Sugiyama Y, Ishizaki Y, Imamura H, et al. Effects of intermittent Pringle's manoeuvre on cirrhotic compared with normal liver
Department of Hepatobiliary-Pancreatic Surgery, Juntendo University School of Medicine, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8421, Japan. British Journal of Surgery
(Impact Factor: 5.54).
07/2010; 97(7):1062-9. DOI: 10.1002/bjs.7039
Although patients with liver cirrhosis are supposed to tolerate ischaemia-reperfusion poorly, the exact impact of intermittent inflow clamping during hepatic resection of cirrhotic compared with normal liver remains unclear.
Intermittent Pringle's manoeuvre was applied during minor hepatectomy in 172 patients with a normal liver, 59 with chronic hepatitis and 97 with liver cirrhosis. To assess hepatic injury, delta (D)-aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and D-alanine aminotransferase (ALT) (maximum level minus preoperative level) were calculated. To evaluate postoperative liver function, postoperative levels of total bilirubin, albumin and cholinesterase (ChE), and prothrombin time were measured.
Significant correlations between D-AST or D-ALT and clamping time were found in each group. The regression coefficients of the regression lines for D-AST and D-ALT in patients with normal liver were significantly higher than those in patients with cirrhotic liver. Irrespective of whether clamping time was 45 min or less, or at least 60 min, D-AST and D-ALT were significantly lower in patients with cirrhosis than in those with a normal liver. Parameters of hepatic functional reserve, such as total bilirubin, prothrombin time, albumin and ChE, were impaired significantly after surgery in patients with a cirrhotic liver.
Patients with liver cirrhosis had a smaller increase in aminotransferase levels following portal triad clamping than those with a normal liver. However, hepatic functional reserve in those with a cirrhotic liver seemed to be affected more after intermittent inflow occlusion.
Available from: Justin Sangwook Ko
- "Hyperglycemia was defined as when the peak glucose concentration was > 180 mg/dl according to recent guidelines . The extent of hepatocytes injury was estimated with delta (D)-transaminase concentrations (the peak postoperative value minus preoperative value) , . Analyzed variables were demographic, laboratory, histological, surgical, and anesthetic factors including age, waist circumference, alcohol intake, coagulation status, total cholesterol, tumor biology, liver parenchymal histology, hepatic ischemia time, liver resection range, and blood loss. "
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Patients undergoing liver resection are at risk for intraoperative hyperglycemia and acute hyperglycemia is known to induce hepatocytes injury. Thus, we aimed to evaluate whether intraoperative hyperglycemia during liver resection is associated with the extent of hepatic injury.
This 1 year retrospective observation consecutively enrolled 85 patients undergoing liver resection for hepatocellular carcinoma. Blood glucose concentrations were measured at predetermined time points including every start/end of intermittent hepatic inflow occlusion (IHIO) via arterial blood analysis. Postoperative transaminase concentrations were used as surrogate parameters indicating the extent of surgery-related acute hepatocytes injury.
Thirty (35.5%) patients developed hyperglycemia (blood glucose > 180 mg/dl) during surgery. Prolonged (≥ 3 rounds) IHIO (odds ratio [OR] 7.34, P = 0.004) was determined as a risk factors for hyperglycemia as well as cirrhosis (OR 4.07, P = 0.022), lower prothrombin time (OR 0.01, P = 0.025), and greater total cholesterol level (OR 1.04, P = 0.003). Hyperglycemia was independently associated with perioperative increase in transaminase concentrations (aspartate transaminase, β 105.1, standard error 41.7, P = 0.014; alanine transaminase, β 81.6, standard error 38.1, P = 0.035). Of note, blood glucose > 160 or 140 mg/dl was not associated with postoperative transaminase concentrations.
Hyperglycemia during liver resection might be associated with the extent of hepatocytes injury. It would be rational to maintain blood glucose concentration < 180 mg/dl throughout the surgery in consideration of parenchymal disease, coagulation status, lipid profile, and the cumulative hepatic ischemia in patients undergoing liver resection for hepatocellular carcinoma.
Available from: Asım Orem
- "Smaller remnant liver masses might have been associated with lower postreperfusion serum AST and ALT levels than larger residual liver volumes . In a recent study from Japan, it was claimed that the cirrhotic liver releases smaller amounts of aminotransferase than normal liver after IR . The alteration of transaminase levels after liver resection with intermittent PTC in this study seems comparable with the previous studies [46–48]. "
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This retrospective study was designed to investigate the efficacy and safety of intermittent portal triad clamping (PTC) with low central venous pressure (CVP) in liver resections.
Between January 2007 and August 2013, 115 patients underwent liver resection with intermittent PTC. The patients' data were retrospectively analyzed.
There were 58 males and 57 females with a mean age of 55 years (± 13.7). Cirrhosis was found in 23 patients. Resections were performed for malignant disease in 62.6% (n = 72) and for benign disease in 37.4% (n = 43). Major hepatectomy was performed in 26 patients (22.4%). Mean liver ischemia period was 27.1 min (± 13.9). The mortality rate was 1.7% and the morbidity rate was 22.6%. Cumulative clamping time (t = 3.61, P < 0.001) and operation time (t = 2.38, P < 0.019) were significantly correlated with AST alterations (D-AST). Cumulative clamping time (t = 5.16, P < 0.001) was significantly correlated with D-ALT. Operation time (t = 5.81, P < 0.001) was significantly correlated with D-LDH.
Intermittent PTC under low CVP was performed with low morbidity and mortality. Intermittent PTC can be safely applied up to 60 minutes in both normal and impaired livers.
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ABSTRACT: This study aimed to examine the hepatocyte apoptosis in a hepatic blood inflow occlusion rat model without hemi-hepatic arterial control and its association with the expressions of the apoptosis-regulating genes bcl-2 and bax.
Wistar rats were equally and randomly assigned to undergo sham operation (control group, n = 8), Pringle's maneuver (group PR, n = 32), hemi-hepatic occlusion (group HH, n = 32), or hemi-hepatic artery-preserved portal occlusion (group HP, n = 32). The hepatic blood inflow was interrupted for 30 min using a microvascular clip in the three experimental groups. The clips were removed to achieve hepatic reperfusion for up to 24 h. Blood samples and liver specimens were collected following reperfusion to perform pathologic examination, serum transferase assay, apoptosis analysis, and determination of bcl-2 and bax mRNA and protein expressions.
The reperfusion-related hepatocytic injuries were more severe in the PR group than in the HH and HP groups, both pathologically and biochemically. More reperfused hepatocytes became apoptotic in the PR group than in the HH and HP groups. However, the values of the HH and HP groups were comparable in cellularity, levels of serum transferases, and apoptosis rate following reperfusion. The ratios of bcl-2/bax were reversed, which was more evident in the HH and HP groups than in the PR group.
Hemi-hepatic artery-preserved portal occlusion had little effect on hepatocyte apoptosis compared with Pringle's maneuver and caused minor ischemia-reperfusion injury as shown by the reversed bcl-2/bax ratio.
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