Article

Short and long sleep are positively associated with obesity, diabetes, hypertension, and cardiovascular disease among adults in the United States

Brigham and Women's Hospital, Department of Medicine, Harvard Medical School, Division of Sleep Medicine, BLI-438, 221 Longwood Avenue, Boston, MA 02115, United States.
Social Science [?] Medicine (Impact Factor: 2.89). 09/2010; 71(5):1027-36. DOI: 10.1016/j.socscimed.2010.05.041
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT

Research associates short (and to a lesser extent long) sleep duration with obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease; and although 7-8 h of sleep seems to confer the least health risk, these findings are often based on non-representative data. We hypothesize that short sleep (<7 h) and long sleep (>8 h) are positively associated with the risk of obesity, diabetes, hypertension, and cardiovascular disease; and analyze 2004-2005 US National Health Interview Survey data (n=56,507 observations, adults 18-85) to test this. We employ multilevel logistic regression, simultaneously controlling for individual characteristics (e.g., ethnoracial group, gender, age, education), other health behaviors (e.g., exercise, smoking), family environment (e.g., income, size, education) and geographic context (e.g., census region). Our model correctly classified at least 76% of adults on each of the outcomes studied, and sleep duration was frequently more strongly associated with these health risks than other covariates. These findings suggest a 7-8 h sleep duration directly and indirectly reduces chronic disease risk.

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    • "For example, poor selfreported sleep quality is associated with an increased risk of all-cause mortality, independent of sleep duration [2]. Self-reported short and/or long sleep duration and sleep disorders are associated with adverse health outcomes including hypercholesterolaemia, cardiovascular disease, obesity, diabetes, hypertension, depression and mortality3456. Cumulative sleep deprivation may increase the risk of psychiatric disorders and accidents, while one night of insufficient sleep demonstrated decreased daytime cognitive function and driving performance [7]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Background Anchoring vignettes are brief texts describing a hypothetical character who illustrates a certain fixed level of a trait under evaluation. This research uses vignettes to elucidate factors associated with sleep disorders in adult Japanese before and after adjustment for reporting heterogeneity in self-reports. This study also evaluates the need for adjusting for reporting heterogeneity in the management of sleep and energy related problems in Japan. Methods We investigated a dataset of 1002 respondents aged 18 years and over from the Japanese World Health Survey, which collected information through face-to-face interview from 2002 to 2003. The ordered probit model and the Compound Hierarchical Ordered Probit (CHOPIT) model, which incorporated anchoring vignettes, were employed to estimate and compare associations of sleep and energy with socio-demographic and life-style factors before and after adjustment for differences in response category cut-points for each individual. Results The prevalence of self-reported problems with sleep and energy was 53 %. Without correction of cut-point shifts, age, sex, and the number of comorbidities were significantly associated with a greater severity of sleep-related problems. After correction, age, the number of comorbidities, and regular exercise were significantly associated with a greater severity of sleep-related problems; sex was no longer a significant factor. Compared to the ordered probit model, the CHOPIT model provided two changes with a subtle difference in the magnitude of regression coefficients after correction for reporting heterogeneity. Conclusion Sleep disorders are common in the general adult population of Japan. Correction for reporting heterogeneity using anchoring vignettes is not a necessary tool for proper management of sleep and energy related problems among Japanese adults. Older age, gender differences in communicating sleep-related problems, the presence of multiple morbidities, and regular exercise should be the focus of policies and clinical practice to improve sleep and energy management in Japan.
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2016 · BMC Psychiatry
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    • "Adequate sleep has been touted as a critical component of optimal health (Colten and Altevogt, 2006). Individuals attaining adequate or sufficient sleep have been shown to have better cardio-metabolic profiles (Grandner et al., 2012; Cappuccio et al., 2011), functional capacity (Brimah et al., 2013), lower risk of overweight or obesity and death (Jean-Louis et al., 2014; Buxton and Marcelli, 2010; Kripke et al., 2002), compared to individuals experiencing inadequate or insufficient sleep. In spite of the well-documented benefits of adequate sleep for overall health, many US adults do not meet the recommended 7–8 h of sleep at night (Perry et al., 2013). "
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract Background Exposure to the natural environment may improve health behaviors and mental health outcomes such as increased levels of physical activity and lower levels of depression associated with sleep quality. Little is known about the relationship between insufficient sleep and the natural environment. Purpose To determine whether exposure to attributes of the natural environment (e.g., greenspace) attenuates the likelihood of reporting insufficient sleep among US adults. Methods Multiple logistic regression models were used to explore the association between self-reported days of insufficient sleep (in the past 30 days) and access to the natural environment in a multi-ethnic, nationally representative sample (n = 255,171) of US adults ≥ 18 years of age enrolled in the 2010 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System. Results Using 1-to-6 days of insufficient sleep as the referent group for all analyses, lower odds of exposure to natural amenities were observed for individuals reporting 21-to-29 days (OR = 0.843, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.747, 0.951) of insufficient sleep. In stratified analyses, statistically significant lower odds of exposure to natural amenities were found among men reporting 7-to-13-days (OR = 0.911, 95% CI = 0.857, 0.968), 21-to-29-days (OR = 0.838, 95% CI = 0.759, 0.924), and 30-days (OR = 0.860, 95% CI = 0.784, 0.943) of insufficient sleep. Greenspace access was also protective against insufficient sleep for men and individuals aged 65 +. Conclusions In a representative sample of US adults, access to the natural environment attenuated the likelihood of reporting insufficient sleep, particularly among men. Additional studies are needed to examine the impact of natural environment exposure on sleep insufficiency across various socio-demographic groups.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2015
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    • "The consequences are well-known. A non-exhaustive list of medical conditions positively correlated with sleep disturbances includes: obesity, diabetes, hypertension, cardiovascular disease, stroke, impaired immune function, mental issues, early mortality etc [3] [20]. It is not just a problem of well-being, but rather an economic issue in industrialized countries [16]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Sleep disorders affect approximately 30% of the adult population , due to this fact, it is considered an important public health issue. Some medical conditions are correlated with sleep disturbances, including: obesity, diabetes, cardiovascu-lar disease, hyperactivity disorder and early mortality. The current mainstream sleep disorder detection and assessment method, the laboratory polysomnography, is very expensive and inconvenient for patients who are extracted from their own sleep-environment. Aiming to avoid the high costs and to perform an assessment in loco, we present in this paper a non-invasive sleep-environment monitoring system in order to aid the detection of environmental factors that may be contributing to poor sleep. The stand-alone device was designed in order to provide robustness, scalability and us-ability to a completely built-in sleep assessment system. We highlight that the main goal of this in-home device is to give more accurate information to physicians and technical staff, assisting in the screening process, reducing costs and helping to improve the well-being of people with sleep disorders. Permission to make digital or hard copies of all or part of this work for personal or classroom use is granted without fee provided that copies are not made or distributed for profit or commercial advantage and that copies bear this notice and the full citation on the first page. Copyrights for components of this work owned by others than the author(s) must be honored. Abstracting with credit Keywords Sleep-environment monitoring, sleep assessment, non-invasive monitoring system, in-home sleep monitoring.
    Full-text · Conference Paper · Jul 2015
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