Pathways to Recovery (PTR): Impact of Peer-Led Group Participation on Mental Health Recovery Outcomes

University of Kansas-Social Welfare, Lawrence, KS 66045, USA.
Psychiatric Rehabilitation Journal (Impact Factor: 1.16). 06/2010; 34(1):42-8. DOI: 10.2975/34.1.2010.42.48
Source: PubMed


This study examined the positive effects on recovery outcomes for people with severe and persistent mental illness using peer-led groups based on Pathways to Recovery: A Strengths Recovery Self-Help Workbook (PTR). PTR translates the evidence-supported practice of the Strengths Model into a self-help approach, allowing users to identify and pursue life goals based on personal and environmental strengths.
A single-group pretest-posttest research design was applied. Forty-seven members in 6 consumer-run organizations in one Midwestern state participated in a PTR peer-led group, completing a baseline survey before the group and again at the completion of the 12-week sessions. The Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, the General Self-Efficacy Scale, Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support, the Spirituality Index of Well-Being, and the Modified Colorado Symptom Index were employed as recovery outcomes. Paired Hotelling's T-square test was conducted to examine the mean differences of recovery outcomes between the baseline and the completion of the group.
Findings revealed statistically significant improvements for PTR participants in self-esteem, self-efficacy, social support, spiritual well-being, and psychiatric symptoms.
This initial research is promising for establishing PTR as an important tool for facilitating recovery using a peer-led group format. The provision of peer-led service has been emphasized as critical to integrating consumers' perspectives in recovery-based mental health services. Given the current federal funding stream for peer services, continued research into PTR and other peer-led services becomes more important.

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    • "Recovery groups providing peer support are operative in these organizations, which might take place in an online environment or in conventional face-to-face group meetings (Binford Hopf et al. 2013). It is well known that peer support or recovery groups have therapeutic value (Fukui et al. 2010; Yalom 1995), not least because the power differential between members is less marked than between a health expert and client, and because people are drawing on their lived and practical experiences, not just theoretical principles. The identified therapeutic factors of groups is outlined in Table 1. "
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    ABSTRACT: This paper explores the potential benefits that books, and specifically memoirs, might offer mental health students, positing that first-person testimonials might make the complex experiences of a mental health challenge, in this case, eating disorders, accessible to learners. The paper presents a pedagogical approach, based on transformative learning, to assist in encouraging the development of a recovery approach in students. Transformative learning is a pedagogy that is interested in problematic practices that keep afflicting an area, such as the imbalanced focus on learning illness, rather than well-being, and in pondering and revising the educational solutions. The paper proposes that forward movement in this area will be based on considering and developing such innovative curricula, and researching its impact. By virtue of their accessibility, memoirs could offer to a large audience the benefits of universality, empathy, hope, and guidance. Teachers and learners could be making use of these books in face-to-face or online activities. This paper explores the groundwork that is needed before eating disorder memoirs can be confidently recommended as a therapeutic tool.
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    • "The interventional capacity of PBM regarding anxiety anddepression has, as far as we know, only been occasionally studied, and has earlier not shown significant results[25]. Studies of PBM have to a greater extent focused on perceived self-efficacy, coping with demands, the ability to develop strategies and life style changes[17,19,20,23,24,40,41]and, in accordance with the ICF, targeted factors on activity and participation levels. The results of the present study suggest that PBM can be useful also in targeting mental health in the functional level of ICF. "
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose: To evaluate the interventional capacity of problem based method groups (PBM) regarding mental health and work ability compared to cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) for persons on sick leave due to common mental disorders. Methods: In a randomised controlled design the experimental group received PBM and the control group received CBT. Outcomes were measured by the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), the Stress and Crisis Inventory 93 (SCI-93) and the Dialogue about Working Ability instrument (DOA). Results: Twenty-two participants in the PBM group and 28 in the CBT group completed intervention. Both groups showed significant lower scores on the two HADS subscales. Regarding stress the PBM group showed significant decrease in one (out of three) subscales of SCI-93. The CBT group showed significant decrease on all subscales of SCI-93. Regarding work ability the PBM group showed significant higher scores on one of five subscales of DOA. The CBT group showed significant higher scores on four of five subscales of DOA. Between groups there were significant differences to the favour of CBT on one of two subscales of HADS, all three subscales of SCI-93 and on two of the five subscales of DOA. Conclusion: PBM seem to be able to reduce anxiety- and depression symptoms. CBT showed to be superior to PBM in reducing symptoms in all aspects of mental health, except for anxiety, in which they seem equally effective. Regarding work ability CBT showed to be superior, with significant effect on more aspects compared to PBM.
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    • "Repper and Watson 21 (2012) Solomon 22 (2004) Swarbrick 23 (2013) Stastney 24 (2012) Scott and Doughty 25 (2012) Weingarten 26 (2012) Types In literature there are different types of peer support: – mutual help group – on-line and phone support groups – peer-provided services – operationalization of peer-provided services/programmes – peer partnerships – employability of peer supporters in health services Davidson et al. 2 (2006) Moran et al. 18 (2013) Moran et al. 19 (2012) Solomon 22 (2004) Scott and Doughy 25 (2012) Coniglio et al. 27 (2012) DeAndrea and Anthony 28 (2013) Mancini et al. 29 (2013) Rabenschlag et al. 30 (2012) Walker and Bryant 31 (2013) Objetives The objectives are mainly centred around the concepts of personal recovery, empowerment and advocacy, seeking to improve social functioning in daily life activities, self-esteem and self-efficacy Brown et al. 32 (2008) Chinman et al. 33 (2006) Corrigan et al. 34 (2013) Fukui et al. 35 (2010) Henderson and Kemp 36 (2013) Hodges and Segal 37 (2002) Ostrow and Adams 38 (2012) Target group The studies analyse the severity, stage and type of mental illness to which peer support is most suited: – it is used in people with serious mental illness – it is used in first-episode psychosis, acute crisis or chronic and persistent psychosis – people with mood disorders, psychotic disorders (schizophrenia) and anxiety disorders Corrigan et al. 34 (2013) Burns-Lynch and Salzer 39 (2001) Chinman et al. 40 (2002) Chinman et al. 41 (2001) Finn et al. 42 (2009) Lucock et al. 43 (2007) Pistrang et al. 44 (2008) Shahar et al. 45 (2006) Yip et al. 46 (2004) As to the practices, the theory behind them is the area most explored in literature, and there is some consensus, in particular, as regards their definition and types. However, the models upon which this practice is based are mentioned only in a minority of those same studies 22,32,42,43,54 . "
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Peer support is a mutual aid system based on the belief that someone who faced/overcome adversity can provide support, encouragement and guidance to those who experience similar situations. Objective: To conduct a systematic review that describes this concept and characterizes peer supporters, its practice and efficacy. Method: Research on ISI Web of Science, EBSCO Psychology and Behavioral Sciences Collection and Medline databases (from 2001 to December 2013) was conducted using as keywords "mental illness", "mental health", "psychiatric disability", "mental health services", combined with "peer support", "mutual support", "self-help groups", "consumers as providers", "peer-run services", "peer-run programs" and "social support". Results: We found 1,566 articles and the application of both the exclusion (studies with children, teenagers and elderly people; disease in comorbidity; peer support associated to physical illnesses or family members/caregivers) and the inclusion criteria (full text scientific papers, peer support or similar groups directed for schizophrenia, depression, bipolar or psychotic disorders) lead to 165 documents, where 22 were excluded due to repetition and 31 to incomplete text. We analyzed 112 documents, identifying as main peer support categories: characterization, peer supporter, practices and efficacy. Discussion: Despite an increasing interest about this topic, there is no consensus, suggesting realizing more studies.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2014 · Revista de Psiquiatria Clínica
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