Adiposity and the diseases associated with it, including cardiovascular disease, are emerging long-term complications of pediatric cancer survivors. Direct evaluations of adiposity and comparisons to contemporary controls that can differentiate recent trends in obesity from cancer-related treatments and sequelae are limited.
We evaluated demographic, treatment, lifestyle, and endocrine factors at the time of dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry testing in 170 non-Hispanic white survivors and 71 sibling controls, and compared three measures of adiposity [body mass index (BMI), total body fat, and trunk fat]. For the survivors alone, we determined factors independently associated with BMI and body fat.
Survivors were at 12 years since diagnosis; 58% had leukemia or lymphoma. BMI did not differ between groups. Among males, body fat was greater in survivors than in controls (25.8% versus 20.7%; P = 0.007), as was trunk fat (26.7% versus 21.3%; P = 0.008). Total or trunk fat did not differ among females. Cholesterol, triglycerides, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and television viewing hours were higher among male survivors than in controls. Independent factors associated with higher BMI and total and trunk fat included any cranial radiation and television viewing hours, whereas prior treatment with cyclophosphamide was associated with lower BMI and body fat measures.
Compared with siblings, male survivors have greater body fat and metabolic risks. Cranial irradiation and television hours are important risk factors for adiposity in pediatric cancer survivors.
Pediatric cancer survivors should be carefully monitored for cardiovascular risk factors and sedentary lifestyles.
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"Persistent mitochondrial damage after radiotherapy, seen as copy number mutations, may be related to subsequent cardiotoxicity . Cranial irradiation is associated with increased adiposity, growth hormone deficiency and reduced left ventricular mass and dimension    . "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: Two longitudinal cohort studies of Japanese atomic bomb survivors-the life span study (LSS) and the adult health study (AHS)-from the Radiation Effects Research Foundation (RERF) indicate that total body irradiation doses less than 1 Gy are associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD), but several questions about this association remain.In particular, the diversity of heart disease subtypes and the high prevalence of other risk factors complicate the estimates of radiation effects. Subtype-specific analyses with more reliable diagnostic criteria and measurement techniques are needed. The radiation effects on CVD risk are probably tissue-reaction (deterministic) effects, so the dose-response relationships for various subtypes of CVD may be nonlinear and therefore should be explored with several types of statistical models.Subpopulations at high risk need to be identified because effects at lower radiation doses may occur primarily in these susceptible subpopulations. Whether other CVD risk factors modify radiation effects also needs to be determined. Finally, background rates for various subtypes of CVD have historically differed substantially between Japanese and Western populations, so the generalisability to other populations needs to be examined.Cardiovascular disease mechanisms and manifestations may differ between high-dose local irradiation and low-dose total body irradiation (TBI)-microvascular damage and altered metabolism from low-dose TBI, but coronary artery atherosclerosis and thrombotic myocardial infarcts at high localised doses. For TBI, doses to organs other than the heart may be important in pathogenesis of CVD, so data on renal and liver disorders, plaque instability, microvascular damage, metabolic disorders, hypertension and various CVD biomarkers and risk factors are needed. Epidemiological, clinical and experimental studies at doses of less than 1 Gy are necessary to clarify the effects of radiation on CVD risk.
Full-text · Article · Nov 2013 · Journal of Radiological Protection
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: Doxorubicin chemotherapy is associated with cardiomyopathy. Dexrazoxane reduces cardiac damage during treatment with doxorubicin in children with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL). We aimed to establish the long-term effect of dexrazoxane on the subclinical state of cardiac health in survivors of childhood high-risk ALL 5 years after completion of doxorubicin treatment.
Between January, 1996, and September, 2000, children with high-risk ALL were enrolled from nine centres in the USA, Canada, and Puerto Rico. Patients were assigned by block randomisation to receive ten doses of 30 mg/m² doxorubicin alone or the same dose of doxorubicin preceded by 300 mg/m² dexrazoxane. Treatment assignment was obtained through a telephone call to a centralised registrar to conceal allocation. Investigators were masked to treatment assignment but treating physicians and patients were not; however, investigators, physicians, and patients were masked to study serum cardiac troponin-T concentrations and echocardiographic measurements. The primary endpoints were late left ventricular structure and function abnormalities as assessed by echocardiography; analyses were done including all patients with data available after treatment completion. This trial has been completed and is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00165087.
100 children were assigned to doxorubicin (66 analysed) and 105 to doxorubicin plus dexrazoxane (68 analysed). 5 years after the completion of doxorubicin chemotherapy, mean left ventricular fractional shortening and end-systolic dimension Z scores were significantly worse than normal for children who received doxorubicin alone (left ventricular fractional shortening: -0·82, 95% CI -1·31 to -0·33; end-systolic dimension: 0·57, 0·21-0·93) but not for those who also received dexrazoxane (-0·41, -0·88 to 0·06; 0·15, -0·20 to 0·51). The protective effect of dexrazoxane, relative to doxorubicin alone, on left ventricular wall thickness (difference between groups: 0·47, 0·46-0·48) and thickness-to-dimension ratio (0·66, 0·64-0·68) were the only statistically significant characteristics at 5 years. Subgroup analysis showed dexrazoxane protection (p=0·04) for left ventricular fractional shortening at 5 years in girls (1·17, 0·24-2·11), but not in boys (-0·10, -0·87 to 0·68). Similarly, subgroup analysis showed dexrazoxane protection (p=0·046) for the left ventricular thickness-to-dimension ratio at 5 years in girls (1·15, 0·44-1·85), but not in boys (0·19, -0·42 to 0·81). With a median follow-up for recurrence and death of 8·7 years (range 1·3-12·1), event-free survival was 77% (95% CI 67-84) for children in the doxorubicin-alone group, and 76% (67-84) for children in the doxorubicin plus dexrazoxane group (p=0·99).
Dexrazoxane provides long-term cardioprotection without compromising oncological efficacy in doxorubicin-treated children with high-risk ALL. Dexrazoxane exerts greater long-term cardioprotective effects in girls than in boys.
US National Institutes of Health, Children's Cardiomyopathy Foundation, University of Miami Women's Cancer Association, Lance Armstrong Foundation, Roche Diagnostics, Pfizer, and Novartis.
No preview · Article · Oct 2010 · The Lancet Oncology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: Anthracycline chemotherapeutic agents are widely used to treat childhood cancers, helping to create an increasing population of childhood cancer survivors. Cardiac complications can occur years after exposure to anthracyclines and are a leading cause of noncancerous morbidity and mortality in this population. The mechanism of its cardiotoxicity is not completely known, although oxidative stress is believed to play a significant role. This pathway and other nonoxidative mechanisms are reviewed. Several risk factors such as age, dose, female gender, and concomitant radiation therapy are known, but the relative risks of many comorbidities such as diabetes and hypertension are not well studied. No standard, evidence-based guidelines for appropriate screening methods to detect cardiotoxicity exist. Periodic imaging with echocardiography or radionuclide angiography is appropriately recommended for long-term survivors but is of limited use during therapy. Biomarkers such as cardiac troponins and brain natriuretic peptides may aid in detecting cardiotoxicity. Studies investigating the use of agents such as angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE)-inhibitors and beta-blockers to treat anthracycline cardiotoxicity have shown promise, but more data are needed. Structural analogs such as epirubicin were developed to minimize cardiotoxicity but have not sufficiently reduced it. Liposome-encapsulated anthracyclines have shown a considerable decrease of cardiotoxicity in adults without sacrificing efficacy, but the data related to children are sparse. The only agent proven to be cardioprotective is the iron chelator, dexrazoxane. Studies have shown that dexrazoxane is safe and significantly reduces the incidence of cardiotoxicity. Dexrazoxane should be considered for pediatric oncology protocols using anthracyclines that include longitudinal assessment.
Preview · Article · Mar 2011 · Pediatric Cardiology