A pilot study of a test for visual recognition memory in adults with moderate to severe intellectual disability
Southern Illinois University, School of Medicine, Department of Psychiatry, 901 W. Jefferson, PO BOX 19642, Springfield, IL 62794-9642, USA.Research in developmental disabilities (Impact Factor: 4.41). 11/2010; 31(6):1475-80. DOI: 10.1016/j.ridd.2010.06.010
Objective assessment of memory functioning is an important part of evaluation for Dementia of Alzheimer Type (DAT). The revised Picture Recognition Memory Test (r-PRMT) is a test for visual recognition memory to assess memory functioning of persons with intellectual disabilities (ID), specifically targeting moderate to severe ID. A pilot study was performed to investigate whether the r-PRMT could differentiate DAT-related memory decline from pre-existing poor memory functioning of persons with moderate to severe ID. The r-PRMT scores were compared between 26 participants with DAT and moderate to severe ID and 33 controls with similar levels of ID. The results revealed that the controls with DS showed uniformly high scores in contrast to those with DAT on the r-PRMT and the score distributions of two groups were distinctly different with no overlap. On the other hand, the controls with non-DS etiologies scored much lower with a wider score spread, resulting in significant overlap with the score distribution of the participants with DAT. In conclusion, the r-PRMT may be effective in identifying persons with DAT among persons with moderate to severe ID from DS. However, the r-PRMT may result in a high false positive error rate in discriminating those with DAT among persons with moderate to severe ID from non-DS etiologies, if the judgment is based on a single point assessment.
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ABSTRACT: This work describes an extensive systematic literature review on assessment instruments for dementia in persons with intellectual disability (ID). Existing instruments for the detection of dementia in persons with ID were collected and described systematically. This allows a direct and quick overview of available tools. Additionally, it contributes to the availability and usability of information about these instruments, thus enhancing further developments in this field. A systematic literature search in five databases (CINAHL, PsycInfo, PubMed, Scopus, and Web of Science) was conducted. In order to include gray literature an invisible college approach was used. Relevant studies were identified and selected using defined inclusion and exclusion criteria. After the selection process all instruments were coded and classified. It was determined which concepts they assess, whether they were especially developed or adapted for persons with ID, and whether they were designed to assess dementia. The selection of relevant papers, as well as the coding of instruments was done independently by two researchers. In total, 97 records met the search criteria. Out of these, 114 different instruments were extracted. There were 79 instruments to be completed by the person with ID, and 35 informant-based instruments. Additionally, four test batteries were found. Some of these instruments were neither designed for the assessment of dementia, nor for persons with ID. There are a variety of different tools used for the assessment of dementia in ID. Nevertheless, an agreed-upon approach or instrument is missing. Establishing this would improve the quality of assessment in clinical practice, and benefit research. Data collected would become comparable and combinable, and allow research to have more informative value.
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