International Journal of Dream Research Volume 3, No. 1 (2010) 63
Frequency of déjà vu (déjà rêve)
cess to childhood experiences, dreams and other states of
consciousness in the waking state). Bakan (1978) proposed
a conceptual model of two streams of consciousness which
he associated with the right and the left hemispheres of
the brain. This was meant in a broad sense and not limited
to the actual location of the functions within the brain, i.e.,
the left hemisphere is associated with language, sequential
thinking whereas the right hemisphere is associated with
pictorial, creative and holistic experiences. Based on the
hypothesis that déjà vu experiences result from a merging
of these two streams of consciousness, it seem plausible
that persons with good access to their dream life (associ-
ated with right hemisphere functioning) and thin boundaries
should experience déjà vu experiences more often. It would
be interesting to study these persons (thin boundaries, high
dream recall) in the laboratory applying paradigms to pro-
voke déjà vu-like experiences like exposure to subliminal
stimuli or setting with many anking stimuli surrounding the
focal stimulus (cf. Brown, 2004).
The positive relationship of déjà rêve experiences with ab-
sorption might point to memory effects of recalling déjà vu
experiences after a long time in order to estimate their fre-
quency retrospectively. Persons with high absorption pre-
sumably experience the déjà vu event more intensely and
thus the recall bias is less pronounced. This hypothesis can
be tested by using the diary approach (see above).
The result that openness to experience served as a sup-
pressor variable within the regression analysis cannot be
explained from the present ndings. Overall, the big ve
personality dimensions were not related to déjà rêve fre-
quency, thus contradicting a previous study regarding the
positive relation to extraversion (Snowdon & Ito, 2001). In
addition, “neurotic” traits or emotional instability (parts of
the neuroticism dimension) were also not related to déjà
rêve frequency, clearly indicating that déjà vu experiences
are not a clinical phenomenon.
Overall, the present study indicates that déjà rêve experi-
ences were reported very often and are related to different
personality and dream measures. Future research should
assess déjà vu experiences via diary keeping and through
studying whether the variables associated with déjà rêve
frequency in this study also explain interindividual differ-
ences in laboratory experiments.
This study was supported by a grant (SCHR 637/2-1) from
the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG) given to the
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