ANTI-ANGIOGENIC MECHANISM, BIOCHEMICAL FACTORS’ ROLES, THERAPEUTIC AGENTS, AND UNDER CLINICAL TRIAL DRUGS FOR BREAST AND PROSTATE CANCERS
Varsha M. Singh1, Shilpa J. Newati1, Mohammad Yusuf2, Alexandre Bridoux3,4, Salman A. A. Mohammed5, Naseem Akhtar6, and Riaz A. Khan1,5*
1 Manav Rachna International Institute of Research & Study (MRIIRS)-Manav Rachna International University (MRIU), Faridabad, HR 121 001, India; 2University of Taif, Taif Al-Haweiah, KSA; 3Integral University, Lucknow 226 026, India; 4Laboratoire Centre Atlantique, Zone Industrielle Chef de Baie, 1 rue Samuel de Champlain, Cs 41074, 17000 la Rochelle, France; 5College of Pharmacy, Qassim University; 6Boraida Colleges, Qassim, KSA.
The genesis of new blood vessels which is the culmination of angiogenic activity is responsible for the spread of the tumor, and other cancerous masses wherein blood supply provides nourishment to these tissues and helps in their maintenance, growth and further proliferation. Biological factors that favor the angiogenesis processes include vascular endothelial growth factors (VEGFs), tumor necrosis factors (TNFs), and fibroblast growth factors (FGFs), significantly contributing towards angiogenesis. The disruption and inhibition of angiogenic growth factors and their biochemical pathways during cancer build-up are among the obvious choices to control the growth and proliferation of cancers. The current work dwells in details about the growth factors, their roles, contextual biomechanics, and approaches to control angiogenesis through different inhibitory acts on biochemical pathways, growth factors, and other structural motifs involved in the angiogenesis process. The approaches to find novel molecular templates, new chemical entity, bio-macromolecular substrates, and probable drug leads for anti-angiogenic pharmacology are discussed. The chapter enlists various anti-angiogenesis based drugs, under clinical trial candidate drugs, new chemical entities, and other biochemical and recombinant therapeutic agents, either as monotherapy or as combination drugs, used for the treatment of various cancers, especially the breast and prostate cancers.
Angiogenesis; TNFα; VEGF; VEGF-A; VEGF-R; FGF; Ephrin; Angiogenin; Integrin; Endostatin, Interferon; Decorin; Thrombospondin; Interleukin; Matrix Metallo-Proteinases (MMP); Angiostatin; Antiangiogensis; CAM Model; Bevacizumab; Cilengitide; Vitaxin