Neurosurgical robotic system for brain tumor removal

Nagoya Institute of Technology, Gokiso-cho, Showa-ku, Nagoya, 466-8555, Japan.
International Journal of Computer Assisted Radiology and Surgery (Impact Factor: 1.71). 05/2011; 6(3):375-85. DOI: 10.1007/s11548-010-0514-8
Source: PubMed


Brain tumor (e.g., glioma) resection surgery, representing the first step for many treatments, is often difficult and time-consuming for neurosurgeons. Thus, intelligent neurosurgical instruments have been developed to improve tumor removal.
The concept and robotic structure of intelligent neurosurgical instruments were introduced. These instruments consist of a surgical robot, a master device and operating software. The robot incorporates a surgical motion base and tool manipulator, including a volume control suction tool. Open Core Control software was developed for connecting intelligent neurosurgical instruments through a network connection and integrating the instruments into a system.
Mechanical evaluation tests on the components and a preliminary system evaluation were performed. A phantom model was fixed on a head frame, and a tumor-removal procedure was successfully performed using prototype intelligent neurosurgical instruments.
Intelligent neurosurgical instruments are feasible and suitable for on-going evaluation in practical tasks, including in-vivo animal testing.

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    • "In [10] Beira et al present a synthesis of passive and mechanically constrained solutions for obtaining the remote center of motion (RCM) and propose an innovative parallel manipulator with 4 DOF and a fixed RCM. Arata et al develop in [11] a neurosurgical robotic system for brain tumor removal with a fixed RCM consisting of a 4 DOF active mechanism and a 3 DOF passive one. Marcu presents in [12] a set of algorithms for a motion simulator useful for the structure assessment before a prototype is built. "
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    ABSTRACT: In order to realize a less invasive robotic neurosurgery for the deeply seated tumor, a force detecting gripper with a flexible micro manipulator has been developed. Gripping force applied on the gripper is detected by strain gages fit on the gripper clip. Signal is conducted to the amplifier by the cables through the inner pipe of the manipulator. In order to approach to the deeply seated tumor through a narrow hole, a micro manipulator which can flex at the end part to face the gripper for the target and can rotate the closing direction of the gripper at the end of the manipulator has been developed. Some operation test showed that the developed manipulator can approach flexibly to the target, and the taking out force of a target on the soft material was detected clearly.
    Preview · Article · Aug 2011 · Conference proceedings: ... Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society. IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society. Conference
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    ABSTRACT: PURPOSE: We are currently developing a neurosurgical robotic system that facilitates access to residual tumors and improves brain tumor removal surgical outcomes. The system combines conventional and robotic surgery allowing for a quick conversion between the procedures. This concept requires a new master console that can be positioned at the surgical bedside and be sterilized. METHODS: The master console was developed using new technologies, such as a parallel mechanism and pneumatic sensors. The parallel mechanism is a purely passive 5-DOF (degrees of freedom) joystick based on the author's haptic research. The parallel mechanism enables motion input of conventional brain tumor removal surgery with a compact, intuitive interface that can be used in a conventional surgical environment. In addition, the pneumatic sensors implemented on the mechanism provide an intuitive interface and electrically isolate the tool parts from the mechanism so they can be easily sterilized. RESULTS: The 5-DOF parallel mechanism is compact (17 cm width, 19cm depth, and 15cm height), provides a 505,050 mm and 90° workspace and is highly backdrivable (0.27N of resistance force representing the surgical motion). The evaluation tests revealed that the pneumatic sensors can properly measure the suction strength, grasping force, and hand contact. In addition, an installability test showed that the master console can be used in a conventional surgical environment. CONCLUSION: The proposed master console design was shown to be feasible for operative neurosurgery based on comprehensive testing. This master console is currently being tested for master-slave control with a surgical robotic system.
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