrane associated genes as compared to control animals.10), 11) Most of our findings support that living organisms are affected by the non-thermal radio frequency fields. Some other studies agree while others find no effects.
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The aim of our study was to assess the health conditions and subjective symptoms of the inhabitants living in the base stations vicinity and to analyse the relationship between the complaints and level of exposure to electromagnetic fields (EMF). Our study was performed in housing estates located in five regions of Łódź. The electric field measurements were performed in the buildings located closest to the azimuth of the antennas. Respondents were selected by trained interviewers using an uniform procedure. The number of the households to be examined was set at a minimum of 420. The questionnaire contained: demographic data, occupational and environmental exposure to EMF, health condition, subjective complaints. Results were adjusted for confounders (age, gender, EMF at the workplace and EMF emitted by household equipment) using multiple regression model. 181 men and 319 women from 500 households were examined. Electric field above 0.8 V/m was recorded in 12% of flats. There was no significant correlation between electric field strength and the distance of examined flats from the base stations. To make possible comparison with relevant literature, we analysed also the frequency of the reported symptoms vs. the distance. Headache was declared by 57% people, most frequently (36.4%) living 100-150 m away from the base station compared to people living at longer distances (p = 0.013). 24.4% subjects, mostly living at a distance above 150 m, declared impaired memory. Difference was statistically significant in comparison with people living at other distances (p = 0.004). The explanation why we did not find any correlation between the electric field strength and frequency of subjective symptoms but found a correlation between subjective symptoms and distance from base station needs further studies. Maybe new metrics of exposure assessment should be adopted for this purpose.
Background: Impacts of emissions from cellular telephone relay stations are frequently discussed in the public and politics. Up to now population based studies about these effects on cancer incidence were not published. Method: By means of an ecologic study, we evaluated the possible association between the presence of cellular telephone relay stations and the incidence of malignant cancer. The study population consisted of 177,428 persons living in 48 municipalities in Bavaria. The observed municipalities were classified into three categories of relay station coverage. Results: Cancer incidence was not found to be elevated in municipalities with cellular telephone relay stations. The cancer incidence was highly variable in areas without any relay station. The mean age of cancer patients living in towns with relay stations was comparable to that of patients living in villages and towns far away from any relay station. Cancer occurrence in special tumour sites thought to be sensible for radiation effects did not show an association with the locations of the cellular telephone infrastructure. Conclusions: The high variance of cancer incidence in towns without a cellular telephone relay station qualifies reports about local cancer clusters in the surrounding of such relay stations.
Background: Conceptualised as a feasibility study, this double-blind experiment investigates whether the electromagnetic fields of a UMTS base station are associated with the well-being of persons working in its proximity. Methods: Over a period of three months (70 working days), a newly installed mobile phone base station was turned on or off after one, two or three days. The operating status plan was chosen randomly from three possible versions, which enabled a double-blind study design. Using an online questionnaire developed especially for this study, the goal was to register if and how sensitively participants react to the base station's operating status. Participants (n = 95) were requested to report their health status on each working day. In addition, they also guessed on a daily basis whether the base station was turned on or off. Results and Conclusions: Overall, the results of this feasibility study showed that the online questionnaire developed is practicable and also capable of registering health complaints connected to electromagnetic fields. No evidence for a correlation between mobile phone base station exposure and self-reported health complaints was found. However, on the days participants made significantly more health complaints, they also thought the mobile phone base station was in use. This is interpreted as an incorrect attribution, which strongly emphasises the importance of using (double-) blind designs in corresponding research. © ecomed Medizin, Verlagsgruppe Hüthig Jehle Rehm GmbH, Landsberg.
Im Anschluss an die durch den rasanten Anstieg der drahtlosen Telefonie in den letzten Jahren be- dingte Zunahme der Zahl von Mobilfunksendeanlagen in oder in unmittelbarer Nähe von Wohn- gebieten erfolgte die Aufforderung des Präsidenten des Bundesamtes für Strahlenschutz, Wolfram König, an alle Ärzte, aktiv an der Abschätzung des Risikos durch Mobilfunkstrahlung mitzuarbei- ten. Das Ziel dieser Untersuchung war daher, zu prüfen, ob Anwohner in der Nähe von Mobilfunk- sendeanlagen einem erhöhten Risiko für Neuerkrankungen an bösartigen Tumoren ausgesetzt sind. Datengrundlage waren PC-gespeicherte und mit den Krankenkassen abgerechnete Patienten- unterlagen der Jahre 1994 bis 2004. In die ohne Fremdmittel erstellte Studie wurden Angaben von knapp 1.000 Patienten aus Naila (Oberfranken) unter Wahrung des Datenschutzes aufgenommen. Als Ergebnis zeigte sich, dass der Anteil von neu aufgetretenen Krebsfällen bei den Patienten, die während der letzten zehn Jahre in einem Abstand bis zu 400 Meter um die seit 1993 betriebene Mobilfunksendeanlage gewohnt hatten, gegenüber weiter entfernt lebenden Patienten signifi- kant höher war und die Patienten in durchschnittlich jüngerem Alter erkrankt waren. Für die Jahre 1999 bis 2004 - also nach fünf und mehr Jahren Betriebszeit des Senders - hatte sich das Malignomrisiko für die näher an der Sendestation lebende Bevölkerungsgruppe im Vergleich mit der Gruppe im Nailaer Außenbereich verdreifacht.
The result of the study shows that the proportion of newly developing cancer cases was significantly higher among those patients who had lived during the past ten years at a distance of up to 400 metres from the cellular transmitter site, which has been in operation since 1993, compared to those patients living further away, and that the patients fell ill on average 8 years earlier. In the years 1999-2004, ie after five years' operation of the transmitting installation, the relative risk of getting cancer had trebled for the residents of the area in the proximity of the installation compared to the inhabitants of Naila outside the area.
A survey study was conducted, using a questionnaire, on 530 people (270 men, 260 women) living or not in proximity to cellular phone base stations. Eighteen different symptoms (Non Specific Health Symptoms–NSHS), described as radiofrequency sickness, were studied by means of the chi‐square test with Yates correction. The results that were obtained underline that certain complaints are experienced only in the immediate vicinity of base stations (up to 10 m for nausea, loss of appetite, visual disturbances), and others at greater distances from base stations (up to 100 m for irritability, depressive tendencies, lowering of libido, and up to 200 m for headaches, sleep disturbances, feeling of discomfort). In the 200 m to 300 m zone, only the complaint of fatigue is experienced significantly more often when compared with subjects residing at more than 300 m or not exposed (reference group). For seven of the studied symptoms and for the distance up to 300 m, the frequency of reported complaints is significantly higher (P < 0.05) for women in comparison with men. Significant differences are also observed in relation to the ages of subjects, and for the location of subjects in relation to the antennas and other electromagnetic factors.
Abstract Significant concern has been raised about possible health effects from exposure to radiofrequency (RF) electromagnetic fields, especially after the rapid introduction of mobile telecommunications systems. Parents are especially concerned with the possibility that children might develop cancer after exposure to the RF emissions from mobile telephone base stations erected in or near schools. The few epidemiologic studies that did report on cancer incidence in relation to RF radiation have generally presented negative or inconsistent results, and thus emphasize the need for more studies that should investigate cohorts with high RF exposure for changes in cancer incidence. The aim of this study is to investigate whether there is an increased cancer incidence in populations, living in a small area, and exposed to RF radiation from a cell-phone transmitter station.