The risk of overt diabetes mellitus among women with gestational diabetes: A population-based study

Medical Division, Maccabi Healthcare Services, 27 Ha'Mered Street, Tel Aviv, Israel.
Diabetic Medicine (Impact Factor: 3.12). 07/2010; 27(7):779-85. DOI: 10.1111/j.1464-5491.2010.02995.x
Source: PubMed


To determine the incidence of postpartum diabetes mellitus in the years following a diagnosis of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and to determine whether the severity of GDM, represented by the magnitude of the deviation of diagnostic tests from the normal values or requirement for medications, is associated with the development of diabetes.
A retrospective cohort study was performed among 185 416 pregnant women who had glucose challenge test or 3 h oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) in a large health maintenance organization in Israel. Subsequent diagnosis of diabetes was ascertained by using an automated patient registry.
A total of 11 270 subjects were diagnosed with GDM, comprising 6.07% of the cohort. During a total follow-up period of 1 049 334 person-years there were 1067 (16.9 per 1000 person-years) and 1125 (1.1 per 1000 person-years) diagnoses of postpartum diabetes among GDM and non-GDM women, respectively. The cumulative risk of incident diabetes in GDM patients with up to 10 years of follow-up was 15.7%, compared with 1% among the non-GDM population. Gestational diabetes mellitus was associated with nearly an eightfold higher risk of postpartum diabetes after adjusting for important confounders, such as socioeconomic status and body mass index. Among women with a history of GDM, the number of abnormal OGTT values and use of insulin were associated with a substantially higher risk for developing diabetes.
Three or four abnormal OGTT values and GDM requiring insulin or oral hypoglycaemic medications are important predictors of postpartum diabetes risk in women with a history of GDM.

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    • "(74), Hong Kong (14.2%) (75), Ireland (9.4–12.4%) (76), Israel (6.07%) (77) and the United States (2–10%) (78). In our study, the highest prevalence of GDM was reported from Vietnam (50, 51), India (28–30, 34, 35, 37) and Cuba (67), followed closely by Bangladesh (40) and Iran (57). "
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Little is known about the burden of diabetes mellitus (DM) in pregnancy in low- and middle-income countries despite high prevalence and mortality rates being observed in these countries. Objective: To investigate the prevalence and geographical patterns of DM in pregnancy up to 1 year post-delivery in low- and middle-income countries. Search strategy: Medline, Embase, Cochrane (Central), Cinahl and CAB databases were searched with no date restrictions. Selection criteria: Articles assessing the prevalence of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), and types 1 and 2 DM were sought. Data collection and analysis: Articles were independently screened by at least two reviewers. Forest plots were used to present prevalence rates and linear trends calculated by linear regression where appropriate. Main results: A total of 45 articles were included. The prevalence of GDM varied. Diagnosis was made by the American Diabetes Association criteria (1.50-15.5%), the Australian Diabetes in Pregnancy Society criteria (20.8%), the Diabetes in Pregnancy Study Group India criteria (13.4%), the European Association for the Study of Diabetes criteria (1.6%), the International Association of Diabetes and Pregnancy Study Groups criteria (8.9-20.4%), the National Diabetes Data Group criteria (0.56-6.30%) and the World Health Organization criteria (0.4-24.3%). Vietnam, India and Cuba had the highest prevalence rates. Types 1 and 2 DM were less often reported. Reports of maternal mortality due to DM were not found. No geographical patterns of the prevalence of GDM could be confirmed but data from Africa is particularly limited. Conclusion: Existing published data are insufficient to build a clear picture of the burden and distribution of DM in pregnancy in low- and middle-income countries. Consensus on a common diagnostic criterion for GDM is needed. Type 1 and 2 DM in pregnancy and postpartum DM are other neglected areas.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2014 · Global Health Action
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    • "GDM is one of the common medical conditions associated with pregnancy with potentially serious health consequences for mother and offspring both in the short and long term (2–7). To address the problem, the MOH in China established guidelines and one-step diagnostic criteria for GDM based on the 75-g OGTT done at 24–28 weeks of gestation. "
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    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE To evaluate the usefulness of a fasting plasma glucose (FPG) at 24-28 weeks' gestation to screen for gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM).RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS The medical records and results of a 75-g 2-h oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) of 24,854 pregnant women without known pre-GDM attending prenatal clinics in 15 hospitals in China were examined.RESULTSFPG cutoff value of 5.1 mmol/L identified 3,149 (12.1%) pregnant women with GDM. FPG cutoff value of 4.4 mmol/L ruled out GDM in 15,369 (38.2%) women. With use of this cutoff point, 12.2% of patients with mild GDM will be missed. The positive predictive value is 0.322, and the negative predictive value is 0.928.CONCLUSIONSFPG at 24-28 weeks' gestation could be used as a screening test to identify GDM patients in low-resource regions. Women with an FPG between ≥4.4 and ≤5.0 mmol/L would require a 75-g OGTT to diagnose GDM. This would help to avoid approximately one-half (50.3%) of the formal 75-g OGTTs in China.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2013 · Diabetes care
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    • "Pregnancy is widely conceptualized as a testing ground for unmasking weaknesses in organ systems that would not appear until later life but for pregnancy [64]. Pregnancy disorders predicting later related health problems have been best established for gestational diabetes predicting diabetes type II [65] and for preeclampsia predicting chronic hypertension [66]. Biomechanical evidence suggests that the female lumbar spine is well designed to respond to fetal load [8], thus PRLBP is not necessarily an inherent morbidity of pregnancy, but might be another warning sign of future ill health just as are gestational diabetes and preeclampsia. "
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    ABSTRACT: This pilot randomized controlled trial evaluated the feasibility of conducting a full scale study and compared the efficacy of exercise, spinal manipulation, and a mind-body therapy called Neuro Emotional Technique for the treatment of pregnancy-related low back pain, a common morbidity of pregnancy. Healthy pregnant women with low back pain of insidious onset were eligible to enroll in the study at any point in their pregnancy. Once enrolled, they remained in the study until they had their babies. Women were randomly allocated into one of three treatment groups using opaque envelopes. The treatment schedule paralleled the prenatal care schedule and women received individualized intervention. Our null hypothesis was that spinal manipulation and Neuro Emotional Technique would perform no better than exercise in enhancing function and decreasing pain. Our primary outcome measure was the Roland Morris Disability Questionnaire and our secondary outcome measure was the Numeric Pain Rating Scale. Intention to treat analysis was conducted. For the primary analysis, regression was conducted to compare groups on the outcome measure scores. In a secondary responder analysis, difference in proportions of participants in attaining 30% and 50% improvement were calculated. Feasibility factors for conducting a future larger trial were also evaluated such as recruitment, compliance to study protocols, cost, and adverse events. Fifty-seven participants were randomized into the exercise (n = 22), spinal manipulation (n = 15), and Neuro Emotional Technique (n = 20) treatment arms. At least 50% of participants in each treatment group experienced clinically meaningful improvement in symptoms for the Roland Morris Disability Questionnaire. At least 50% of the exercise and spinal manipulation participants also experienced clinically meaningful improvement for the Numeric Pain Rating Scale. There were no clinically meaningful or statistically significant differences between groups in any analysis. This pilot study demonstrated feasibility for recruitment, compliance, safety, and affordability for conducting a larger study in the future. Spinal manipulation and exercise generally performed slightly better than did Neuro Emotional Technique for improving function and decreasing pain, but the study was not powered to detect the between-group differences as statistically significant. Trial registration (Identifier: NCT00937365).
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2012 · Chiropractic and Manual Therapies
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