Endovascular Treatment of Spinal Arteriovenous Lesions: Beyond the Dural Fistula

Division of Interventional Neuroradiology, Departments of Radiology and Neurosurgery, New York Presbyterian Hospital/Weill Cornell Medical College, NY 10065, USA.
American Journal of Neuroradiology (Impact Factor: 3.59). 05/2011; 32(5):798-808. DOI: 10.3174/ajnr.A2190
Source: PubMed


During the past few decades, there have been significant advances in the understanding of spinal vascular lesions, mainly because of the evolution of imaging technology and selective spinal angiography techniques. In this article, we discuss the classification, pathophysiology, and clinical manifestations of spinal vascular lesions other than DAVFs and provide a review of the endovascular approach to treat these lesions.

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Available from: Apostolos John Tsiouris
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    • "Spinal ventral epidural arteriovenous fistulas (EDAVFs) are relatively rare spinal vascular lesions, and they are generally thought to present with benign clinical symptoms, such as radiculopathy [1, 2]. However, cases showing progressive myelopathy with spinal venous drainage have been reported [3]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Introduction Spinal ventral epidural arteriovenous fistulas (EDAVFs) are relatively rare spinal vascular lesions. We investigated the angioarchitecture of spinal ventral EDAVFs and show the results of endovascular treatment. Methods We reviewed six consecutive patients (four males and two females; mean age, 67.3 years) with spinal ventral EDAVFs treated at our institutions from May 2011 to October 2012. All patients presented with progressive myelopathy. The findings of angiography, including 3D/2D reformatted images, treatments, and outcomes, were investigated. A literature review focused on the angioarchitecture and treatment of spinal ventral EDAVFs is also presented. Results The EDAVFs were located in the ventral epidural space at the L1–L5 levels. All EDAVFs were supplied by the dorsal somatic branches from multiple segmental arteries. The ventral somatic branches and the radiculomeningeal arteries also supplied the AVFs in two patients. The AVFs drained via an epidural venous pouch into the perimedullary vein in four patients and into both the perimedullary vein and paravertebral veins in two patients. Four cases without paravertebral drainage were treated by transarterial embolization with diluted glue, and two cases with perimedullary and paravertebral drainages were treated by transvenous embolization alone or in combination with transarterial embolization. An angiographic cure was obtained in all patients. Clinical symptoms resolved in two patients, markedly improved in three patients, and minimally improved in one patient. Conclusion In our limited experience, spinal ventral EDAVFs were primarily fed by somatic branches. EDAVFs can be successfully treated by endovascular techniques selected based on the drainage type of the AVF.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2013 · Neuroradiology
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    • "Despite being the most commonly encountered spinal vascular malformation, SDAVFs are rare and still underdiagnosed entities, which, if not treated properly, can lead to considerable morbidity with progressive spinal cord symptoms [2, 4]. Venous congestive myelopathy (VCM) is a characteristic feature of SDAVF patients and is caused by the regurgitation of fistular flow through the radicular vein to the perimedullary venous plexus [5, 6]. "
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    ABSTRACT: The complex angioarchitecture of spinal dural arteriovenous fistulas (SDAVFs) sometimes preclude angiographic analyses or superselective procedures. Therefore, the effectiveness of 3 dimensional rotational angiography (3DRA) as a detailed imaging technique for SDAVFs was evaluated. Of 57 patients with spinal vascular malformations, recent 13 SDAVF patients underwent 3DRA. The advantage of 3DRA compared to digital subtraction angiography (DSA) in imaging SDAVF was assessed. Angioarchitecture of SDAVF was focused on location, number, and course of feeders and draining vein. Appropriate angled views were also selected to reveal the segmental artery and feeders. 3DRA technique provided additional information for imaging evaluation of SDAVFs compared to DSA; the presence of multiple feeders, including their transdural portions, as well as their courses. The contralaterally angled anterior-oblique-caudal (spider) view showed the radicular feeder by separating the intercostal artery and the dorsal muscular branch. The bottom-to-up (tunnel) view was useful for revealing the location (ventral vs. dorsal) including sharp medial turn of the dural feeder. The dual mode, which displays both vessels and bones, revealed the course of the feeders and the fistula related to the spinal bony column. Because spinal vasculature overlaps in DSA, 3DRA revealed additional information for evaluations of the number and transdural course of fistular feeders in SDAVFs, and it offers working angles to obtain appropriate views.
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2012
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    ABSTRACT: Type A intradural arteriovenous fistulae of the sacral filum terminale are rare lesions fed primarily by the distal anterior spinal artery. The artery is frequently too narrow or tortuous for endovascular obliteration, and direct surgical resection of the fistula requires an invasive sacrectomy. We present a less invasive indirect surgical approach through an L4 laminectomy and transection of the filum terminale rostral to the fistula. A 62-year-old man presented with a 6-month history of progressive bilateral lower extremity paresthesias and weakness and associated incontinence and impotence. Spinal magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated perimedullary flow voids. Selective spinal angiography revealed a fistula at S2-3 between the distal anterior spinal artery and an early draining vein returning cranially along the filum terminale, diagnostic of an intradural arteriovenous fistula. An L4 laminectomy and transection of the filum terminale rostral to the lesion were performed to disrupt the medullary arterial supply to the intradural fistula and outflow to the medullary venous plexus of the spinal cord. At 10-month clinical follow, up the patient had regained bowel and bladder continence, was able to ambulate with a cane, and reported subjective improvement of lower extremity paresthesias. Selective spinal angiography at 1 year demonstrated no residual arteriovenous shunt. Pathological venous hypertension of a type A intradural arteriovenous fistula of the sacral filum terminale can be treated by transection of the filum terminale at L4. This avoids posterior partial sacrectomy required for direct resection; however, subsequent clinical follow-up is necessary to monitor for reconstitution.
    No preview · Article · Apr 2011 · Neurosurgery
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