Consensus paper: Combining transcranial stimulation with neuroimaging

Department of Neurology, Christian-Albrechts-University, Kiel, Germany.
Brain Stimulation (Impact Factor: 4.4). 04/2009; 2(2):58-80. DOI: 10.1016/j.brs.2008.11.002
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT

In the last decade, combined transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS)-neuroimaging studies have greatly stimulated research in the field of TMS and neuroimaging. Here, we review how TMS can be combined with various neuroimaging techniques to investigate human brain function. When applied during neuroimaging (online approach), TMS can be used to test how focal cortex stimulation acutely modifies the activity and connectivity in the stimulated neuronal circuits. TMS and neuroimaging can also be separated in time (offline approach). A conditioning session of repetitive TMS (rTMS) may be used to induce rapid reorganization in functional brain networks. The temporospatial patterns of TMS-induced reorganization can be subsequently mapped by using neuroimaging methods. Alternatively, neuroimaging may be performed first to localize brain areas that are involved in a given task. The temporospatial information obtained by neuroimaging can be used to define the optimal site and time point of stimulation in a subsequent experiment in which TMS is used to probe the functional contribution of the stimulated area to a specific task. In this review, we first address some general methodologic issues that need to be taken into account when using TMS in the context of neuroimaging. We then discuss the use of specific brain mapping techniques in conjunction with TMS. We emphasize that the various neuroimaging techniques offer complementary information and have different methodologic strengths and weaknesses.

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    • "An increasing body of research uses neuroimaging techniques to map TMS-evoked changes in neural activity throughout the brain (Sandrini et al., 2011; Siebner, Bergmann, et al., 2009). One consistent finding across these studies is that TMS gives rise to functional changes in connected cortical and subcortical areas (Bestmann, Baudewig, Siebner, Rothwell, & Frahm, 2003; Lee et al., 2003; Rossi & Rossini, 2004; Siebner et al., 2003). "
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    ABSTRACT: With the advent of non-invasive brain stimulation (NIBS), a new decade in the study of language has started. NIBS allows for testing the functional relevance of language-related brain activation and enables the researcher to investigate how neural activation changes in response to focal perturbations. This review focuses on the application of NIBS in the healthy brain. First, some basic mechanisms will be introduced and the prerequisites for carrying out NIBS studies of language are addressed. The next section outlines how NIBS can be used to characterize the contribution of the stimulated area to a task. In this context, novel approaches such as multifocal transcranial magnetic stimulation and the condition-and-perturb approach are discussed. The third part addresses the combination of NIBS and neuroimaging in the study of plasticity. These approaches are particularly suited to investigate short-term reorganization in the healthy brain and may inform models of language recovery in post-stroke aphasia.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2015 · Brain and Language
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    • "An increasing body of research uses neuroimaging techniques to map TMS-evoked changes in neural activity throughout the brain (Sandrini et al., 2011; Siebner, Bergmann, et al., 2009). One consistent finding across these studies is that TMS gives rise to functional changes in connected cortical and subcortical areas (Bestmann, Baudewig, Siebner, Rothwell, & Frahm, 2003; Lee et al., 2003; Rossi & Rossini, 2004; Siebner et al., 2003). "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: With the advent of non-invasive brain stimulation (NIBS), a new decade in the study of language has started. NIBS allows for testing the functional relevance of language-related brain activation and enables the researcher to investigate how neural activation changes in response to focal perturbations. This review focuses on the application of NIBS in the healthy brain. First, some basic mechanisms will be introduced and the prerequisites for carrying out NIBS studies of language are addressed. The next section outlines how NIBS can be used to characterize the contribution of the stimulated area to a task. In this context, novel approaches such as multifocal transcranial magnetic stimulation and the condition-and-perturb approach are discussed. The third part addresses the combination of NIBS and neuroimaging in the study of plasticity. These approaches are particularly suited to investigate short-term reorganization in the healthy brain and may inform models of language recovery in post-stroke aphasia.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2014 · Brain and Language
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    • "In nTMS, the stimulated cortical site can be defined anatomically from the individual's brain magnetic resonance images (MRI). In addition, orientation and strength of the induced electric field can be estimated (Siebner et al., 2009; Ruohonen and Karhu, 2010). The information provided by nTMS is useful for surgical planning, and it can be transferred into the operating theater via surgical neuronavigation systems. "
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    ABSTRACT: Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) has been used to induce speech disturbances and to affect speech performance during different naming tasks. Lately, repetitive navigated TMS (nTMS) has been used for non-invasive mapping of cortical speech-related areas. Different naming tasks may give different information that can be useful for presurgical evaluation. We studied the sensitivity of object and action naming tasks to nTMS and compared the distributions of cortical sites where nTMS produced naming errors. Eight healthy subjects named pictures of objects and actions during repetitive nTMS delivered to semi-random left-hemispheric sites. Subject-validated image stacks were obtained in the baseline naming of all pictures before nTMS. Thereafter, nTMS pulse trains were delivered while the subjects were naming the images of objects or actions. The sessions were video-recorded for offline analysis. Naming during nTMS was compared with the baseline performance. The nTMS-induced naming errors were categorized by error type and location. nTMS produced no-response errors, phonological paraphasias, and semantic paraphasias. In seven out of eight subjects, nTMS produced more errors during object than action naming. Both intrasubject and intersubject analysis showed that object naming was significantly more sensitive to nTMS. When the number of errors was compared according to a given area, nTMS to postcentral gyrus induced more errors during object than action naming. Object naming is apparently more easily disrupted by TMS than action naming. Different stimulus types can be useful for locating different aspects of speech functions. This provides new possibilities in both basic and clinical research of cortical speech representations.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2014 · Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
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