Computer–Based Safety Training For Semiconductor Industry

Article (PDF Available)inJurnal Teknologi 51(1) · December 2009with69 Reads
DOI: 10.11113/jt.v51.152 · Source: OAI
Abstract
A computer-based safety training (CBT) for semiconductor industry using web as the platform was developed. The CBT system is called Sistem Latihan Keselamatan Berasaskan Komputer (SLK). The CBT system has two main sections which are safety theory modules and accident prevention scenarios. The survey conducted in semiconductor industry concluded that 86.7% of the respondents have successfully increased their safety awareness and understanding towards safety at workplace after studying the SLK system. The highest increment is about 46 % and the lowest is about 8%. SLK system was found to be a practical tool in the selected semiconductor industry and has successfully increased the awareness of safety procedures as well as the understanding of good working practices.
COMPUTER-BASED SAFETY TRAINING FOR SEMICONDUCTOR INDUSTRY 131
Jurnal Teknologi, 51(F) Dis. 2009: 131–141
© Universiti Teknologi Malaysia
COMPUTER-BASED SAFETY TRAINING FOR
SEMICONDUCTOR INDUSTRY
NADIA KAMARRUDIN
1
, MOHAMED WIJAYANUDDIN ALI
2
,
MOHD. ZAKI KAMSAH
3
, MIMI HARYANI HASSIM
4
& KAMARIZAN KIDAM
5
Abstract. A computer-based safety training (CBT) for semiconductor industry using web as the
platform was developed. The CBT system is called Sistem Latihan Keselamatan Berasaskan Komputer
(SLK). The CBT system has two main sections which are safety theory modules and accident prevention
scenarios. The survey conducted in semiconductor industry concluded that 86.7% of the respondents
have successfully increased their safety awareness and understanding towards safety at workplace after
studying the SLK system. The highest increment is about 46 % and the lowest is about 8%. SLK system
was found to be a practical tool in the selected semiconductor industry and has successfully increased
the awareness of safety procedures as well as the understanding of good working practices.
Keywords: Safety training management system; semiconductor industry; computer-based safety
training system; safety perception
Abstrak. Sistem latihan keselamatan berasaskan komputer atau SLK telah dibangunkan bagi
industri semikonduktor dengan menggunakan web sebagai platform. Sistem ini mempunyai dua
bahagian utama, iaitu modul teori keselamatan dan senario pencegahan kemalangan. Kajian dijalankan
di industri semikonduktor mendapati 86.7% di kalangan responden telah berjaya meningkatkan tahap
kesedaran dan kefahaman mereka terhadap aspek keselamatan di tempat kerja setelah mempelajari
sistem SLK. Peningkatan tersebut adalah di antara 8% sehingga 46%. Kajian ini mendapati sistem SLK
merupakan satu kaedah yang praktikal bagi industri semikonduktor yang dikaji dan ia juga telah
berjaya meningkatkan tahap kesedaran terhadap prosedur keselamatan serta kefahaman tentang amalan
kerja selamat.
Kata kunci: Sistem pengurusan latihan keselamatan; industri semikonduktor; sistem latihan
keselamatan berdasarkan komputer; persepsi keselamatan
1.0 INTRODUCTION
Accident prevention at workplace is one of the major tasks for managers due to its
economic, social and legal implications [1]. It is a controlled process which represents
an ability to control machine performance, human behaviour and the environment in
which the individual is working. It is a controlled process because a procedure must
1
Faculty of Chemical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi MARA, 40450 Shah Alam, Selangor,
Malaysia
2,3,4&5
Chemical Engineering Department, Faculty of Chemical and Natural Resources Engineering,
Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 UTM Skudai, Johor, Malaysia
Tel: +06-07-5535892. Email: m.w.ali@fkkksa.utm.my
NADIA, MOHAMED WIJAYANUDDIN, MOHD. ZAKI, MIMI HARYANI & KAMARIZAN132
be identified for the prevention and correction of unsafe acts and condition [2]. Accident
prevention is an essential component for the successful and profitable operation of any
industry. Losses that results from an accident not only affect the injured worker but the
organization and other workers as well [2].
All accidents can be categorized as being caused by either environmental conditions
and/or human behaviour [2]. Accident can happen even in the most safety conscious
environment [3]. The negative impact of accident is long-term and it may take time for
workers to recover from the psychological shock or endure changes to one’s life-style
after the accident [4]. Accidents at workplace have traditionally been attributed mainly
to the unsafe working conditions and also unsafe acts. The following five conditions
are contributing factors to the occurrence of accidents [2]:
(1) Lack of knowledge
(2) Poor work habits and attitudes
(3) Unsafe behaviour
(4) Insufficient skill
(5) Environmental hazards.
Effective occupational, safety and health management and its relation with
productivity have been considered as an important element when managing the
interaction between system and people [5]. Human factors play a significant role in the
safety performance of organizations. The unsafe behaviour adopted by human can
lead to accidents [5]. Therefore, safety program must be designed to accomplish their
purpose in two primary ways: focusing on unsafe employee action and the other on
unsafe working conditions [3]. The first approach is a safety program to create a
psychological environment and employee attitudes that promote safety. Accident can
be reduced when employee consciously and subconsciously think about safety [3].
The second approach to safety program design is to develop and maintain a safe
physical environment. Here the environment is altered to prevent accidents [3].
Training is a major endeavour in all-modern professional practices [6]. All accident
prevention work, whether or not it is educationally intended, is nevertheless educational
in its effect upon the individual employee whom it necessarily involves [7]. This is
clearly indicated by evident that well-trained and careful worker may avoid injury on
dangerous work and untrained and careless workers may be injured under the safest
possible conditions [7]. The safety training is intended to ensure that employees perform
their jobs properly, thus promoting safety and increasing productivity. The Department
of Occupational, Safety and Health (DOSH) Malaysia has listed several training
objectives including [8]:
(1) To groom a qualified, educated, capable and virtuous workforce
(2) To improve skill, efficiency and expertise
(3) To achieve productive and high quality work performance
(4) To improve career development.
COMPUTER-BASED SAFETY TRAINING FOR SEMICONDUCTOR INDUSTRY 133
Nowadays, almost all trainings are delivered via CD-ROMs, intranets or the internet
rather than the conventional method (formal class, training manual and on-the-job
training). Although each learning technology has some unique features, they all use
computers in one way or another to deliver the training. Interactive computer programs
for training can reduce long-term training costs and training time for learners [9]. They
are also flexible and attractive. These systems also have several added strength such
as efficient, low cost relative to on-the-job training, supports course management, and
more convenience for instructional delivery than lecture [6, 10–12]. Therefore, the
computer-based training systems are practical to industry. Furthermore, with these
systems, employees will understand more about safety at work place and enhance
their safety attitude, knowledge and skill level.
The objectives of this study are:
(1) To study the safety training management system background in the selected
semiconductor industry
(2) To develop a computer-based safety training module for a semiconductor
industry
(3) To verify the usefulness of the developed system in the selected
semiconductor industry.
2.0 METHODOLOGY
2.1 Initial Survey
The purpose of the survey was to identify the background of the safety training
management system including the employer’s roles, employees’ awareness towards
safety at workplace and computer usage in safety training based on employee
perceptions. The key findings that emerged from the survey were major requirements
for computer-based safety training system development. A survey was conducted in a
large multinational manufacturing company at Seremban, Negeri Sembilan.
A survey questionnaire was used to obtain responses on occupational, safety and
health issues in the semiconductor industry. In this survey, the questionnaire was
divided into two parts. Part 1 was on respondent’s background and part 2 was divided
into three sub parts, which were the employers’ role, employees’ safety awareness and
computer usage. The questionnaire was pre-tested to find out the time duration to
complete the questionnaire, the wording errors, unanswerable questions and also to
find out on its suitability for respondents to answer.
An interview was conducted to obtain valid responses and to record the responses
accurately and completely, and also to get information on the company’s industrial
safety training system. Once the data have been collected by the survey, they will be
translated into a format appropriate for computer analysis. In this research, the data
was analysed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 14.0.
NADIA, MOHAMED WIJAYANUDDIN, MOHD. ZAKI, MIMI HARYANI & KAMARIZAN134
2.2 Development of Computer-based Safety Training System
The system has two main sections which are the safety theory modules and accident
prevention scenarios. As per discussion with health, safety and environment personnel,
three basic safety theory modules were developed including the quiz of every module.
The modules are:
(1) Ergonomics
(2) Personal Protective Equipment (PPE)
(3) Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)
Trainees will select any module they like and the system will guide them through
with the training. Then, they choose whether they want to continue with the quiz or
another module. If they choose the quiz module, they must get a minimum score of
90% before they can proceed to another module. Failing to obtain a score of 90% will
require them to repeat the module and quiz or quit the system.
In the accident prevention part, 14 accident scenarios were developed to test the
employees understanding towards safety at workplace. The scenarios are related to
the semiconductor industry and safety theory module (ergonomics and personal
protective equipment), such as chemical handling, back injuries, musculoskeletal
injuries, did not wear the specific PPE and etc. The trainee will be given choices of
scenarios and he/she will pick the preferred scenario and analyze it. They will answer
several questions based on how to prevent the accident from occurring, causes of the
accident, and what action should be taken if the scenario takes place. They must get a
minimum score of 90 % to proceed to other scenario or otherwise repeat the module or
quit the system.
2.3 Case Study
The safety knowledge test was conducted to verify the usefulness and effectiveness of
the developed system to the selected semiconductor employees. The employees were
tested on their knowledge of the safety procedures and industrial working practices
before and after they used the system. The questionnaire is divided into 2 parts which
are safety theory and accident scenario. The data was analysed based on the percentages
of respondents’ score in safety knowledge test before and after they used the system.
3.0 RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
3.1 Initial Survey
From the initial findings, the respondents agreed that management is very serious
about Occupational Safety and Health at workplace. Majority of respondents aware
on the importance of safety aspect and fully responsible towards personal safety at
COMPUTER-BASED SAFETY TRAINING FOR SEMICONDUCTOR INDUSTRY 135
workplace. Besides that, the respondents generally inclined to agree that they felt
more comfortable if safety trainings at workplace are delivered via computer. 78.8%
and 82.1% of respondents said that computer usage in safety training can increase their
understanding towards safety at workplace and reduce long-term training time,
respectively. However, 88.2% of respondents said that they are comfortable with their
existing safety training. The key findings emerged from the survey were major
requirements for computer-based safety training system development.
3.2 Computer-based Safety Training System
SLK was developed using web-based application. The system is divided into two
parts, safety theory modules and accident prevention scenarios. The system consists
of 3 safety theory modules which are:
(1) Ergonomics
Ergonomics is commonly thought of as how companies design tasks
and work areas to maximize the efficiency and quality of their employees’
work. The goal of ergonomics is to make the interaction of humans
with machines as smooth as possible, enhancing performance, reducing
errors, and increasing user satisfaction through comfort and aesthetics.
The main topics are introduction to ergonomics at workplace,
ergonomics awareness and quiz. Figure 1 shows the example of
ergonomics module.
Figure 1 Example of the ergonomics module
NADIA, MOHAMED WIJAYANUDDIN, MOHD. ZAKI, MIMI HARYANI & KAMARIZAN136
(2) Personal protective equipment
Personal protective equipment, or PPE, is designed to protect employees
from health and safety hazards that cannot be practically removed from
their work environment. Figure 2 shows the example of the PPE module.
Personal protective equipment is designed to protect many parts of their
body including eyes, face, head, hands, feet, respirator system and ears.
Personal protective equipment module is divided into 3 parts which are
introduction to personal protective equipment, understanding personal
protective equipment and quiz.
Figure 2 Example of the personal protective equipment (PPE) module
(3) Material safety data sheet
A material safety data sheet (MSDS) is a form containing data regarding
the properties of a particular substance. An important component of
product stewardship and workplace safety, it is intended to provide
workers and emergency personnel with procedures for handling or
working with that substance in a safe manner. The MSDS module is
divided into 5 parts which are introduction to MSDS, understanding
chemical exposure, understanding MSDS, list of MSDS and quiz. The
MSDS information also includes instructions for the safe use and potential
hazards associated with a particular material or product. Figure 3 shows
the example of the MSDS module.
COMPUTER-BASED SAFETY TRAINING FOR SEMICONDUCTOR INDUSTRY 137
The SLK is more focused to semiconductor industries because there are listed the
chemicals used in semiconductor industries in MSDS module and showed the good
working practices especially for semiconductor industries in ergonomic module.
Quizzes are provided at the end of every section of the module. The user must get a
minimum score of 90% before they can proceed to another module. Failing to obtain
a score of 90% will require them to repeat the same module and quiz or quit the system.
If they successfully answered (minimum score of 90%) the quiz, they can choose either
to select another module or view the quiz answers.
In the accident prevention parts, 14 types of accident scenarios were developed as
shown in Figure 4. The scenarios are related to the semiconductor industry and safety
theory module (ergonomics and personal protective equipment) such as chemical
handling, back injuries, musculoskeletal injuries, not wearing the specific PPE and
etc. The test takes about 10 to 20 minutes per scenario to complete.
Figure 5 presents the example of accident scenario page. The analyses must be
successful with a minimum score of 90%. Failing to obtain a score of 90% will require
them to repeat it or quit the system. If they successfully answer the scenario quiz, they
can choose either to select another scenario or view the scenario quiz answer.
Figure 3 Example of MSDS module
NADIA, MOHAMED WIJAYANUDDIN, MOHD. ZAKI, MIMI HARYANI & KAMARIZAN138
Figure 5Figure 5
Figure 5Figure 5
Figure 5 Example of scenario
Figure 4 Accident prevention scenarios page
Accident scenario options
COMPUTER-BASED SAFETY TRAINING FOR SEMICONDUCTOR INDUSTRY 139
Table 1 Results for safety knowledge test
Number of % Before % After % of Increment
Respondent Treatment Treatment
1 69 % 92 % 23 %
2 62 % 92 % 30 %
3 77 % 92 % 15 %
4 46 % 92 % 46 %
5 69 % 92 % 23 %
6 85 % 85 % 0 %
7 69 % 85 % 16 %
8 69 % 85 % 16 %
9 62 % 92 % 30 %
10 87 % 100 % 13 %
11 60 % 100 % 40 %
12 75 % 88 % 13 %
13 50 % 88 % 38 %
14 60 % 100 % 40 %
15 85 % 85 % 0 %
16 75 % 88 % 13 %
17 87 % 100 % 13 %
18 80 % 80 % 0 %
19 92 % 100 % 8 %
20 63 % 88 % 25 %
21 77 % 92 % 15 %
22 75 % 75 % 0 %
23 63 % 75 % 12 %
3.3 Safety Knowledge Test
The safety knowledge test was conducted to verify the usefulness and effectiveness of
the developed system to the selected semiconductor employees. The employees were
tested on their knowledge of the safety procedures and industrial working practices
before and after they used the SLK system. The questionnaire was divided into 2 parts
which are safety theory and accident scenario. The test took about 15 to 30 minutes to
complete and 30 respondents participated in this test.
Tables 1 and 2 show the result for safety knowledge test. 26 of 30 respondents
(86.7%) have increased their quiz scores. The highest increment is about 46% and the
lowest is about 8%. This situation showed that the respondents understood better
about safety at their workplace after going through the SLK system. This is also means
that the module has helped the respondents to enhance their safety attitude, knowledge
and skill level. The respondents have managed to apply the theory to the scenario
cases.
However, 4 of them (13.3%) had the same score before and after going through the
system. This result showed that he/she might be not pay attention to the information in
NADIA, MOHAMED WIJAYANUDDIN, MOHD. ZAKI, MIMI HARYANI & KAMARIZAN140
safety module and just ticked the same answer for both test. Besides that, the possibility
to get the same and lower score after going through the SLK system is very low if they
did this safety knowledge test very well. It was proven by the majority (86.7%) of the
respondents who increased their test score after going through the system. The total
average of the increment is about 20%.
In conclusion, the findings showed that the SLK system has successfully helped to
increase the awareness of safety procedures as well as the understanding of good
working practices among selected semiconductor employees.
4.0 CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
In conclusion, computer-based safety training system such as SLK system is a practical
tool for the selected semiconductor industry and has successfully increased the
awareness of the safety procedures as well as helping the employees to have a good
working practices. It is proven by the result of safety knowledge test. 86.7% of the
respondents have successfully increased their safety awareness and understanding
towards safety at workplace after going through the SLK system. The highest increment
is about 46% and the lowest is about 8%.
Furthermore, it enhances the employees’ safety attitude, knowledge and skill level
and finally, will reduce or minimize the accident or incident at workplace which
consequently reduce the compensation costs and accidental losses.
For future work, the following suggestions can be considered in extending and
improving the research ability:
(1) Repeating the evaluation survey with a larger sample and a longer time such as
6 month to 1 year in semiconductor industry field or other industry field. This is
required to give more feedback to the SLK system.
(2) Improvement of SLK system – The SLK system should be upgraded to offer up-
to-date knowledge on safety and health culture at workplace. Adding more safety
Table 2 (Continued)
Number of % Before % After % of Increment
Respondent Treatment Treatment
24 54 % 69 % 15 %
25 63 % 88 % 25 %
26 46 % 92 % 46 %
27 60 % 80 % 20 %
28 69 % 92 % 23 %
29 75 % 88 % 13 %
30 40 % 80 % 40 %
Average 20 %
COMPUTER-BASED SAFETY TRAINING FOR SEMICONDUCTOR INDUSTRY 141
theory modules, quizzes and accident scenarios and make up the system to be
more attractive and interesting.
(3) Improve the SLK system with two or more languages. This is required to give the
opportunity to all of races in Malaysia to use the system. Now, the SLK system
only uses Bahasa Malaysia as the interaction language with user.
(4) More media in SLK system – Adding video, audio and animation to make the
system to be more attractive and enjoyable.
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
This research was supported by Universiti Teknologi Malaysia-Pembangunan
Teknologi Perindustrian (UTM-PTP) scholarship.
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