Endosalpingiosis in Axillary Lymph Nodes: A Possible Pitfall in the Staging of Patients With Breast Carcinoma
Department of Pathology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY 10065, USA. The American journal of surgical pathology
(Impact Factor: 5.15).
08/2010; 34(8):1211-6. DOI: 10.1097/PAS.0b013e3181e5e03e
The occurrence of benign epithelial inclusions in lymph nodes is well documented and can sometimes mimic metastatic carcinoma. Benign müllerian inclusions, such as endometriosis and endosalpingiosis, are common in pelvic and para-aortic lymph nodes, but their presence in supradiaphragmatic lymph nodes is a rare event. We report our experience with 3 patients found to have endosalpingiosis in axillary sentinel lymph nodes obtained for staging of breast carcinoma. All patients were postmenopausal women, with age ranging between 65 and 75 years. Endosalpingiosis involved a single lymph node in 1 patient, and 2 nodes in each of the other 2; it was present in the lymph node capsule in all the 3 cases, with few glands scattered within the lymph node parenchyma in 2 of the patients. The glands contained ciliated and intercalated peg cells, had no periglandular endometrial-type stroma, and showed no atypia or mitotic activity. The epithelium demonstrated positive nuclear immunoreactivity for WT1 and PAX8, and was devoid of myoepithelium or basement membrane. Endosalpingiosis had been misinterpreted as metastatic carcinoma at another hospital in 1 of the 3 patients, with subsequent dissection of 19 additional benign axillary lymph nodes. We conclude that endosalpingiosis can involve axillary lymph nodes and closely simulate metastatic mammary carcinoma. Morphologic identification of ciliated cells and "peg" cells is most helpful to recognize this benign inclusion, and positive immunoreactivity for WT1 and/or PAX8 can be used to support the diagnosis.
Available from: Takuji Iwase
- "First, the rigorous SN biopsy with radioisotope tracer before breast surgery and the removal of extranodal tissue before homogenisation minimises contamination. Second, although benign intranodal epithelial inclusions such as heterotopic mammary glands, benign glandular inclusions, and benign Mullerian inclusions are inevitable (Maiorano et al, 2003; Peng et al, 2008; Corben et al, 2010; Fellegara et al, 2011), their presence is very rare in axillary lymph nodes. In a large series with more than 3500 specimens, only 7 occurrences (o0.2%) of ectopic breast tissue in SNs Table 3 Detection of sentinel lymph node metastases between the frozen-section histology and OSNA cohorts "
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ABSTRACT: The pathogenesis of lymph node metastases in preinvasive breast cancer – ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) – remains controversial. The one-step nucleic acid amplification (OSNA) assay is a novel molecular method that can assess a whole node and detect clinically relevant metastases. In this retrospective cohort study, we determined the performance of the OSNA assay in DCIS and the pathogenesis of node-positive DCIS.
The subjects consisted of 623 patients with DCIS who underwent sentinel lymph node (SN) biopsy. Of these, 2-mm-sectioned nodes were examined using frozen-section (FS) histology in 338 patients between 2007 and 2009, while 285 underwent OSNA whole node assays between 2009 and 2011. The SN-positivity rate was compared between cohorts, and the characteristics of OSNA-positive DCIS were investigated.
The OSNA detected more cases of SN metastases than FS histology (12 out of 285, 4.2% vs 1 out of 338, 0.3%). Most of the metastases were micrometastases. The characteristics of high-risk DCIS (i.e., mass formation, size, grade, and comedo) and preoperative breast biopsy (i.e., methods or time to surgery) were not valid for OSNA assay–positive DCIS.
The OSNA detects more SN metastases in DCIS than FS histology. Further examination of the primary tumours and follow-up of node-positive DCIS are needed to elucidate the pathogenesis.
Available from: Takuji Iwase
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ABSTRACT: Conventional histopathological examination is limited in measuring accurate total metastatic volume in a lymph node. Recently, a molecular-based procedure to detect lymph node metastases, one-step nucleic acid amplification (OSNA) assay, has been developed. OSNA assay can assess a whole lymph node and yields semiquantitative results. The authors compared the performance in intraoperative detection of sentinel lymph node metastases with OSNA assay using a whole lymph node versus routine frozen section (FS) histology with a 2 mm-sectioned lymph node.
Subjects comprised 531 consecutive patients diagnosed with OSNA assay and 618 consecutive patients diagnosed with FS histological examination. The authors compared the sentinel lymph node-positive rate between the OSNA and FS cohorts, and investigated characteristics of patients for whom OSNA could detect metastases but FS could not. OSNA (+) was defined as micrometastasis, and OSNA (++) and (+I) were defined as macrometastasis.
OSNA assay detected more cases of sentinel lymph node metastases than FS histology (OSNA 121 of 531, 22.8% vs FS 109 of 618, 17.6%; P = .036), particularly micrometastases (46 of 531, 8.7% vs 28 of 618, 4.5%; P = .0064). There was no difference in macrometastasis detection between OSNA and FS (75 of 531, 14.1% vs 81 of 618, 13.1%; P = .68). OSNA detected more metastases than FS in postmenopausal patients (77 of 302, 25.5% vs 43 of 351, 12.3%; P < .0001), and in tumors without fat invasion (23 of 156, 14.7% vs 6 of 151, 4.0%; P = .012) or lymphovascular invasion (67 of 395, 17.0% vs 45 of 458, 9.8%; P = .042).
Intraoperative OSNA assay detects more sentinel lymph node metastases, particularly micrometastases, than does FS histology. OSNA assay can also detect more metastases in postmenopausal patients or from less aggressive primary tumors compared with FS histology.
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