Ras-Related Small GTPases RalA and RalB Regulate Cellular Survival After Ionizing Radiation

Lineberger Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, USA.
International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics (Impact Factor: 4.26). 09/2010; 78(1):205-12. DOI: 10.1016/j.ijrobp.2010.03.023
Source: PubMed


Oncogenic activation of Ras renders cancer cells resistant to ionizing radiation (IR), but the mechanisms have not been fully characterized. The Ras-like small GTPases RalA and RalB are downstream effectors of Ras function and are critical for both tumor growth and survival. The Ral effector RalBP1/RLIP76 mediates survival of mice after whole-body irradiation, but the role of the Ral GTPases themselves in response to IR is unknown. We have investigated the role of RalA and RalB in cellular responses to IR.
RalA, RalB, and their major effectors RalBP1 and Sec5 were knocked down by stable expression of short hairpin RNAs in the K-Ras-dependent pancreatic cancer-derived cell line MIA PaCa-2. Radiation responses were measured by standard clonogenic survival assays for reproductive survival, gammaH2AX expression for double-strand DNA breaks (DSBs), and poly(ADP-ribose)polymerase (PARP) cleavage for apoptosis.
Knockdown of K-Ras, RalA, or RalB reduced colony-forming ability post-IR, and knockdown of either Ral isoform decreased the rate of DSB repair post-IR. However, knockdown of RalB, but not RalA, increased cell death. Surprisingly, neither RalBP1 nor Sec5 suppression affected colony formation post-IR.
Both RalA and RalB contribute to K-Ras-dependent IR resistance of MIA PaCa-2 cells. Sensitization due to suppressed Ral expression is likely due in part to decreased efficiency of DNA repair (RalA and RalB) and increased susceptibility to apoptosis (RalB). Ral-mediated radioresistance does not depend on either the RalBP1 or the exocyst complex, the two best-characterized Ral effectors, and instead may utilize an atypical or novel effector.

Download full-text


Available from: Adrienne D Cox, Apr 23, 2015
  • Source
    • "Although growing evidence exists for the function of K-Ras in chemo- and radioresistance, the exact underlying mechanism is not clear. On the basis of recent results, one of the potential mechanisms could be the enhanced repair of DNA-DSB mediated through mutated K-RAS [30,42,57]. The data presented in the present study reveal a novel function of mutated K-Ras in regulating YB-1 phosphorylation. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Expression of Y-box binding protein-1 (YB-1) is associated with tumor progression and drug resistance. Phosphorylation of YB-1 at serine residue 102 (S102) in response to growth factors is required for its transcriptional activity and is thought to be regulated by cytoplasmic signaling phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt and mitogen-activated protein kinase/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (MAPK/ERK) pathways. These pathways can be activated by growth factors and by exposure to ionizing radiation (IR). So far, however, no studies have been conducted on IR-induced YB-1 phosphorylation. IR-induced YB-1 phosphorylation in K-RAS wild-type (K-RASwt) and K-RAS-mutated (K-RASmt) breast cancer cell lines was investigated. Using pharmacological inhibitors, small interfering RNA (siRNA) and plasmid-based overexpression approaches, we analyzed pathways involved in YB-1 phosphorylation by IR. Using γ-H2AX foci and standard colony formation assays, we investigated the function of YB-1 in repair of IR-induced DNA double-stranded breaks (DNA-DSB) and postirradiation survival was investigated. The average level of phosphorylation of YB-1 in the breast cancer cell lines SKBr3, MCF-7, HBL100 and MDA-MB-231 was significantly higher than that in normal cells. Exposure to IR and stimulation with erbB1 ligands resulted in phosphorylation of YB-1 in K-RASwt SKBr3, MCF-7 and HBL100 cells, which was shown to be K-Ras-independent. In contrast, lack of YB-1 phosphorylation after stimulation with either IR or erbB1 ligands was observed in K-RASmt MDA-MB-231 cells. Similarly to MDA-MB-231 cells, YB-1 became constitutively phosphorylated in K-RASwt cells following the overexpression of mutated K-RAS, and its phosphorylation was not further enhanced by IR. Phosphorylation of YB-1 as a result of irradiation or K-RAS mutation was dependent on erbB1 and its downstream pathways, PI3K and MAPK/ERK. In K-RASmt cells K-RAS siRNA as well as YB-1 siRNA blocked repair of DNA-DSB. Likewise, YB-1 siRNA increased radiation sensitivity. IR induces YB-1 phosphorylation. YB-1 phosphorylation induced by oncogenic K-Ras or IR enhances repair of DNA-DSB and postirradiation survival via erbB1 downstream PI3K/Akt and MAPK/ERK signaling pathways.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2011 · Breast cancer research: BCR
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Oncogenic Pim-1 kinase is upregulated in multiple solid cancers, including human pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC), a highly lethal disease with few useful treatment options. Pim-1 is also transcriptionally induced upon oncogenic K-Ras-mediated transformation of the human pancreatic ductal epithelial (HPDE) cell model of PDAC. Given the near ubiquitous presence of mutant K-Ras in PDAC and its critical role in this disease, we wished to study the effects of oncogenic K-Ras signaling on Pim-1 expression, as well as the role of Pim-1 in growth transformation of PDAC cells. Pim-1 protein levels were upregulated in both PDAC cell lines and patient tumor tissues. Furthermore, ectopic oncogenic K-Ras increased Pim-1 expression in human pancreatic nestin-expressing (HPNE) cells, a distinct immortalized cell model of PDAC. Conversely, shRNA-mediated suppression of oncogenic K-Ras decreased Pim-1 protein in PDAC cell lines. These results indicate that oncogenic K-Ras regulates Pim-1 expression. The kinase activity of Pim-1 is constitutively active. Accordingly, shRNA-mediated suppression of Pim-1 in K-Ras-dependent PDAC cell lines decreased Pim-1 activity, as measured by decreased phosphorylation of the pro-apoptotic protein Bad and increased expression of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p27Kip1. Biological consequences of inhibiting Pim-1 expression included decreases in both anchorage-dependent and -independent cell growth, invasion through Matrigel and radioresistance as measured by standard clonogenic assays. These results indicate that Pim-1 is required for PDAC cell growth, invasion and radioresistance downstream of oncogenic K-Ras. Overall, our studies help to elucidate the role of Pim-1 in PDAC growth transformation and validate Pim-1 kinase as a potential molecular marker for mutated K-Ras activity.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2011 · Carcinogenesis
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Oncogenic Ras proteins rely on a series of key effector pathways to drive the physiological changes that lead to tumorigenic growth. Of these effector pathways, the RalGEF pathway, which activates the two Ras-related GTPases RalA and RalB, remains the most poorly understood. This review will focus on key developments in our understanding of Ral biology, and will speculate on how aberrant activation of the multiple diverse Ral effector proteins might collectively contribute to oncogenic transformation and other aspects of tumor progression.
    No preview · Article · Jul 2013 · Experimental Cell Research
Show more