Dietary Blueberries Attenuate Atherosclerosis in Apolipoprotein E-Deficient Mice by Upregulating Antioxidant Enzyme Expression

USDA Arkansas Children's Nutrition Center, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, AR 72202, USA.
Journal of Nutrition (Impact Factor: 3.88). 09/2010; 140(9):1628-32. DOI: 10.3945/jn.110.123927
Source: PubMed


Protective effects of blueberries (BB) against atherosclerosis and potential underlying mechanisms in reducing oxidative stress were examined in apoE-deficient (apoE(-/-)) mice. ApoE(-/-) mice were fed an AIN-93G diet (CD) or CD formulated to contain 1% freeze-dried whole BB for 20 wk. The mean lesion area for apoE(-/-) mice fed BB was reduced by 39% (P < 0.001) in the aorta sinus and 58% (P < 0.001) in the descending aorta compared with CD-fed mice. These atheroprotective effects were independent of the serum lipid profile or total antioxidant capacity (as measured by oxygen radical absorbance capacity). The concentration of a biomarker of lipid peroxidation, F(2)-isoprostane, was lower in liver of BB-fed mice (P < 0.05). Genes analyzed by RT-PCR array showed that 4 major antioxidant enzymes in aorta [superoxide dismutase (SOD) 1, SOD2, glutathione reductase (GSR), and thioredoxin reductase 1] were upregulated in BB-fed mice. Enzyme activities of SOD and GSR were greater (P < 0.05) in liver and/or serum of BB-fed mice than those of CD-fed mice. In addition, serum paraoxonase 1 activity in serum of BB-fed mice was also greater than that of CD-fed mice (P < 0.05) at the end of the study. These results suggest a protective effectiveness of BB against atherosclerosis in this apoE(-/-) mouse model. The potential mechanisms may involve reduction in oxidative stress by both inhibition of lipid peroxidation and enhancement of antioxidant defense.

Full-text preview

Available from:
  • Source
    • "Fresh blueberries are known to have higher antioxidant capacity than other fruits (Wu et al., 2004). Phytochemicals from blueberries are reported to lower blood cholesterol (Prior et al., 2009) and prevent cancers and atherosclerosis (Adams et al., 2010; Wu et al., 2010). Research suggested that phytochemicals extracted from blueberries were more effective than whole fruits in preventing body weight gain (Prior et al., 2008). "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Blueberries contain antioxidant phytochemicals, such as anthocyanins, flavonols, and procyanidins, with many reported health benefits. In the present study, phytochemicals from blueberries were extracted using ultra-sound assisted hot water extraction and concentrated with Amberlite adsorption resins. Static adsorption tests showed that FPX66 resin had a higher adsorption capacity and desorption ratio than XAD7HP and XAD4 resins. XAD761 and XAD1180 showed the lowest desorption capacity and ratio. Kinetic adsorption and isotherm tests revealed that FPX66 had the highest adsorption efficiency and required shorter time to reach adsorption equilibrium. Dynamic adsorption on a FPX 66 resin column demonstrated that anthocyanins in the blueberry water extract started to break through after 16 bed volumes of extract was loaded. A complete desorption was achieved using 3 bed volumes of 95% ethanol. One hundred grams of fresh blueberries yielded 0.80 g concentrated blueberry extract. Sugars were not detected in the extract.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2014 · Journal of Food Engineering
  • Source
    • "Blueberries are sold fresh or processed as individually quick frozen (IQF) fruit, juice or dried or infused berries, which in turn may be used in a variety of consumer products such as jellies, jams, pies, muffins, snack foods and cereals. Blueberries have been shown to reduce the risk of artherosclerosis in apolipoprotein-E deficient mice, which are highly prone to oxidative stress and antioxidant deficiencies in situations of high blood cholesterol [4]. Blueberry extract was found to be effective in inhibiting proliferation of HL60 human leukemia and HCT116 human colon carcinoma cells in vitro. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The protective effect of blueberry (BB) on the clastogenic effects of MNNG and DMBA was evaluated with the induced micronucleus (MN) frequency as a biomarker, both in vitro and in vivo. Human hepatoma HepG2 cells, which contain most of the metabolic activating enzymes was used for the in vitro test. MN frequencies were determined in binucleated cells generated by blocking cytokinesis by use of cytochalasin b. The MN frequency in vivo was determined in polychromatic erythrocytes (PCEs) from the bone marrow of treated mice. BB by itself was not toxic both in vivo and in vitro. There was no evidence of a potential physico-chemical interaction between BB and the test carcinogens in vitro. Pre-treatment with BB reduced the MN frequency induced by MNNG. But, simultaneous treatment and post-treatment with BB did not affect the frequency of MNNG-induced MN. BB did not affect the frequency of DMBA-induced MN in vitro under any test condition. Under in vivo conditions, BB reduced the frequencies of MNNG- and DMBA-induced MN in PCEs, but in the case of the protective effect of BB against DMBA a dramatic reduction in the percentage of PCEs was observed, suggesting increased cytotoxicity.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2013 · Mutation Research/Fundamental and Molecular Mechanisms of Mutagenesis
  • Source
    • "However, experimental diet FBL seemed to counteract the adverse effect of L-NAME on the ALAT increase, suggesting a possible protecting effect on hepatocytes. Consumption of blueberries has been reported to reduce hepatocyte injury, lipid peroxidation [24], and oxidative stress [25, 26]. Furthermore, fermentation of blueberries has been shown to increase the total polyphenols and antioxidant capacities [27, 28]. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Prebiotics, probiotics, or synbiotics can be used as means to regulate the microbiota to exert preventative or beneficial effects to the host. However, not much is known about the effect of the gut microbiota on hypertension which is a major risk factor of cardiovascular disease and also a symptom of the metabolic syndrome. The N(G)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) induced hypertensive rats were used in order to test the effect of a synbiotic dietary supplement of Lactobacillus plantarum HEAL19 either together with fermented blueberry or with three phenolic compounds synthesized during fermentation. The experimental diets did not lower the blood pressure after 4 weeks. However, the fermented blueberries together with live L. plantarum showed protective effect on liver cells indicated by suppressed increase of serum alanine aminotransferase (ALAT) levels. The diversity of the caecal microbiota was neither affected by L-NAME nor the experimental diets. However, inhibition of the nitric oxide synthesis by L-NAME exerted a selection pressure that led to a shift in the bacterial composition. The mixture of fermented blueberries with the bacterial strain altered the caecal microbiota in different direction compared to L-NAME, while the three phenolic compounds together with the bacteria eliminated the selection pressure from the L-NAME.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2013 · Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Show more