Thyroid Bed Fine-Needle Aspiration Experience at a Large Tertiary Care Center
Dept. of Pathology, The Johns Hopkins Hospital, Baltimore, MD 21287, USA.American Journal of Clinical Pathology (Impact Factor: 2.51). 08/2010; 134(2):335-9. DOI: 10.1309/AJCPD60AHRUCMDPF
Fine-needle aspiration (FNA) of thyroid bed (TB) lesions is a common diagnostic modality in monitoring patients for recurrent cancer after a thyroidectomy. To elucidate the value of TB FNA, we reviewed our experience at The Johns Hopkins Hospital, Baltimore, MD. We identified 57 TB FNA specimens from 50 patients. Of the patients, 36 were being followed up for papillary carcinoma, 7 for medullary carcinoma, 4 for follicular carcinoma (1 also had papillary carcinoma), and 1 for poorly differentiated neuroendocrine carcinoma; 3 had previous benign diagnoses. TB FNA yielded diagnostic material in 49 of 57 cases. Of 37 malignant or atypical FNA samples, 32 had surgical follow-up; 30 of 32 were confirmed malignant. The FNA result was benign in 12 of 57, including 6 cases of benign thyroid and 1 case of parathyroid tissue. Immunohistochemical staining was contributory in 5 of 57 cases. TB FNA is a highly reliable tool for diagnosing recurrent thyroid carcinoma. Residual benign thyroid and parathyroid tissue are potential pitfalls; awareness of these and judicious use of immunohistochemical staining can prevent misdiagnoses.
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ABSTRACT: To present the treatment results and to analyze the causes of recurrence in patients with papillary thyroid carcinoma. A retrospective review of 600 patients with papillary thyroid carcinoma treated between 1994 and 1999 was conducted. The primary lesions were originated from the left lobe in 188 cases, the right lobe in 290 cases, the isthmus in 8 cases, and multicentric in 114 cases. From the 600 cases, 584 were well-differentiated and 16 poorly differentiated. TNM stage:385 cases of stage I, 37 cases of stage II, 17 cases of stage III, and 161 cases of stage IV. Three hundred and one patients was N1b stage. All patients received surgical treatment. Among them, 19 cases received radiotherapy, 71 received (131)I-therapy and one case received concomitant radiotherapy and (131)I-therapy. There were 94 recurrent cases. Twenty-seven cases died of recurrence, metastasis and other diseases. The overall 10-year survival rate was 93.2%. The overall 10 year survival rates of stage I, II, III, and IV patients were 99.1%, 94.7%, 93.8%, and 78.5%, respectively (P < 0.01). The 10-year survival rate of lower-age group (< 45 years) was 99.4% and higher-age group (≥ 45 years) 82.1% (P < 0.01). The 10-year survival rate of patients with trachea invasion was 66.5%, significantly lower than the 95.1% in patients without trachea invasion (P < 0.01). The 10-year survival rate of well-differentiated cases was 94.9%, significantly higher than the 38.9% in the poorly differentiated cases (P < 0.01). Multivariate analysis showed that the TNM stage, differentiation degree and the thorough going surgical operation were independent risk factors for the prognosis of papillary thyroid carcinoma. The TNM stage, differentiation degree and the thorough going surgical operation are independent risk factors for the prognosis of papillary thyroid carcinoma.
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ABSTRACT: Background: Ultrasound, and sometimes cytology, cannot differentiate between recurrent or persistent thyroid cancer and benign forms of space occupying lesions (SOLs) in the thyroid bed, including unsuspected thyroid remnants, that are noted several months to years after thyroidectomy (Tx) for thyroid cancer. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the hypothesis that measurement of thyroglobulin (Tg) in fine-needle aspirates from these lesions might help differentiate between benign and malignant SOLs in the thyroid bed. Methods: We studied 47 lesions in the thyroid bed from 43 patients who, 8-240 months previously, had 43 Txs for thyroid cancer. Eleven patients had a lobectomy and 32 patients had a total Tx. Also, some patients had radioactive iodine (RAI) ablation after their thyroid surgery and some did not. "Recurrence" was defined as the SOL, which was confirmed by cytological or histopathological results. "Benign SOL" was defined as a focal lesion, which was benign or nondiagnostic result on cytology and for which there was no RAI uptake on whole-body scintigraphy with both negative serum Tg and Tg antibodies. Diagnostic performances of fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC), FNA-Tg, and combining FNAC with FNA-Tg level were assessed for detection of malignant SOL. The diagnostic performance of FNA-Tg was assessed using three threshold values: 1 ng/mL, 10 ng/mL, and an FNA-Tg/serum-Tg ratio of 1.0. Results: FNA-Tg level and combining FNA-Tg levels with FNAC had higher sensitivities (100% in all three threshold values) and diagnostic accuracies (91.5%-95.7%) than FNAC alone (sensitivity of 85.3%, accuracy of 89.4%) in all threshold values. In both the RAI ablation and non-RAI ablation groups, the FNA-Tg levels and combining the FNA-Tg levels with FNAC had a higher sensitivity and diagnostic accuracy than FNAC alone with threshold values of 10 ng/mL and FNA-Tg/serum-Tg ratio of 1.0. The non-RAI ablation group did not have a different diagnostic accuracy than the RAI ablation group in all threshold values (p>0.05). FNA-Tg level showed a negative predictive value of 100% in all threshold values, in both the RAI ablation and the non-RAI ablation groups. Conclusions: Measurement of Tg levels in the FNA of SOLs in the thyroid bed can be helpful in diagnosing tumor recurrence, because an FNA-Tg level lower than the threshold value has the added value of suggesting a benign lesion rather than tumor recurrence.
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ABSTRACT: Objectives: The purpose of this study was to determine the importance of nondiagnostic fine-needle aspiration biopsy results for post-thyroidectomy bed lesions in patients with thyroid cancer. Methods: The Institutional Review Board approved this retrospective Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act-compliant study with a waiver for informed consent. Twenty-one patients with nondiagnostic fine-needle aspiration biopsy of a thyroid bed lesion after thyroidectomy with at least 1 year of follow-up with neck imaging were retrospectively enrolled in our study. The tumor type, local staging, radiotherapy, serum thyroglobulin levels, and imaging characteristics of the thyroid bed lesions were recorded. All patients underwent sonographically guided fine-needle aspiration biopsy of the thyroid bed lesion. Results: The mean imaging follow-up ± SD was 46.3 ± 28.7 months. Lesions in 20 patients (95.2%) were stable on imaging. Most thyroid bed lesions were hypoechoic (80.9%), and none showed calcifications. The mean thyroid bed mass maximum diameter was 1.17 ± 0.6 cm (range, 0.3-2.9 cm). Conclusions: Thyroid bed lesions with nondiagnostic fine-needle aspiration biopsy results after thyroidectomy can be managed with imaging follow-up; 1-year imaging is a reasonable interval after biopsy.
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