Article

Immunotoxicity and oxidative stress in the Arctic scallop Chlamys islandica: Effects of acute oil exposure

Ecotoxicology Research and Innovation Centre, School of Biomedical and Biological Sciences, University of Plymouth, Drake Circus, Plymouth, PL4 8AA, UK.
Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety (Impact Factor: 2.76). 09/2010; 73(6):1440-8. DOI: 10.1016/j.ecoenv.2010.06.012
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT

With increasing oil exploration in Arctic regions, the risk of an accidental oil spill into the environment is inevitably elevated. As a result, concerns have been raised over the potential impact of oil exposure on Arctic organisms. This study assessed the effects of an acute oil exposure (mimicking an accidental spill) on the immune function and oxidative stress status of the Arctic scallop Chlamys islandica. Scallops were exposed to the water accommodated fraction of crude oil over 21 d (maximum SigmaPAH 163 microg l(-1)) and immune endpoints and oxidative stress parameters were measured. Mortalities were recorded during the exposure and reductions in immunocompetence were observed, with significant impairment of phagocytosis and cell membrane stability. Scallops were also subjected to oxidative stress, with a significant reduction in glutathione levels and induction of lipid peroxidation. After the acute oil exposure had subsided, no recovery of immune function was observed indicating potential for prolonged sublethal effects.

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    • "Although marine diesel contamination seemed to induce an increase of lipid peroxidation, statistical analyses did not indicate significant differences due to these contaminations (P= 0.13). These results are in accordance with two recent studies: (i) a study conducted byLüchmann et al. (2011), which did not highlight lipid peroxidation in digestive glands of Crassostrea brasiliana exposed to water accommodation fractions of marine diesel for 96 h, and (ii) a study conducted byHannam et al. (2010)that showed no modulation of MDA contents in the haemocytes of C. islandica after an 1 week exposure to crude oil. On another hand, our results disagree with previous studies that showed an increase of MDA in the digestive glands of C. farreri exposed to PAHs (Pan et al. 2005Pan et al. , 2009). "
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    • "A biomarker of oxidative stress, lipid peroxidation, has been chosen since it is a suitable biological indicator of hydrocarbon contamination and it reflects a degradation of the functional integrity (Halliwell and Gutteridge 1999). Additionally, activity of the superoxide dismutase (SOD) has been measured considering its important role in antioxidant protection (Valavanidis et al. 2006) as well as the precocity and the sensitivity of this enzyme response to hydrocarbon contamination (Oliveira et al. 2008; Hannam et al. 2010; Sun et al. 2006; Oliva et al. 2010; Milinkovitch et al. 2013a). Finally, hydrocarbon incorporation was verified by assessing metabolites of hydrocarbon in the haemolymph of scallops. "
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    • "A biomarker of oxidative stress, lipid peroxidation, has been chosen since it is a suitable biological indicator of hydrocarbon contamination and it reflects a degradation of the functional integrity (Halliwell and Gutteridge 1999). Additionally, activity of the superoxide dismutase (SOD) has been measured considering its important role in antioxidant protection (Valavanidis et al. 2006) as well as the precocity and the sensitivity of this enzyme response to hydrocarbon contamination (Oliveira et al. 2008; Hannam et al. 2010; Sun et al. 2006; Oliva et al. 2010; Milinkovitch et al. 2013a). Finally, hydrocarbon incorporation was verified by assessing metabolites of hydrocarbon in the haemolymph of scallops. "
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