Impact of maternal HAART on the prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV: Results of an 18-month follow-up study in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso

Public health, IRSS, Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso.
AIDS Care (Impact Factor: 1.6). 07/2010; 22(7):843-50. DOI: 10.1080/09540120903499204
Source: PubMed


Mother-to-child transmission remains the main cause of global pediatric HIV infections, especially in sub-Saharan Africa. Many interventions based on single-dose antiretroviral therapy have been implemented to reduce the mother-to-child transmission of HIV. In resource-limited settings, highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has only been recommended for HIV-infected pregnant women requiring treatment for their own health. Here, we assessed the efficacy over 18 months of maternal HAART versus peripartum short-course antiretroviral therapy (SCART) regimens for the prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) of HIV. We conducted a retrospective cohort study of patients from two medical centers in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso. The PMTCT files and registers from 1 January 2003 to 31 December 2006 were obtained from routine data collected at these sites. The main assessment criterion was the rate of HIV-1 positivity in children born to HIV-positive mothers as measured with HIV-1 rapid tests at 18 months. A total of 586 pregnant HIV-1-infected women in PMTCT programs were selected. Among these women, 260 were undergoing HAART and 326 received single-dose nevirapine (91.3%) or single-dose zidovudine (8.7%) at delivery. HIV-1 serological tests were performed on 454 children at 18 months old. The rate of HIV-1 vertical transmission was 0% (0/195) in the HAART group and 4.6% (12/259) in the single-dose monotherapy group (P<0.01). Eight infants in the HAART cohort and 30 in the SCART cohort were breastfed; three in the SCART group were HIV-positive. A total of 62 children died, 19 in the HAART group and 43 in the single-dose monotherapy group. Our study confirms that HAART for mothers effectively reduces the risk of infant HIV infection while preserving the breastfeeding option for mothers.

Download full-text


Available from: Boukaré Doulougou, Feb 20, 2015
  • Source
    • "For more than a decade, effective antiretroviral (ARV) treatment has been available for the prevention of motherto-child transmission of HIV (PMTCT), and highly active ARV therapy (HAART) for lifelong treatment is becoming increasingly accessible worldwide (UNAIDS 2010). Many studies have demonstrated the effectiveness of HAART during pregnancy and breastfeeding to reduce vertical transmission when compared with no intervention and with short-course PMTCT regimens (Thomas et al. 2008; Kilewo et al. 2009; Shapiro et al. 2009; de Vincenzi and Study Kesho Bora Group 2009; Kouanda et al. 2010, The Kesho Bora Study Group 2011). Even where it is impossible to initiate HAART during pregnancy, mother-to-child HIV transmission can be reduced by promoting rapid uptake of HAART following delivery (Taha et al. 2009). "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Objectives  To quantify attrition between women testing HIV-positive in pregnancy-related services and accessing long-term HIV care and treatment services in low- or middle-income countries and to explore the reasons underlying client drop-out by synthesising current literature on this topic. Methods  A systematic search in Medline, EMBASE, Global Health and the International Bibliography of the Social Sciences of literature published 2000-2010. Only studies meeting pre-defined quality criteria were included. Results  Of 2543 articles retrieved, 20 met the inclusion criteria. Sixteen (80%) drew on data from sub-Saharan Africa. The pathway between testing HIV-positive in pregnancy-related services and accessing long-term HIV-related services is complex, and attrition was usually high. There was a failure to initiate highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) among 38-88% of known-eligible women. Providing 'family-focused care', and integrating CD4 testing and HAART provision into prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission services appear promising for increasing women's uptake of HIV-related services. Individual-level factors that need to be addressed include financial constraints and fear of stigma. Conclusions  Too few women negotiate the many steps between testing HIV-positive in pregnancy-related services and accessing HIV-related services for themselves. Recent efforts to stem patient drop-out, such as the MTCT-Plus Initiative, hold promise. Addressing barriers and enabling factors both within health facilities and at the levels of the individual woman, her family and society will be essential to improve the uptake of services.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2012 · Tropical Medicine & International Health
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Early HIV infant diagnosis and treatment have been shown to dramatically improve survival in infants. Despite these findings, infants accessing HIV diagnosis and treatment remain low in Uganda. We describe the antiretroviral (ARV) drugs given in the Mulago Hospital prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) program from January 2007 to May 2009 and its impact on early infant HIV infection rates. Pregnant women identified as HIV infected in the Mulago antenatal clinics received one of the following regimens: short-course ARV prophylaxis plus single-dose nevirapine (sdNVP) in labor, highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), or sdNVP if they presented in labor. Infants received sdNVP and zidovudine (ZDV) for 1 week. Infants HIV diagnosis was done from 6 weeks after delivery. 62.3% of HIV-infected women received combination ARVs, including HAART. Early infection rates were highest among infants with no maternal ARV [36.4; 95% confidence interval (CI): 17.2 to 59.3] or only sdNVP (11.2; 95% CI: 8.1 to 14.8). Similar rates were observed for the group that took short-course ARVs, ZDV/sdNVP (4.6; 95% CI: 3.2 to 6.4), and ZDV/lamivudine/sdNVP (4.9; 95% CI: 3.1 to 7.2) and lowest rates for those that took HAART (1.7: 95% CI: 0.8 to 2.8). Overall infection rate was 5.0% (95% CI: 4.1 to 5.9). Findings indicate low rates of infant infection for mothers receiving combination ARVs. These findings demonstrate that provision of combination ARV for PMTCT is feasible and effective in busy referral hospital's PMTCT programs in resource-limited settings.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2011 · JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Antiretroviral therapy is effective in reducing rates of mother-to child transmission of HIV to low levels in resource-limited contexts but the applicability and efficacy of these programs in the field are scarcely known. In order to explore such issues, we performed a descriptive study on retrospective data from hospital records of HIV-infected pregnant women who accessed in 2007-2010 the Luanda Municipal Hospital service for prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT). The main outcome measure was infant survival and HIV transmission. Our aim was to evaluate PMTCT programme in a local hospital setting in Africa. Data for 104 pregnancies and 107 infants were analysed. Sixty-eight women (65.4%) had a first visit before or during pregnancy and received combination antiretroviral treatment (ART) in pregnancy. The remaining 36 women (34.6%) presented after delivery and received no ART during pregnancy. Across a median cohort follow-up time of 73 weeks, mortality among women with and without ART in pregnancy was 4.4% and 16.7%, respectively (death hazard ratio: 0.30, 95% CI 0.07-1.20, p = 0.089). The estimated rates of HIV transmission or death in the infants over a median follow up time of 74 weeks were 8.5% with maternal ART during pregnancy and 38.9% without maternal ART during pregnancy. Following adjustment for use of oral zidovudine in the newborn and exposure to maternal milk, no ART in pregnancy remained associated with a 5-fold higher infant risk of HIV transmission or death (adjusted odds ratio: 5.13, 95% CI: 1.31-20.15, p = 0.019). Among the women and infants adhering to the PMTCT programme, HIV transmission and mortality were low. However, many women presented too late for PMTCT, and about 20% of infants did not complete follow up. This suggests the need of targeted interventions that maintain the access of mothers and infants to prevention and care services for HIV.
    Preview · Article · Apr 2012 · PLoS ONE
Show more