Egg consumption and CHD and stroke mortality: A prospective study of US adults

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Public Health Nutrition (Impact Factor: 2.68). 02/2011; 14(2):261-70. DOI: 10.1017/S1368980010001874
Source: PubMed


To evaluate the relationship between egg consumption and CHD and stroke mortality using the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1988-1994 (NHANES III) and follow-up survey.
A cross-sectional survey using a stratified, multi-stage probability sample was analysed, adjusting for survey design. Egg consumption was obtained from the FFQ and separated into categories of egg intake. Hazard ratios (HR) were calculated for CHD and stroke mortality using multivariate Cox regression models.
A health and nutrition survey conducted in the USA from 1988 to 1994 with follow-up through 31 December 2000.
The study population included men and women who were free of CVD and had completed a FFQ at baseline.
Multivariate models adjusting for health, lifestyle and dietary factors indicated that 'high' egg consumption (≥ 7 times/week v. <1 time/week) was not associated with significantly increased CHD mortality (HR = 1·13, 95 % CI 0·61, 2·11 (men); HR = 0·92, 95 % CI 0·27, 3·11 (women)). There was a statistically significant inverse association between 'high' egg consumption and stroke mortality among men (HR = 0·27, 95 % CI 0·10, 0·73), but the estimate was imprecise because of sparse data. We did not observe a statistically significant positive association between 'high' egg consumption and CHD or stroke mortality in analyses restricted to individuals with diabetes, but these analyses may be limited due to the small number of diabetics.
We did not find a significant positive association between egg consumption and increased risk of mortality from CHD or stroke in the US population. These results corroborate the findings of previous studies.

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    • "Nevertheless, there has been concern that dietary cholesterol, which may contribute to abnormal lipid profiles by changing apolipoprotein profiles[8], might increase the risk of CVD among diabetic patients. In some previous epidemiologic studies among diabetic patients, harmful effects of egg consumption on CVD incidence, which have not been observed in healthy populations3456, were observed. However, a clinical trial feeding a diet high in cholesterol due to egg to diabetic patients did not have any adverse effects on cardiovascular risk factors such as blood lipid profiles or blood glucose profiles[9]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Since the 1970s, the public has been advised to limit egg consumption even though there is little evidence of any harmful effect of eggs on blood cholesterol. The purpose of this cross-sectional and prospective study was to evaluate the potential association between egg consumption and metabolic syndrome (MetS) and MetS components in adults ≥ 40 years in KoGES_Yangpyeong. Yangpyeong is a rural area in South Korea. A total of 2,887 subjects (men 1,115, women 1,772) were recruited from 2005 to 2009, based on a physical examination and questionnaires administered using standardized protocol. After excluding subjects who had MetS at baseline, 1,663 subjects (675 men, 958 women) were followed for 3.20 years (range: 0.34-8.70). During the follow-up period, MetS occurred in 289 subjects. More than 3 eggs per week was significantly associated with decreased risk of MetS in both men (RR = 0.46, 95% CI, 0.26-0.82, P for trend = 0.1093) and women (RR = 0.54, 95% CI, 0.31-0.93, P for trend 0.0325) compared to non-users. There was a cross-sectional inverse relationship between egg consumption and abdominal obesity in men and women. Also, prospectively, higher egg consumption in men was associated with a decreased risk of high fasting blood glucose (RR = 0.39, 95% CI, 0.22-0.67, P for trend = 0.0042) and high triglycerides (RR = 0.42, 95% CI, 0.22-0.80, P for trend = 0.1080). In conclusion, our findings suggest that higher egg consumption may reduce the risk of MetS both in men and women, and the risk of high fasting blood glucose and high triglycerides in men. Current guidelines regarding egg consumption may need to be re-visited for healthy middle-aged and elderly people.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2016 · PLoS ONE
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    • "The first search was conducted using the search terms: “egg or eggs” and “diabetes or diabetic or insulin or resistant or tolerance” and “cardiovascular or stroke or myocardial or coronary or heart or atherosclerosis or CHD or CVD or CAD [coronary artery disease]” without any limitations. Six epidemiology studies on egg consumption and CVD risk among diabetics were found.14,16,21,22,38,39 A second search, with broader search terms, including “egg or eggs” and “diabetes or diabetic”, and with limitations to human studies and English publications, was conducted and was followed by a hand search. "
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    ABSTRACT: This study reviewed epidemiological and experimental evidence on the relationship between egg consumption and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risks among type II diabetes mellitus (T2DM) individuals, and T2DM risk in nondiabetic subjects. Four of the six studies that examined CVD and mortality and egg consumption among diabetics found a statistically significant association. Of the eight studies evaluating incident T2DM and egg consumption, four prospective studies found a statistically significant association. Lack of adjustment for dietary confounders was a common study limitation. A small number of experimental studies examined the relationship between egg intake and CVD risk biomarkers among diabetics or individuals with T2DM risk factors. Studies among healthy subjects found suggestive evidence that dietary interventions that include eggs may reduce the risk of T2DM and metabolic syndrome. Differences in study design, T2DM status, exposure measurement, subject age, control for confounders and follow-up time present significant challenges for conducting a meta-analysis. Conflicting results, coupled with small sample sizes, prevent broad interpretation. Given the study limitations, these findings need to be further investigated.
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    • "Although it had been shown very early in the 1950s that dietary cholesterol and eggs are not relevant for serum cholesterol levels [9] [10] [11], it took many years to exculpate eggs from being a cause of myocardial infarction (MI) and stroke of CVD [12] [13]. Most cohort studies, among them a recent analysis of NHANES, did not find an association between egg consumption and CVD [14]. Contrasting to that, an analysis from the Physicians' Health Study found an association between egg consumption and total mortality (but not MI and stroke), which was pronounced in diabetic physicians, the reason for which is unclear [15]. "
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