ArticleLiterature Review

Risk for postpartum depression associated with assisted reproductive technologies and multiple births: A systematic review

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Abstract

It has been hypothesized that certain obstetrical populations, including women who conceive using assisted reproductive technologies (ART) and women with multiple births, may be at increased risk for postpartum depression. In this systematic literature review, we examine the published evidence for this hypothesis. The databases Medline, CINAHL, EMBASE, PsycINFO and the Cochrane Library were searched from their start dates through to April 1, 2009 using relevant keywords. All published, peer-reviewed articles in English, Spanish or French including a standardized assessment of depression administered between 2 and 52 weeks postpartum were considered for inclusion. Two independent reviewers abstracted and critically appraised a total of 13 eligible articles. The data indicate little or no increased risk for postpartum depression among women who use ART to conceive. In contrast, most studies of adequate quality indicate that mothers of multiples may be at elevated risk for symptoms of depression. However, existing data do not permit differentiation between transient maternal distress and clinically significant postpartum depression. Studies included in this review were often limited by small samples and lack of appropriate comparison groups, making further research in this area essential. In particular, lack of control for maternal psychiatric history and other important sociodemographic predictors of depression is a serious limitation of existing research on this topic. Further, the use of reproductive technologies and multiple births often co-occur, and few study designs enabled separation of the effects of these two variables. However, evidence of increased risk for symptoms of postpartum depression among women with multiple births, if confirmed, may warrant targeted interventions for this population.

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... daily shots, hormone treatments, egg retrieval, embryo transfer) are largely performed on the woman. Women who have achieved a clinical pregnancy using ART may be at an increased risk for experiencing depression (Ross et al., 2011;Gda nska et al., 2017). This heightened risk for depression and avoidance of negative feelings may continue during the transition to parenthood especially for first-time mothers who may be more likely to idealize parenthood, experience greater concerns about their child's health, and feel less entitled to seek social support when they feel doubts or uncertainty about parenting (Ulrich et al., 2004;Fisher et al., 2005;Gressier et al., 2015). ...
... To the best of our knowledge, the psychometric properties of the PHQ-8 have not been previously evaluated in a sample of mothers who conceived using ART. Given increasing rates of infertility (Ravitsky and Kimmins, 2019) and the potential of a greater propensity for depression among first-time mothers who conceived via ART during the transition to parenthood (Ross et al., 2011;Gda nska et al., 2017), the current study sought to evaluate the reliability and validity of the PHQ-8 in first-time mothers of children 5 years old or younger who conceived using ART. ...
... Women who have conceived via ART are at an increased risk for experiencing emotional distress (Aimagambetova et al., 2020). Ross et al., 2011), in the current sample, 36.4% of mothers reported moderate to severe depressive symptoms. Since maternal depression can be detrimental to both the mother and the child (Cox et al., 1987), it is critical to have psychometrically sound measures that assess depression in mothers who have conceived using ART. ...
Article
Study question Is the Patient Health Questionnaire-8 (PHQ-8) a valid and reliable measure of depression in first-time mothers who conceived via Assisted Reproductive Technology? Summary answer The results from this study provide initial support for the reliability and validity of the PHQ-8 as a measure of depression in mothers who have conceived using ART. What is known already Women who achieved a clinical pregnancy using Assisted Reproductive technology experience many stressors and may be at an increased risk of depression. The PHQ-8 is a brief measure designed to detect the presence of severity of depressive symptoms. It has been validated in many populations; however, it has not been validated for use in this population. Study design, size, duration This is a cross-sectional study of 171 first time mothers in the United States, recruited through Amazon’s Mechanical Turk (MTurk). Participants/materials, setting, methods The reliability of the PHQ-8 was measured through a Cronbach’s alpha, the convergent validity was measured though the correlation between the PHQ-8 and the General Anxiety Disorder-7 (GAD-7) measure of anxiety symptoms, and the structural validity was measured through a Confirmatory Factor Analysis. Main results and the role of chance The Cronbach’s alpha for the total PHQ-8 was acceptable (α =.922). The correlation between the PHQ-8 and the GAD-7 was large (r=.88) indicating good convergent validity. Ultimately, a bifactor model provided the best model fit (χ2(13) = 23.8, p = 0.033; Comparative Fit Index (CFI) =0.987; Root Mean Square Error of Approximation (RMSEA) = 0.07, Tucker-Lewis Index (TLI) = 0.972). Limitations, reasons for caution The results are limited by: the predominantly white and well-educated sample, a lack of causation between the use of artificial reproductive technology and depressive symptoms, including mothers with children up to 5 years old, convergent validity being based on associations with a related construct instead of the same construct, lack of test-retest reliability, divergent validity, and criterion-related validity, data collected through MTurk, and the fact that the measures used were all self-report and therefore may be prone to bias. Wider implications of the findings Consistent with previous literature, a bifactor model for the PHQ-8 was supported. As such, when assessing depression in first-time mothers who conceived via Assisted Reproductive Technology, using both the PHQ-8 total score and subdomain scores may yield the most valuable information. The results from this study provide preliminary support for the reliability and validity of the PHQ-8 as a measure of depression in first-time mothers who conceived using Assisted Reproductive Technology. Study funding/competing interest(s) No specific funding was used for the completion of this study. Throughout the study period and manuscript preparation, the authors were supported by the department funds at Baylor University. The authors declare that they have no conflicts of interest. Trial registration number N/A
... Most studies on multiple births do not control for IT and vice versa, and this is problematic because there is an association between the use of IT and multiple births (Ross et al., 2011). It is important to examine the independent and the combined effects of IT and multiple birth on parents' psychological well-being. ...
... In contrast, Vilska et al. (2009) found no interaction effects between IT and type of pregnancy on mothers' and fathers' well-being during pregnancy and the post-partum period. Ross et al. (2011) acknowledged that IT multiple birth is associated with increased risk for post-partum maternal depression. With regard to change over time, even though IT parents of singletons experienced a higher increase in anxiety than IT parents of twins from pregnancy to the post-partum period, anxiety levels of IT parents of singletons decreased over the post-partum period, while those reported by IT parents of twins remained stable. ...
... Our findings underscore the need to provide special support to IT parents of twins to ensure the early detection and provision of psychosocial or specialized mental health care services to those experiencing poor psychological well-being. It should be noted that parents' depression and anxiety symptoms have been consistently associated with adverse outcomes on the fetus, neonate and child, including early emotional regulation and social problems and impairments in child cognitive development (Ross et al., 2011;Stein et al., 2014). ...
Article
Study question Does mode of conception [spontaneous/after infertility treatment (IT)], type of pregnancy (singleton/twin) and parent gender have an effect on anxiety and depression levels and trajectories during pregnancy and the post-partum period? Summary answer Conception after IT was associated with a transitory increase in anxiety during the perinatal period for parents of singletons, while for IT parents of twins higher levels of psychopathological symptoms tended to persist during pregnancy and the post-partum period. What is known already Most previous studies have shown that successful IT is not associated with poor psychological well-being during pregnancy and the post-partum period, but there is also some evidence for heightened pregnancy-related anxiety, lower self-esteem and lower self-efficacy. Parents of twins experience increased postnatal anxiety and depression. Study design, size, duration This prospective longitudinal study assessed 267 couples (N = 534) at each trimester of pregnancy, after childbirth and at 3 months post-partum. Participants/materials, setting, method The sample comprised 36 couples who had conceived after IT (19 twin pairs and 17 singletons) and 231 couples who had conceived spontaneously (SC; 28 twin pairs and 203 singletons). Couples were recruited at four public hospitals in Portugal, and self-report measures of anxiety and depression symptoms were administered. Main results and the role of chance IT parents reported higher anxiety after childbirth than parents who SC, regardless of pregnancy type. IT parents of twins showed higher anxiety at mid-pregnancy, as well as higher anxiety and depression at 3 months post-partum than IT parents of singletons. Among IT mothers, those who had twins exhibited higher depression after childbirth than those who had singletons. Differences according to mode of conception, pregnancy type and parents gender over time were also noted. During pregnancy, IT parents of twins showed no significant change in depression scores, while the other groups depression scores statistically significantly decreased over time. From pregnancy to the post-partum period, (i) IT parents showed an increase in anxiety scores, whereas SC parents exhibited no changes in anxiety scores; (ii) IT women exhibited an increase in depression scores, while SC women depression scores decreased. During the post-partum period, IT and SC parents of twins showed no changes in anxiety scores, while IT and SC parents of singletons anxiety scores declined. Limitations, reasons for caution Due to the small number of IT couples, the interpretation and generalization of the results should be done with caution. Wider implications of the findings The adverse impact of IT on psychopathological symptoms depends mostly on time and type of pregnancy, and is greater for twin pregnancies. These findings are important for tailoring interventions that address parents’ specific needs at different moments. Study funding/competing interest(s) This work was supported by a grant (SFRH/BD/40146/2007) to the first author from the FCT, Foundation for Science and Technology (Portuguese Ministry of Education and Science), by the Operational Program Science and Innovation 2010 (POCI 2010) of the Community Support Board III, by FEDER Funds through the Operational Competitiveness Programme, COMPETE, and through national funding from the FCT under the projects: POCI/SAU-ESP/ 56397/2004 and PTDC/SAU/SAP/116738/2010. The authors have no conflicts of interest.
... Evidence from systematic reviews and meta-analyses have consistently shown that pre-existing mental health disorder is a major risk factor for poor perinatal mental health [1,[24][25][26][27]. Other potential relevant risk factors include sociodemographic factors (abuse, stable relationship, financial difficulties etc.), obstetric complications and the use of reproductive therapies [28][29][30][31]. ...
... Our study reports a significant negative association between a history of IVF treatment and postnatal depression and/or anxiety (adjusted OR 0.6, 95% CI 0.4-0.9). Previous studies examining the use of ART with perinatal mental disorders have shown conflicting results with the majority of studies reporting no association [28,30,31,[51][52][53][54][55][56]. Some studies suggest that women with multiple versus singleton pregnancies were affected differently by ART (IVF or intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI)), whereby women with multiple pregnancies experienced greater psychological distress [57][58][59]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) have many risk factors associated with perinatal mental disorders, but research in this area is scarce. This study aims to compare the prevalence of common perinatal mental disorders in women with and without PCOS, and examine the relationship between PCOS and common perinatal mental disorders. We performed a cross-sectional study on self-reported data of 5239 women born between 1973 to 1978 in the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women’s Health. Compared with women not reporting PCOS, women reporting PCOS had higher prevalence of antenatal depression (8.9% vs. 4.4%, p < 0.001), antenatal anxiety (11.7% vs. 5.6%, p < 0.001), postnatal depression (26.8% vs. 18.6%, p < 0.001) and postnatal anxiety (18.4% vs. 12.0%, p < 0.001). PCOS was positively associated with antenatal depression and/or anxiety (adjusted odds ratio 1.8, 95% confidence interval 1.2–2.6) but not postnatal depression and/or anxiety after controlling for sociodemographic and lifestyle factors, reproductive history, obstetric complications and pre-existing depression and anxiety. General perinatal guidelines currently do not recognize PCOS as a risk factor and the international evidence based PCOS guideline noted inadequate evidence in this area. This paper addresses the gap in literature and highlights the need to screen for common perinatal mental disorders in women with PCOS.
... In general, women who undergo infertility treatment have fewer risk factors of PND. Ross et al. (2011) speculated that future studies controlling for these factors may in fact find the risk of PND to be increased among women who have undergone infertility treatment 11 . Since an increasing number of couples use IVF treatment to conceive 12 it is important to determine if this treatment increases the risk of PND [13][14][15] . ...
... In general, women who undergo infertility treatment have fewer risk factors of PND. Ross et al. (2011) speculated that future studies controlling for these factors may in fact find the risk of PND to be increased among women who have undergone infertility treatment 11 . Since an increasing number of couples use IVF treatment to conceive 12 it is important to determine if this treatment increases the risk of PND [13][14][15] . ...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Women who go through unsuccessful IVF treatment were at increased risk of depressive disorders. Objective: investigate the association between the unsuccessful IVF and depression among women with primary infertility. Methods: a cross-sectional study included infertile women attending fertility center. Socio-demographic and clinical variables were compiled. Self-Reporting Questionnaire (SRQ-20) to identify mental illnesses; DSM-V criteria for depression and Hamilton-17 Scale for severity of depression, were used. Results: high prevalence of depression among infertile women 80%. Unsuccessful IVF were 46%. About 26 % of infertile women with unsuccessful IVF were depressed. Depression was significantly associated with education, monthly income, duration of marriage, smoking, medication, chronic illness, and religion. Conclusion: Depressive disorders are the most frequently observed disorder among infertile women exposed to unsuccessful IVF
... There are many risk factors for PPD (Dennis & Vigod, 2013;Fisher et al., 2012;Ikeda & Kamibeppu, 2013;Phipps, Raker, Ware, & Zlotnick, 2013;Ross, McQueen, Vigod, & Dennis, 2011). A recent Turkish study reported that most predictive of postpartum depression were psychiatric history during pregnancy, prenatal anxiety, and poor marital relationship in the first postpartum weeks, lack of health insurance and lack of contraceptive use (Kirpinar, Gözüm, & Pasinlioğlu, 2010). ...
... In the present study, the intervention and control groups were compared in terms of several variables reported to cause high risk of PPD in ⁎ Two women in the study group and one in the control group had babies with physiological jaundice. the literature (Çeber et al., 2010;Dennis & Vigod, 2013;Fisher et al., 2012;Ikeda & Kamibeppu, 2013;Phipps et al., 2013;Ross et al., 2011). The women in the intervention group and those in the control group were significantly similar in terms of socio-demographic characteristics and obstetric features, data about their delivery and infants, their opinions about themselves and marriage and stressful life events. ...
Article
Full-text available
Aim of this study was to evaluate effectiveness of structured education in reduction of postpartum depression scores among women. This was a quasi-experimental study with a pre-post tests and a control group. Non-random sampling was used and the study included a total of 103 Turkish women, 52 of whom were in the intervention group and 51 were in the control group. The women in the intervention group were offered structured education for postpartum depression and given structured education material. Effectiveness of the education given was evaluated by comparing scores for Edinburg Postpartum Depression Scale obtained before and after delivery between the intervention and the control groups. Before education, median score (8.0 ± 4.8) for Edinburg Postpartum Depression Scale of the intervention group were significantly higher the than the control group (6.0 ± 6.0, p = 0.010), but the groups were statistically similar in terms of having depression (intervention: 17.3%, control: 11.8%, p = 0.425). After education, the median score for Edinburg Postpartum Depression Scale and the ratio of the women having depression in the intervention group were significantly lower than in the control group (respectively intervention: 4.0 ± 3.0, control: 10.0 ± 4.0, p = 0.000; intervention: 7.7%, control: 25.5%, p = 0.015). Besides, the median score (8.0 ± 4.8) of the intervention group before education were significantly higher than the score (4.0 ± 3.0) obtained after education (p = 0.000), while the median score (6.0 ± 6.0) of the control group before education were lower than the score (10.0 ± 4.0) obtained after education (p = 0.000). This study revealed that structured education offered to women by nurses was effective in reducing the postpartum depression scores and the numbers of women having depression.
... Preliminary data indicate that there are no significant differences in terms of psychological https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jad.2020.08.006 Received 21 April 2020; Received in revised form 15 July 2020; Accepted 8 August 2020 stress, depression and anxiety between mothers who undergo IVF and those who do not (Ross et al., 2011;Gressier et al., 2015). However, these findings are limited by the significant heterogeneity in case selection, design and outcome measurements of the studies. ...
... This manuscript has the objective to improve the available knowledge and to increase the interest in this topic among researchers. Only two previous systematic reviews, focused exclusively on the postpartum consequences, have been realized till now (Ross et al., 2011;Gressier et al., 2015), whilst no recent reviews have been published on this field. IVF is the most widely used ART procedure worldwide and for this reason we focused on this technique in the present review. ...
Article
Background Since mothers who undergo in vitro fertilization (IVF) may experience more anxiety and depressive symptoms than mothers who conceive naturally, a review of the literature was conducted to investigate whether IVF may be considered a risk factor for the development of anxiety or depression during pregnancy and post-partum. Methods A thorough search of articles in Pubmed, PsycINFO and Isi Web of Knowledge was performed in order to produce a comprehensive review regarding the potential association of in vitro fertilization and anxiety/depression. Results The search resulted in a total of 10 articles. Contradictory results were reported in the articles about the possible association between IVF and the occurrence of anxiety and depressive symptoms both during pregnancy and postpartum period. Three studies found that women who resorted to IVF showed less anxiety and depressive symptoms than those who conceived naturally especially with the progression of pregnancy and in the postpartum. Limitations Vulnerability to affective disorders of women affected by infertility may be independent from the outcome of IVF. Other limits are the limited research in this area, the small sample sizes, the heterogeneity of the tools used to assess affective symptoms. Conclusions The available data indicate that IVF is not associated with perinatal affective symptoms. Women who resorted to IVF could have less perinatal depressive symptoms as the result of a positive outcome of the technique and the satisfaction of the desire to become mothers. Further studies are necessary in order to draw definitive conclusions about this topic.
... Thirty-five full-text articles were assessed for eligibility ( Fig. 1). Seventeen were excluded: five were literature reviews (Garner, 1985;Klock, 2004;Health Quality Ontario, 2006;Hammarberg et al., 2008;Ross et al., 2011), one was a case report (McIntosh and Ferrando, 2010), two were not on depressive symptoms (Cox et al., 2006;Monti et al., 2008), two reported data only on mental health in women preparing for IVF (Yager et al., 2010;Lewis et al., 2013), four concerned only pregnancy (Harf-Kashdaei and Kaitz, 2007;Fisher et al., 2008;Fisher et al, 2013a,b), three had no control population (Sheard et al., 2007;Lee et al., 2011;Darwiche et al., 2013). Finally, 18 studies were included in the review (Table I). ...
... Indeed, although two earlier meta-analyses (O'Hara and Swain, 1996;Beck, 2001) searched for antenatal risk factors for significant postpartum depressive symptoms, neither analyzed the association between assisted conception and post-partum depressive symptoms. Only one systematic review (with no meta-analysis) on nine studies published up to April 2009 had been previously published, showing no increased risk of depressive symptoms after medically assisted conception (Ross et al., 2011). Another review of 28 studies published up to November 2007 focused on the psychological and social aspects of pregnancy, childbirth and early parenting after assisted conception. ...
Article
Introduction La dépression du post-partum (DPP) est une pathologie multifactorielle survenant chez 13 à 15 % des femmes dans l’année suivant l’accouchement . Les évènements de vie stressants ont été identifiés comme facteur de risque. Parallèlement, le recours aux traitements pour infertilité ne cesse de croître . Actuellement en France, 1 naissance sur 40 est issue de la procréation médicalement assistée (PMA). Lors de la procédure, le parcours peut être une source de stress chez la femme . Nous avons émis l’hypothèse que le risque de symptômes dépressifs et/ou DPP après aide médicale à la conception pourrait être majoré. Méthodes Nous avons réalisé une revue de la littérature des études comparant la survenue de symptômes dépressifs dans le post-partum et/ou DPP entre traitement pour infertilité et grossesse spontanée à partir des bases de données Pubmed, ISI Web of Knowledge et PsycINFO jusqu’en décembre 2014. Nous avons ensuite effectué une méta-analyse des données disponibles sur DPP et aide à la conception, et une méta-analyse secondaire se focalisant sur la PMA (logiciel RevMan5). Résultats Notre revue de la littérature, prenant en compte 18 études, ne met pas en évidence de risque majoré de symptômes dépressifs et/ou de DPP après traitement pour infertilité. Notre méta-analyse sur la DPP, prenant en compte 8 études ( n = 2451), ne montre pas de différence significative entre aide médicale à la conception et grossesse spontanée (OR = 0,93 [0,67–1,31], z = 0,40, p = 0,69), sans hétérogénéité entre les études. La méta-analyse secondaire concernant les PMA, sur 6 études ( n = 1773), ne retrouve également pas d’association (OR = 1,04 [0,71–1,52], z = 0,18, p = 0,86). Discussion Notre étude ne montre pas de risque majoré de DPP après aide médicale à la conception. D’autres études sont nécessaires afin de mieux connaître les spécificités des DPP après traitement pour infertilité (selon la technique utilisée, l’origine ou la nature de l’infertilité).
... However, multiple births occur more often in mothers who used infertility treatment than those conceiving naturally, and that may increase the likelihood of depression. 51 In a systematic review of 7 studies, researchers concluded that multiple births is a risk factor for postpartum depressive symptoms, 51 elevated symptoms can persist for at least 3 years postpartum. This study reveals that assessing depression only once or too early in the postpartum period (ie, at 6 months or earlier, as recommended by the AAP 1 ) may make it difficult to discern the future course. ...
... However, multiple births occur more often in mothers who used infertility treatment than those conceiving naturally, and that may increase the likelihood of depression. 51 In a systematic review of 7 studies, researchers concluded that multiple births is a risk factor for postpartum depressive symptoms, 51 elevated symptoms can persist for at least 3 years postpartum. This study reveals that assessing depression only once or too early in the postpartum period (ie, at 6 months or earlier, as recommended by the AAP 1 ) may make it difficult to discern the future course. ...
Article
Objectives: To identify homogenous depressive symptom trajectories over the postpartum period and the demographic and perinatal factors linked to different trajectories. Methods: Mothers (N = 4866) were recruited for Upstate KIDS, a population-based birth cohort study, and provided assessments of depressive symptoms at 4, 12, 24, and 36 months postpartum. Maternal demographic and perinatal conditions were obtained from vital records and/or maternal report. Results: Four depression trajectories were identified: low-stable (74.7%), characterized by low symptoms at all waves; low-increasing (8.2%), characterized by initially low but increasing symptoms; medium-decreasing (12.6%), characterized by initially moderate but remitting symptoms; and high-persistent (4.5%), characterized by high symptoms at all waves. Compared with the high-persistent group, older mothers (maximum odds ratio [OR] of the 3 comparisons: 1.10; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.05 to 1.15) or those with college education (maximum OR: 2.52; 95% CI: 1.36 to 4.68) were more likely to be in all other symptom groups, and mothers who had a history of mood disorder (minimum OR: 0.07; 95% CI: 0.04 to 0.10) or gestational diabetes mellitus diagnosis (minimum OR: 0.23; 95% CI: 0.08 to 0.68) were less likely to be in other symptom groups. Infertility treatment, multiple births, prepregnancy BMI, gestational hypertension, and infant sex were not differentially associated with depressive symptom trajectories. Conclusions: One-quarter of mothers in a population-based birth cohort had elevated depressive symptoms in 3 years postpartum. Screening for maternal depression beyond the postpartum period may be warranted, particularly after mood and diabetic disorders.
... However, most studies did not find differences in depression between infertile women undergoing treatment for infertility and controls [16][17][18][19][20][21], and one found its prevalence to be reduced in IVF women compared to controls [22]. Results match the conclusions of systematic reviews and meta-analyses, which ruled out a relationship between MAR and postpartum depression [23,24]. However, one study found more postpartum depression in IVF mothers related to predictors such as caesarean delivery, multiple treatment cycles, and inadequate social support [25,26], while another found, in MAR women, a higher age of the woman, economic difficulties, infertility duration, and multiple unsuccessful attempts to increase depression and a soothing effect of partner support [27]. ...
... Despite psychological stress and hormonal stimulation treatments that may expose patients with infertility or subfertility to stress disorders such as depression and anxiety [2], a higher risk of perinatal depressive symptoms has been indicated by one study [17]; our study confirmed in an Italian population the findings of systematic reviews and meta-analyses, showing a lack of correlation between depression and MAR [23,24]. A greater risk of depression in IVF women was also not confirmed by a large Swedish longitudinal study that used the EPDS at the same timepoints as our study [19], and in an Australian study, which found more postpartum adjustment difficulties in women who had gone through several IVF attempts [35,36]. ...
Article
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Background: Women taking advantage of medically assisted reproduction (MAR) techniques may differ from spontaneously conceiving women (nonMAR) in risk of depression and/or anxiety. We aimed to investigate possible differences between MAR and nonMAR through the use of the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale in a sample of Italian-speaking women at their third trimester of pregnancy. Methods: We administered the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) to two groups of pregnant women, MAR and nonMAR, at the third trimester of pregnancy (T0), one month after delivery (T1), and three months after delivery (T2) from February 2013 to December 2019. EPDS total scores cutoffs were ≥9 for risk of depression, 9–11 mild depression, ≥12 major depression, and the EPDS-3A cluster ≥4 was a proxy for anxiety. Results: Included were 1303 nonMAR women and 92 MAR, an expected disproportion. NonMAR and MAR women did not differ on depression or anxiety at any assessment timepoint. MAR women were older than nonMAR, consumed more alcohol and medical drugs, and displayed more complications during pregnancy. Scoring over the threshold on depression risk was associated with foreign nationality, unemployment, psychiatric history of the patient, family or partner, psychiatric problems in past pregnancies, hyperemesis, premenstrual syndrome (PMS), and stressful life events in the last year at baseline, and, for some of them, at other timepoints. In contrast, MAR past or current was associated with having suprathreshold depression at the first-month postpartum follow-up. Conclusions: Taken together, our data show that women opting for MAR do not differ from spontaneously conceiving women regarding psychiatric outcomes but do differ on some sociodemographic and clinical variables.
... However, if the demands of parenthood are important, then the risk should increase in a dose-response fashion with increasing number of children being associated with greater load in parental tasks and responsibilities and, thus, greater risk of mental health difficulties. Previous cross-sectional research has linked multiparity with elevated risk of maternal mental health problems; however, evidence is inconsistent Ross et al. 2010). It is also unclear whether this risk is due to the characteristics of mothers who have multiple children or increased mental health risk as a consequence of having multiple children. ...
... Consistent with existing research, we found evidence that mothers with increasing numbers of children by age 30 years are at a substantially increased risk of a wide range of mental health disorders (Mayberry et al. 2007;Ross et al. 2010). ...
Article
Full-text available
Parenthood represents a major biological, social and environmental life change. Mental health disorders are common in parents and impact both the parent and their offspring. However, the relationship between parenthood and mental health and the direction of these effects are poorly understood. Longitudinal data from the Pelotas 1982 birth cohort, Southern Brazil, on 3701 individuals was used to investigate the association between number of children by age 30 years and mental health disorders using DSM-IV diagnoses at age 30 years, suicidal risk and the change in symptoms using repeated measures (using the SRQ-20) from age 19 to 30 years. Mothers, but not fathers, with higher number of children by age 30 years, were at a substantially increased risk of a wide range of mental health disorders compared to women with no children. There was evidence that motherhood was associated with an increase in symptoms over time rather than higher symptoms at baseline. Younger age at first child was also a risk factor for mental health disorders. Mothers, particularly those with multiple children, are at risk of a wide range of mental health disorders. The mechanisms to explain these risks are yet to be elucidated; however, the risk of mental health disorders was not replicated in fathers, which would be expected if residual confounding explained observed associations. Thus, multiparous mothers represent a high-risk group and should be prioritised for supportive interventions.
... Thirty-five full-text articles were assessed for eligibility ( Fig. 1). Seventeen were excluded: five were literature reviews (Garner, 1985;Klock, 2004;Health Quality Ontario, 2006;Hammarberg et al., 2008;Ross et al., 2011), one was a case report (McIntosh and Ferrando, 2010), two were not on depressive symptoms (Cox et al., 2006;Monti et al., 2008), two reported data only on mental health in women preparing for IVF (Yager et al., 2010;Lewis et al., 2013), four concerned only pregnancy (Harf-Kashdaei and Kaitz, 2007;Fisher et al., 2008;Fisher et al, 2013a,b), three had no control population (Sheard et al., 2007;Lee et al., 2011;Darwiche et al., 2013). Finally, 18 studies were included in the review (Table I). ...
... Indeed, although two earlier meta-analyses (O'Hara and Swain, 1996;Beck, 2001) searched for antenatal risk factors for significant postpartum depressive symptoms, neither analyzed the association between assisted conception and post-partum depressive symptoms. Only one systematic review (with no meta-analysis) on nine studies published up to April 2009 had been previously published, showing no increased risk of depressive symptoms after medically assisted conception (Ross et al., 2011). Another review of 28 studies published up to November 2007 focused on the psychological and social aspects of pregnancy, childbirth and early parenting after assisted conception. ...
Article
Study question: Does medically assisted conception increase the risk of post-partum depressive symptoms? Summary answer: Our literature review and meta-analysis showed no increased risk of post-partum depressive symptoms in women after medically assisted conception. What is known already: Women who conceive with medically assisted conception, which can be considered as a stressful life event, could face an increased risk of depressive symptoms. However, no previous meta-analysis has been performed on the association between medically assisted conception and post-partum depressive symptoms. Study design, size, duration: A systematic review with electronic searches of PubMed, ISI Web of Knowledge and PsycINFO databases up to December 2014 was conducted to identify articles evaluating post-partum depressive symptoms in women who had benefited from medically assisted conception compared with those with a spontaneous pregnancy. Meta-analyses were also performed on clinically significant post-partum depressive symptoms according to PRISMA guidelines. Participants/materials, setting, methods: From 569 references, 492 were excluded on title, 42 on abstract and 17 others on full-text. Therefore, 18 studies were included in the review and 8 in the meta-analysis (2451 women) on clinically significant post-partum depressive symptoms after medically assisted conception compared with a spontaneous pregnancy. A sensitivity meta-analysis on assisted reproductive technologies and spontaneous pregnancy (6 studies, 1773 women) was also performed. The quality of the studies included in the meta-analyses was evaluated using the Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology Statement for observational research. The data were pooled using RevMan software by the Cochrane Collaboration. Heterogeneity between studies was assessed from the results of the χ(2) and I(2) statistics. Biases were assessed with funnel plots and Egger's test. A fixed effects model was used for the meta-analyses because of the low level of heterogeneity between the studies. Main results and the role of chance: The systematic review of studies examining post-partum depressive symptoms after medically assisted conception compared with spontaneous pregnancy is not in favor of an association. Our meta-analysis on clinically significant post-partum depressive symptoms showed no significant difference between women who used medically assisted conception and those with spontaneous pregnancy: odds ratio (OR) = 0.93 (0.67-1.31), Z = 0.40, P = 0.69. The sensitivity meta-analysis reported no significant difference either: OR = 1.04 (0.71-1.52), Z = 0.18, P = 0.86. Limitations, reasons for caution: The literature on post-partum depressive symptoms and medically assisted conception is sparse. Only eight studies were available for our meta-analysis taking into account the rates of clinically significant post-partum depressive symptoms after medically assisted conception. However, the quality of the studies was high and the heterogeneity between trials was not significant. Whilst post-partum anxiety is more prevalent than depressive states and they can co-occur, it was not considered in these review and meta-analyses. In addition, other risk factors, such as maternal age, socio-demographic data or obstetric factors, are important for the assessment of post-partum depressive symptoms. Our review reported that several of these confounding risk factors were, however, analyzed and controlled for in the studies. Wider implications of the findings: Our literature review and meta-analyses showed no increased risk of post-partum depressive symptoms in women after medically assisted conception. Even if the rates of depressive symptoms are the same in the medically assisted conception population as among controls, the risk factors could be different. Though medically assisted conception can be considered as a stressful life event, these women have also lower prevalence of the usual risks. Professionals should also be careful to screen for prenatal and post-partum depressive symptoms, as with all pregnant women. Further studies are needed to clarify the specific features of post-partum depressive symptoms in this population. Study funding/competing interests: No funding was obtained for the study. Trial registration number: NA.
... Assisted reproductive technologies (ART) including IVF were shown to be related to depression during pregnancy and the early postpartum, relative to women who conceived spontaneously (Monti et al., 2009). However, in a larger study, McMahon et al. (2011) found no increased risk of PPD in women who conceived using ART, supporting the results of a recent metaanalysis which failed to find a significant link between ART and PPD (Ross et al., 2011). ART has also been linked to postpartum anxiety such that women who used ART showed greater latent anxiety at 3-months postpartum and more manifest anxiety during the third trimester of pregnancy and 1-week after birth, relative to non-ART women (Monti et al., 2008). ...
... The results are somewhat consistent with prior results, although we did not find that prematurity of the infant was related to PPD (Davis et al., 2003) since only two babies were born prior to 37weeks. ART use was also unrelated to stress, anxiety, and depression levels, although ART has previously been linked to postnatal anxiety and depression (Monti et al., 2008(Monti et al., , 2009), but larger studies tend to find no consistent association between it and postpartum distress (McMahon et al., 2011;Ross et al., 2011). Similarly, caesarean delivery was shown to be related to postpartum distress in some studies (Blom et al., 2010;Kuo et al., 2014;Yang et al., 2011), but most studies have failed to find a significant association between the variables (Adams et al., 2012;Carter et al., 2006;Gailard et al., 2014). ...
Article
The purpose of this paper was to evaluate relationships between sociodemographic, pregnancy, obstetric, and postnatal variables and postpartum depression, anxiety and stress levels in new mothers. One-hundred-thirty-nine women completed the baseline questionnaire and 105 completed the follow-up questionnaire at 4-6 months postpartum. Sociodemographic and pregnancy factors were assessed at baseline, birth and postnatal factors were assessed at time 2, and depression, anxiety, and stress were assessed at both time points. Caesarean delivery was associated with high postpartum depression, anxiety, and stress levels. Child sleep problems was related to depression, child health problems were related to anxiety, more SLE related to high stress, and maternal sleep problems were related to PPD. However, the results became non-significant after controlling for antenatal distress levels. Finally, women who underwent caesarean delivery had higher antenatal stress, anxiety, and depression levels, relative to women who did not undergo the procedure. Psychological stress and distress tended to persist in the women from the third-trimester of pregnancy to 4-6 months postpartum. It tended to occur in the context of caesarean delivery, maternal sleep problems, child's health and sleep problems, and stressful life-events. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
... [37] Unlike the above results, the results of a systematic review revealed that no relationship was found between infertility, fertility treatment, and postpartum depression. [38] Perhaps, the reason for relation between infertility with depression is that's infertile women suffer more stress than others and that they need counseling because of extreme stress. And that event stressful is source for postpartum depression. ...
Article
Full-text available
BACKGROUND AND AIM Prenatal mental health has been shown to be related with postpartum depression. However, the role of mental and psychological factors in postpartum depression requires especial attention. Furthermore, the relationship between demographic factors and postpartum depression is contradictory. The study was aimed to identify role of prenatal anxiety and depression and demographic factors with postpartum depression. MATERIALS AND METHODS A prospective cohort study was conducted with 303 pregnant women who have gestational age from 28 to 36 weeks and referred to health-care centers in Isfahan city and follow-up for 6–12 weeks after postpartum. Data were collected using the demographic form, Edinburgh depression, and anxiety Spielberger questionnaire during pregnancy and Edinburgh depression inventory in the 6th and 12th weeks after childbirth. Descriptive statistics and linear logistic regression were used to analyze the data. In demographic factors, data were analyzed using the Student's t-test, Chi-square, Pearson and Spearman test and after the meaningfulness of regression was used. RESULTS Results showed that the 6 and 12 weeks after childbirth, 61 patients (20/1%) and 33 patients (10/9%) had postpartum depression. The most important risk factors for depression in the first 6 weeks were history of infertility (confidence interval [CI]: 0.56–0.767) (P = 0.018) and history of depression (CI: 1.155–1.369) (P = 0.000) and in 12 weeks, postpartum were history of depression (CI: 0.072–1.305) (P = 0.001). CONCLUSION Infertility and history of depression during pregnancy were two risk factors of postpartum depression which should be taken into consideration during prenatal care.
... It may be explained by that sperm banks accept only people with high sperm count. Current data indicate little or no increased risk for postpartum depression among women who use ART [12]. ...
Article
Full-text available
The review helps understand in vitro fertilization (IVF) and other assisted reproductive technology (ART) that have become accepted medical treatments for infertility. Through these procedures, many couples with otherwise untreatable infertility have given birth to healthy babies.
... Subfertility is consistently associated with poorer QOL and higher levels of emotional distress than population norms and healthy or gynaecological controls (typically, women attending gynaecology services for non-fertility reasons) [171][172][173] . In addition, the effects of subfertility on emotional distress can persist into pregnancy; women using ARTs report more anxiety about fetal viability and health than women with good fertility 174,175 but have a similar rate of postpartum depression 176 . Longer-term adjustment to subfertility in longitudinal research (>10 years) shows positive adjustment for most women 177 . ...
Article
Subfertility is common and affects one in six couples, half of whom lack an explanation for their delay in conceiving. Developments in the diagnosis and treatment of subfertility over the past 50 years have been truly remarkable. Indeed, current generations of couples with subfertility are more fortunate than previous generations, as they have many more opportunities to become parents. The timely access to effective treatment for subfertility is important as many couples have a narrow window of opportunity before the age-related effects of subfertility limit the likelihood of success. Assisted reproduction can overcome the barriers to fertility caused by tubal disease and low sperm count, but little progress has been made in reducing the effect of increasing age on ovarian function. The next 5-10 years will likely see further increases in birth rates in women with subfertility, a greater awareness of lifestyle factors and a possible refinement of current assisted reproduction techniques and the development of new ones. Such progress will bring challenging questions regarding the potential benefits and harms of treatments involving germ cell manipulation, artificial gametes, genetic screening of embryos and gene editing of embryos. We hope to see a major increase in fertility awareness, access to safe and cost-effective fertility care in low-income countries and a reduction in the current disparity of access to fertility care.
... 27 We captured pregnancy-related variables, including mode of delivery, infant sex, multiple versus singleton gestation, and selected newborn health complications, as well as extent and type of antenatal care received (i.e., obstetrician or family physician). 40,41 Medical comorbidity was measured by Johns Hopkins Adjusted Clinical Groups (ACG), 42 an approach to measuring morbidity using disease patterns in health administrative data, age, and gender. This system identifies individuals as falling into any of 11 possible major Ambulatory Diagnostic Groups (ADGs) characterizing different major medical conditions, 3 of which are considered psychosocial or mental health related. ...
Article
Objective: Postpartum mental disorders are twice as common among immigrant women compared to nonimmigrant women in developed countries. Immigrant women may experience barriers to access and use of postpartum mental health services, but little is known about their service use on a population level. We described postpartum mental health service use of immigrant mothers living in Ontario, Canada, comparing to a referent group of mothers who were either born in Canada or had lived in Ontario or another Canadian province since 1985. Method: Among all women in Ontario, Canada, delivering a live infant from 2008 to 2012 (n = 450,622), we described mental health service use within 1 year postpartum, including mental health physician visits, psychiatric emergency department visits, and psychiatric hospitalization. Adjusted odds ratios (aORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) comparing immigrant women to the referent group were adjusted for maternal age, parity, income, rurality, mental health services in prior 2 years, and maternal and newborn health. Results: Immigrant women (n = 123,231; 27%) were less likely to use mental health services than women in the referent group (14.1% vs. 21.4%; aOR, 0.59; 95% CI, 0.58 to 0.61), including for physician-based (13.9% vs. 21.1%; aOR, 0.59; 95% CI, 0.58 to 0.61) and emergency department (0.6% vs. 1.3%; aOR, 0.63; 95% CI, 0.57 to 0.68) services. Hospitalization risk was lower among immigrants (0.20% vs. 0.33%) but became similar after covariate adjustment (aOR, 0.92; 95% CI, 0.79 to 1.06). Conclusions: Underuse of postpartum mental health services may be contributing to the high burden of postpartum mental disorders among immigrant women.
... This fact has been described in simple gestations, as is the case of the participants in our study. It should be noted, however, that multiple gestation, often associated with ART, conditions an increased risk of perinatal depression [27]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Aim: We designed this study to ascertain the prevalence of depressive disorders and anxiety at the beginning of the pregnancy, studying possible associated factors and assessing the influence of mood disorders on perinatal outcomes. Methods: A representative sample of 191 pregnant women at first trimester of their pregnancies completed a questionnaire that included the Whooley´s questions, the Spanish version of the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory and a series of questions related to health status, general mood and sociodemographic variables. Later, we prospectively evaluated the influence of anxiety and depression on the perinatal and obstetric results in 145 of them. Results: More than 20% of pregnant women presented high levels of anxiety. The mean values of the state and trait anxiety scores were 38.7 (SD 9.8) and 34.5 (SD 9.5). The mean BDI score was 5.97 (SD 4.9), with 9.5% of participants achieving scores compatible with depression, (61% mild in, 22.2% moderate, and 16.6% severe). BDI scores were significantly lower in women who became pregnant after assisted reproductive techniques. We observed an association between depression and trait anxiety scores with an infant’s low birth weight. The multivariate analysis showed that the feeling of happiness at the beginning of pregnancy was the best predictor of foetal weight. Conclusion: The prevalence of emotional disorders in the first trimester of pregnancy is high, with more than 20% of pregnant women presenting high levels of anxiety, and more than 9.5% presenting depression. During the first trimester, depression and anxiety were associated with low birth weight.
... When faced with an individual request for ART, providers have a right, albeit circumscribed, to refuse services based on their professional responsibility to consider the well-being of their patients. This right may conflict with patient autonomy, as expressed through the desires of women or couples to access ART services [2]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose of review: This review aims to provide guidance to clinicians facing requests for assisted reproduction from women with mental illness. Recent findings: The paper explores the clinical and safety aspects of initiating fertility treatment in this context, including the use of psychotropic medication and the risk of untreated psychiatric mood or psychotic disorders. It also presents the ethical considerations involved in candidate selection, including treating similar cases equitably to avoid biased decisions based solely on "gut-feelings," respect for women's reproductive autonomy, and an effort to protect patients and prospective fetuses/children from harm by employing optimal strategies regarding medication and psychosocial support. Clinicians ought to be informed regarding recent evidence related to the safety and efficacy of psychopharmacologic treatment of women during pregnancy and the post-partum. They should also carry out a thoughtful ethical analysis to ensure minimal violation of women's reproductive autonomy.
... Otros autores (Gressier et al., 2015;Ross et al., 2010) han hallado que la prevalencia de síntomas depresivos maternos en el posparto no es significativamente diferente entre los embarazos espontáneos y los logrados a través de la fecundación in vitro, incluyendo solamente embarazos únicos y excluyendo los múltiples, que ya se han relacionado con un aumento de depresión posparto per se. Importancia de la intervención preventiva de la depresión Hasta ahora, la consideración de los efectos psicológicos positivos del tratamiento de la infertilidad ha eclipsado la evidencia de que los estados psicológicos negativos están asociados con el mismo proceso (Boivin, 2003). ...
Article
Introducción. La infertilidad y el tratamiento por medio de métodos de reproducción asistida tienen implicaciones psicológicas importantes para la pareja: desde manifestaciones positivas por la esperanza que ofrecen estas técnicas ante el éxito de las mismas, al igual que manifestaciones negativas por la incertidumbre y el posible fracaso; una de ellas es la depresión. Por tanto, se planteó por objetivo analizar la relación entre la depresión y las técnicas de reproducción asistida, así como la influencia que tiene el asesoramiento profesional en las parejas que optan por estas técnicas. Metodología. Fue un estudio descriptivo de síntesis mediante una búsqueda bibliográfica del conocimiento actual existente sobre la relación depresión-técnicas de reproducción asistida, así como los efectos de la misma en el posparto. Resultados. En la relación de direccionalidad se halló que la infertilidad es un factor de riesgo para la depresión, y esta un predictor de fracaso de las técnicas de reproducción asistida. No hubo evidencia de un aumento de la depresión posparto en los embarazos logrados por técnicas de reproducción asistida. Se describen las estrategias de prevención posibles. Conclusión. Al parecer, existe una relación entre técnicas de reproducción asistida y la depresión, aunque se requiere una mayor investigación. No obstante, cabe resaltar la importancia de tratar psicoterapéuticamente a ambos miembros de la pareja antes, durante y después del proceso de reproducción asistida.
... However, in the literature, we have found three meta-analyses on PPD and none reported pregnancy via ART as a potential risk factor for PPD (24)(25)(26). In a systematic review, Ross et al. (27) showed that the risk of a higher prevalence of PPD in mothers who become pregnant via ART was very low or unchanged in comparison to those with natural pregnancies. It seemed that women who have conceived through ART usually have a more intense emotional attachment to the fetus than women with spontaneous pregnancies (28). ...
Article
Full-text available
Background: It is thought that mothers who conceive via assisted reproductive technology (ART) may be at greater risk of postpartum depression (PPD) because of the problems and psychological stresses associated with ART treatment. The aim of the present study is to determine the occurrence of PPD among mothers who conceive by ART in comparison with those who naturally conceive. The Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) was used to assess PPD. Materials and methods: This historical cohort study investigated 406 mothers with infants aged 3-9 months. Three hundred and eight women with natural pregnancies were selected as the control group from mothers who referred to Tehran healthcare centres for infant vaccinations. The ART group consisted of 98 women who conceived via ART at Royan Institute. Participants completed a general questionnaire that asked about education, occupation, number of children, delivery method, history of infant hospitalization, breastfeeding, mothers' and infants' ages, cause of infertility (ART group), and history of depression. A validated Persian version of the EPDS was used to measure depressive symptoms. Results: The mean EPDS score in mothers who naturally conceived was 8.38 ± 0.35 in comparison with mothers who conceived via ART (7.59 ± 0.63). The proportions of women who reported PPD were 26.0% for the control group and 20.4% for the ART group. There was no statistically significant difference in PPD between the control and ART groups (P=0.26). Conclusion: The occurrence of PPD in mothers who conceived via ART was similar to those who conceived naturally.
... Also included were the sociodemographic characteristics of maternal ethnicity (as a three category variable of Pakistani, White British or Other) and socioeconomic status (SES) (Anna et al., 2008;Bhui et al., 2001;Howard et al., 2014); rather than using index of multiple deprivation (Department for Communities and Local Government, 2015) to assign SES, a five category variable of maternal education was used a proxy, as the high levels of deprivation in BiB result in a highly skewed distribution of participants across deprivation categories. Analyses of antenatal CMD additionally controlled for preconception CMD, any tobacco smoking during pregnancy (Bar-Zeev et al., 2020;Tong et al., 2016), singleton versus multiple pregnancy (Ben-Haroush et al., 2004;Ross et al., 2011) and the continuous variable of BMI (body mass index) at pregnancy booking as a measure of pre-pregnancy BMI . ...
Article
Full-text available
Background anxiety and depression are common in women with gestational diabetes but it is not clear whether they are more likely to precede the onset of gestational diabetes or to co-occur with it. Our aims were to compare the strength of association between common mental disorders of anxiety and depression i) before pregnancy and ii) during pregnancy in women with and without gestational diabetes. Methods the sample comprised 12,239 women with 13,539 pregnancies from the UK's Born in Bradford cohort. Gestational diabetes was diagnosed by oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). Indicators of common mental disorders were obtained from linked primary care records. Multivariable robust Poisson and logistic regression were employed. Multiple imputation by chained equations was implemented to handle missing data. Models were adjusted for maternal age, ethnicity, education and obstetric complications. Analyses of common mental disorders during pregnancy were additionally adjusted for maternal smoking, pre-pregnancy BMI, multiple pregnancy and common mental disorders prior to pregnancy. Results there was no evidence for an association between common mental disorders prior to pregnancy and gestational diabetes (adjusted RR 0.96; 95% CI 0.80,1.15) or between gestational diabetes and common mental disorders during pregnancy (adjusted OR 0.91; 95% CI 0.73,1.12). Limitations high levels of deprivation and multi-ethnic composition of the cohort may limit generalisability of these findings to other populations. Conclusions routine primary care records did not identify an increased risk of gestational diabetes in women with common mental disorders prior to pregnancy or of gestational diabetes in women with common mental disorders during pregnancy.
... Previous research utilizing resource theory has included the number of children (i.e., resource depleting) and the length of marriage (i.e., resource enhancing) as control variables (Carlson et al., 2018;Thompson et al., 2020). We controlled for whether the pregnancy was single-child or multiple-children (e.g., twins) because previous research has suggested that parents of twins are at higher risk of postpartum depressive symptoms due to the high levels of parenting stress and fatigue associated with caring for multiple newborn babies (Choi et al., 2009;Ross et al., 2011). None of these latter control variables changed the magnitude or significance of the results; thus, given recommendations about the inclusion of superfluous control variables (Becker, 2005; Carlson & Wu, 2012), we excluded these variables from our final analyses. ...
Article
Using a sample of 297 working mothers across three time periods (their last trimester of pregnancy, while on maternity leave, and after returning to the workplace), we examined the role of vicarious abusive supervision, beyond their own experience of abusive supervision, on turnover intentions through experiences of maternal mental health. Utilizing the unfolding model of turnover and Conservation of Resources theory, we found that experiencing the shock event of vicarious abusive supervision contributed to job‐related negative emotions as well as postpartum depressive symptoms in working new moms. Further, this experience of vicarious abusive supervision contributed to job‐related emotional exhaustion and turnover intentions, even after controlling for the mother’s own experience of being targeted with abusive supervision behaviors. Finally, we examined the moderating role of financial dependence on this process and found that when working mothers’ families were financially dependent on her job, the mothers were less likely to have turnover intentions. Implications for research and practice are provided.
... Two systematic reviews of this research (on both sexes), have described it as 'emergent' 6 and confounded by methodological concerns. 7 A possible reason for this is the tendency for couples who have conceived through fertility treatment to 'blend in' with the larger population of parents-to-be who have conceived naturally. 8 Following fertility treatment, females are typically discharged from the fertility clinic that treated them, back to their GP to receive standard antenatal care. ...
Article
Full-text available
It is known that couples may experience emotional distress while undergoing infertility treatment, but less is known about their experience of pregnancy following successful conception. Typically, couples are discharged from the fertility clinic to receive standard antenatal care. Recent research has raised questions about whether this care adequately meets their needs. To explore the antenatal experiences of females and males who have successfully conceived through infertility treatment. An exploratory qualitative approach was undertaken, using individual, in-depth interviews with females and males who had successfully undergone infertility treatment in one of three fertility clinics in the south of England. Twenty participants were interviewed (12 females and eight male partners) when their pregnancy had reached 28 weeks' gestation. Participants were asked about their experiences of infertility treatment, pregnancy, and antenatal care. Interviews were audiorecorded, transcribed, and analysed thematically. Analysis of the interviews suggested females and males experienced a 'gap' in their care, in terms of time and intensity, when discharged from the fertility clinic to standard antenatal care. This gap, combined with their previous experience of infertility treatment, heightened their fear of pregnancy loss and increased their need for support from their health professionals. Participants' previous experience of infertility treatment also appeared to deter them from preparing for the birth and parenthood, and disclosing negative feelings to others about the pregnancy. Females and males who have successfully undergone infertility treatment may require additional support in primary care to address anxiety during pregnancy, enable disclosure of negative feelings, and to help them prepare for childbirth and parenthood. © British Journal of General Practice 2015.
... The fact that the majority of the sample, were already mothers, or were about to give birth for the second or third time, could justify their smooth transition to the motherly role, despite the unprecedented nature of the pandemic and related home restrictions. Previous cross-sectional research, has linked multiparity with an elevated risk of maternal mental health problems with, however, inconsistent evidence [24,25]. It is also unclear, whether this risk is due to the characteristics of mothers, who have multiple children, or an increased mental health risk, as a consequence, of having multiple children. ...
Article
Objective: To examine whether women who undergo in vitro fertilisation (IVF) treatment are at greater risk of postnatal suicide or postnatal depression (PND) requiring psychiatric care, compared with women who conceive spontaneously. Design: Case-control study using data from national registers. Setting: Sweden during the period 2003-2009. Population: Cases were 3532 primiparous women who had given birth following IVF treatment. An aged-matched control group of 8553 mothers was randomly selected from the medical birth register. Methods: Logistic regression analyses were performed with PND as the outcome, and with known risk factors of PND as well as IVF/spontaneous birth as covariates. Main outcome measures: Postnatal depression (PND), defined as diagnoses F32-F39 of the tenth edition of the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-10), within 12 months of childbirth. Results: Initial analyses showed that PND was more common in the control group than in the IVF group (0.8 versus 0.4%; P = 0.04); however, these differences disappeared when confounding factors were controlled for. A history of any psychiatric illness (P = 0.000; odds ratio, OR = 25.5; 95% confidence interval, 95% CI = 11.7-55.5), any previous affective disorder (P = 0.000; OR = 26.0; 95% CI = 10.5-64.0), or specifically a personality disorder (P = 0.028; OR = 3.8; 95% CI = 1.2-12.7) increased the risk of PND. No woman in either group committed suicide during the first year after childbirth. Conclusions: Whereas mothers who receive IVF treatment are not at increased risk of PND, the risk is increased among mothers with a history of mental illness. Tweetable abstract: A Swedish study on 3532 women showed that IVF treatment does not increase the risk of postnatal depression.
Article
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Objective To assess self-perceived mental health in women treated with in vitro fertilisation (IVF) 20–23 years previously, while comparing them to a reference group, and to determine any differences in mental health between those who had given birth, those who had adopted a child, those who had given birth and adopted a child and those who remained childless. Design A cross-sectional study. Setting A Center of Reproductive Medicine (RMC) at a Swedish University hospital. Participants 520 women who had undergone at least one IVF cycle at the University Hospital in Linköping between 1986 and 1989. 504 of 520 women (97%) were eligible for follow-up. While 34 women declined, 93 per cent (n=470) of the women agreed to participate. The reference group consisted of 150 women of the Swedish population included in a study that was used to validate the Symptom CheckList (SCL)-90. Interventions Follow-up was conducted in 2008–2009. The SCL-90 was used to measure the women's self-perceived mental health and a questionnaire specific for this study was used to retain demographic information. Outcome measures The SCL-90 assesses 9 primary dimensions; somatisation, obsessive-compulsive, interpersonal sensitivity, depression, anxiety, hostility, phobic anxiety, paranoid ideation and psychoticism. There is also a global index of distress. Results Women who had previously undergone IVF treatment were at increased risk of symptoms of depression (p=0.017), obsessive-compulsion (p=0.02) and somatisation (p≤0.001) when compared to a reference group. In addition, the women who have remained childless are at increased risk of symptoms of depression (p=0.009) and phobic anxiety (p=0.017). Conclusions The majority of the women who have been treated with IVF 20–23 years previously appear to be in good mental health. However, women who remain childless and/or without partner after unsuccessful infertility treatment constitute a vulnerable group even later on in life.
Article
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Learning objectives: After participating in this activity, learners should be better able to:• Assess the effects of postnatal depression on parenting.• Evaluate the relationships between oxytocin and postnatal depression.• Assess the use of oxytocin to improve parenting. Objective: To carry out a systematic review exploring the interconnections between oxytocin, postnatal depression (PND), and parenting. Questions include: (1) How does PND affect parenting? (2) How does oxytocin affect parenting? (3) How does oxytocin affect PND? Methodology: To review English articles in major medical databases. Results: Compared to nondepressed controls, mothers with PND interact with their infants less sensitively, report feeling less competent, and less often choose recommended practical-parenting strategies. Psychological interventions for mothers with PND generally have positive effects on mother-infant interactions. The administration of oxytocin in community samples tends to improve parental behaviors. Findings exploring the association between oxytocin and PND were inconsistent, with some evidence that oxytocin has a negative impact on mood. Conclusions: Oxytocin is potentially useful in improving parental behaviors of mothers with PND, but more research is needed to establish its safety because of the uncertain impact of OT on maternal mood.
Article
This volume provides a comprehensive, up-to-date theoretical and empirical background to the psychology of reproductive health. Provides a life span perspective of the psychology of reproductive health and its disorders, from menarche to menopause and reproductive health in older age. Focuses on issues of the individual's reproductive health experience, including reproduction, pregnancy, maternity, and birth, as well as conditions such as PMDD, dysmenorrhea, and events including pregnancy failure, and abortion. Acknowledges the wider social context with discussions of poverty, inequality, educational and economic status, age, and urban versus rural access. Addresses life style related factors, human rights to choice, information and access, fertility control and reproductive health regulation and health care services. Illustrates topics with empirical data supported with tables and figures.
Article
Previous studies have shown conflicting results whether unsuccessful medically assisted reproduction is a risk factor for depression among women. This study therefore investigated if women with no live birth after assisted reproductive technology (ART) treatment had a higher risk of unipolar depression compared with women with a live birth after ART treatment. The Danish National ART-Couple (DANAC) Cohort is a national register-based cohort study that consists of women who received ART treatment from 1 January 1994 to 30 September 2009, in Denmark (n = 41 050). Information on unipolar depression was obtained from the Danish Psychiatric Central Research Register. The analyses were conducted in Cox regression analysis. During the 308 494 person-years of follow up, 552 women were diagnosed with unipolar depression. A Cox proportional hazards model showed that women in ART treatment, with no live birth yet, had a lower risk of unipolar depression compared with women with a live birth. Women had the highest risk of unipolar depression 0-42 days after a live birth (adjusted hazard ratio 5.08, 95% CI 3.11-8.29) compared with women with no live birth. A lower, but still increased, risk of unipolar depression, was found in women 43 days to 1 year and >1 year after a live birth compared with women with no live birth yet. Motherhood is an important trigger of unipolar depression in women conceiving after ART treatment. © 2015 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.
Article
The aim of this meta-analysis is to provide new evidence on the effects on maternal health of multiple births due to assisted reproductive technology (ART). A bibliographic search was undertaken using PubMed, PsycINFO, CINAHL and Science Direct. Data extraction was completed using Cochrane Review recommendations, and the review was performed following PRISMA and MOOSE guidelines. Meta-analytic data were analysed using random effects models. Eight papers (2993 mothers) were included. Mothers of ART multiple births were significantly more likely to experience depression (standardized mean difference [SMD] d = 0.198, 95% CI 0.050 - 0.345, z = 2.623, P = 0.009; heterogeneity I(2) = 36.47%), and stress (SMD d = 0.177, 95% CI 0.049 - 0.305, P = 0.007; heterogeneity I(2) = 0.01%) than mothers of ART singletons. No difference in psychosocial distress (combined stress and depression) (SMD d = 0.371, 95% CI -0.153 - 0.895; I(2) = 86.962%, P = 0.001) or depression (d = 0.152, 95% CI -0.179 - 0.483: z = 0.901; I(2) = 36.918%) were found between mothers of ART and naturally conceived multiple births. In conclusion, mothers of ART multiple births were significantly more likely to have depression and stress than mothers of ART singletons, but were no different from mothers of naturally conceived multiples.
Thesis
The perinatal period represents a time of increased vulnerability to experience psychological distress in many women. Postpartum depression (PPD) is a well-recognised mental health concern that is known to have deleterious effects on some new mothers and their relationship with their spouse and infant. Recently, anxiety and stress have been recognised as symptoms that are commonly comorbid with (or occur independently of) perinatal depression, although less is known about the psychological and non-psychological risk factors for these affective states. Thus, using a community sample of 105 women in their third-trimester of pregnancy, the aim of this thesis was to broaden the current conceptualisation of psychological distress in the perinatal period to include the affective states of psychological stress and anxiety, and to examine a broad range of factors that have previously been identified as risk factors for perinatal depression, and to assess their potential role in the aetiology of perinatal anxiety and stress. Paper 1 examined the relationship between attachment-avoidance, attachment-anxiety, and marital relationship quality during pregnancy, and symptoms of postpartum depression, anxiety, and stress. The study results indicated that marital satisfaction and emotional affection significantly predicted depression levels, and marital satisfaction significantly predicted anxiety levels. In addition, mediational analyses indicated that dyadic satisfaction significantly mediated the relationships between high attachment-anxiety to worse anxiety and depression, and it also mediated the relationship between high attachment-avoidance to later anxiety and depression symptoms. Paper 2 explored the potential contribution of attachment-avoidance and attachment-anxiety in a woman’s relationships with her parents and close friends and the association of these factors to her experience of depression, anxiety, and stress during the third-trimester of pregnancy and 4-6 months postpartum. In addition, changes in the women’s attachment networks were examined across the transition to parenthood. The study results showed that women who were high on attachment-anxiety in relation to their mothers and close friends were more likely to experience depression during pregnancy, but only attachment-anxiety to their mothers predicted high depression levels postpartum. In addition, women’s attachment-anxiety to their mothers and attachment-avoidance to their friends predicted high anxiety levels during pregnancy, and attachment-anxiety to their mothers predicted high stress levels during pregnancy. Further, the size of the women’s attachment networks remained stable from the third-trimester to the postpartum, although they tended to rely less on their partners and close friends for attachment needs in the postpartum. Paper 3 evaluated the different aspects or functions of social support during the third-trimester of pregnancy as potential predictors of depression, anxiety, and stress levels during pregnancy and at 4-6 months postpartum. The study results showed that the perceived unavailability of self-esteem support predicted high depression levels in the third-trimester, whereas less perceived appraisal support predicted high stress and anxiety levels during pregnancy. However, only total social support score predicted high stress and depression levels postpartum, whereas none of the social support variables predicted postpartum anxiety. Lastly, paper 4 examined a range of sociodemographic, pregnancy, obstetric, and postnatal variables as potential risk factors for postpartum depression, anxiety, and stress. The study results showed that caesarean delivery was associated with high postpartum depression, anxiety, and stress levels. In addition, child sleep problems were related to high depression levels, child health problems were related to high anxiety, a greater number of recent stressful life events were related to high stress levels, and maternal sleep problems were related to greater PPD. However, these results became non-significant after controlling for prenatal levels of maternal distress. Nonetheless, the women who underwent caesarean delivery reported higher prenatal stress, anxiety, and depression levels, relative to women who did not undergo the procedure. Taken together, the results of the four studies are likely to have implications for the screening of women during the perinatal period, and they may assist healthcare professionals who work with expectant and new mothers. In particular, the study results suggest that a woman’s relationships with her family and close friends as well as with her spouse may be important in shaping her psychological experiences including perinatal distress. In addition, the totality of social support rather than any particular aspect of social support appears to buffer against the potential to experience maternal distress, although self-esteem and appraisal support may be important. Finally, the women who had a caesarean delivery were more likely to be distressed in the third-trimester of pregnancy and also at 4-6 months postpartum. Thus, the results point to the need to screen pregnant women for mental health problems if they have a marked preference for caesarean delivery.
Article
Background: Psychological distress has been reported by mothers of infants born very preterm (VPT) and by mothers of multiples (twins and triplets). This study examined the influence of i) multiple birth and ii) bereavement associated with a multifetal pregnancy, on mental health, parenting stress and family functioning for mothers of children born VPT across early childhood. Methods: Participants were 162 mothers of 194 infants (129 singletons, 65 multiples) born at <30weeks' gestation or with a birth weight<1250g who completed questionnaires when their children were two and seven years corrected age. Fifteen mothers (9%) experienced bereavement associated with a multifetal pregnancy. Maternal mental health was assessed using the General Health Questionnaire at two years and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale at seven years. Parenting stress and family functioning were assessed using the Parenting Stress Index and Family Assessment Device. Results: Maternal mental health, stress and family functioning were similar in mothers of VPT singletons and multiples. However compared with mothers who had not experienced bereavement, mothers who had were 3.6 times [95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.05, 12.5] more likely to report elevated anxiety symptoms and 3.6 times [95% CI 1.05, 12.3] more likely to report elevated depressive symptoms when their VPT child was seven years old. Conclusions: The results of this study highlight the need for monitoring and offering ongoing support to bereaved mothers with surviving VPT children. However, within the context of VPT birth, multiple birth does not increase the risk for maternal psychological distress in early childhood.
Article
Purpose: This study investigated the correlation between mother-infant bonding and postpartum depression in women with a history of infertility. Methods: The sample consisted of 169 women divided into two: infertile group (n=56) and fertile group (n=112). Data were collected using a descriptive information questionnaire, the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS), and the Mother-to-Infant Bonding Scale (MIBS). Results: The fertile and infertile groups had a mean age of 28.95±3.38 and 36.55±3.55, respectively (p=0.001). The infertile group had a higher mean MIBS score (3.73±2.91) than the fertile group (1.50±1.29) (p=0.001). However, there was no significant difference in EPDS scores between the two groups (p > 0.05). Moreover, there was a positive correlation between MIBS and EPDS score in the fertile group (r = 0.354, p = 0.001), suggesting that the higher the risk for postpartum depression, the lower the mother-infant bonding. There was no correlation between MIBS and EPDS score in the infertile group (p > 0.05). Conclusion: Future studies should recruit larger samples of infertile women with cultural and ethnic diversity and take confounding factors into account to investigate the relationship between postpartum depression and mother-infant bonding.
Article
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Depression is one of the most prevalent mental health challenges in low- and middle-income countries. However, the mechanisms of parental depression on children’s development are understudied in these countries. This study examined the prevalence of parental depression, contextual predictors of parental depression, and the associations between parental depression, parenting and children’s development in one of the Sub-Saharan African countries-Uganda. Three hundred and three Ugandan parents of young children were recruited and interviewed. Results indicated that about 28 % of parents were depressed. Contextual factors such as low educational attainment, food insecurity, low social support, and high number of children were associated with parental depression. Structural equation modeling also indicated that Ugandan parents’ depression was associated with less optimal parenting, and higher problem behavior, lower social competence, and poorer physical health and school functioning in children. Results provide several cross cultural consistency evidence in associations among parental depression, parenting, and child development.
Article
Purpose Postpartum depression (PPD) is the most common psychiatric condition after childbirth which not only effects the mother´s health, but also might have impact on child's development and parenting behaviors. Because the etiology of PPD has not been fully cleared, the efforts towards identification of risk factors are crucial for both the children and mother's health. Method PubMed, EMBASE and PsycINFO databases were searched since inception until July 2019 to collect data about the risk factors of PPD and only systematic review and meta-analysis can be included. Result To identify the real risk factors, protective factors and controversial factors, nineteen parts of the interpretation were adopted. The risk factors are mainly concentrated in the following aspects: violence and abuse, immigration status, gestational diabetes, cesarean section, depressive history, vitamin D deficiency, obese and overweight, postpartum sleep disruption and poor postpartum sleep, lack of social support, traditional dietary pattern (Japanese, Indian, United Kingdom, and Brazilian dietary pattern), multiple births, preterm and low-birth-weight infants, postpartum anemia, negative birth experience. The controversial factors are serum level of cortisol, thyroid peroxidase autoantibodies status, acculturation, traditional confinement practices. Skin-to-skin care, higher concentrations of DHA in mothers’ milk, greater seafood consumption, healthy dietary patterns, multivitamin supplementation, fish and PUFA intake, calcium, Vitamin D, zinc and possibly selenium are protective factors. Conclusion Thirteen risk factors were identified, but five factors still controversial due to the insufficient of the evidence. What’s more, skin-to-skin care and some nutrition related factors are protective factors against PPD.
Article
Objective Postpartum depression (PPD) remains an understudied research area despite its high prevalence. The goal of this study is to develop an ontology to aid in the identification of patients with PPD and to enable future analyses with electronic health record (EHR) data. Methods We used Protégé-OWL to construct a postpartum depression ontology (PDO) of relevant comorbidities, symptoms, treatments, and other items pertinent to the study and treatment of PPD. Results The PDO identifies and visualizes the risk factor status of variables for PPD, including comorbidities, confounders, symptoms, and treatments. The PDO includes 734 classes, 13 object properties, and 4,844 individuals. We also linked known and potential risk factors to their respective codes in the International Classification of Diseases versions 9 and 10 that would be useful in structured EHR data analyses. The representation and usefulness of the PDO was assessed using a task-based patient case study approach, involving 10 PPD case studies. Final evaluation of the ontology yielded 86.4% coverage of PPD symptoms, treatments, and risk factors. This demonstrates strong coverage of the PDO for the PPD domain. Conclusion The PDO will enable future researchers to study PPD using EHR data as it contains important information with regard to structured (e.g., billing codes) and unstructured data (e.g., synonyms of symptoms not coded in EHRs). The PDO is publicly available through the National Center for Biomedical Ontology (NCBO) BioPortal ( https://bioportal.bioontology.org/ontologies/PARTUMDO ) which will enable other informaticists to utilize the PDO to study PPD in other populations.
Chapter
Perinatal depression (PND) is one of the most common complications of pregnancy. Estimates of prevalence range from 10% to 20%. The perinatal period is associated with complex and unique biological, socio-environmental, and psychological changes for each woman. PND is a burdensome disorder with a profound intrusive impact on the (expectant) mother (to be), her (unborn) child, but also the supporting system. PND is heterogeneous in presentation with likely multifactorial etiologies for each woman. Apart from psychosocial factors, researchers investigated potential underlying endocrinological, immunological, and (epi)genetic factors associated with PND. The Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) is the gold standard for detection. The main goals of treating PND are to reduce maternal psychiatric symptoms and to support maternal–child attachment. A stepped-care approach is advocated, in which mild to moderate symptoms should be treated with psychotherapeutic interventions, whereas women with severe symptoms or women who do not respond to nonpharmacological treatment, pharmacological treatment can be suggested. A weighted decision should be made.
Chapter
The revised and updated second edition covers practical approaches to caring for healthy and high-risk infants. https://shop.aap.org/neonatalogy-for-primary-care-2nd-edition-paperback/
Article
Objective The aim of this study was to explore the changes in quality of couples' relationships from pregnancy to postpartum in pregnant Italian women who conceived spontaneously and to analyze the differences in transition to motherhood with respect to birth of (a) first child, (b) second child, and (c) twins. Background The transition to motherhood leads to several changes for parents and can significantly affect a couple's adaptation. The couple's adaptation to parenthood may depend on whether they are having a first child, a second child, or twins. Method A total of 119 women (61 primiparous women with single pregnancy, 42 multiparous women with single pregnancy, and 16 primiparous women with twin pregnancy) completed the Dyadic Adjustment Scale during the third trimester of pregnancy and 3 months after childbirth. To explore whether the three groups differed regarding the quality of the couple relationship during pregnancy, a multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) was conducted. Subsequently, a series of mixed 2 × 3 ANOVA with Time (pregnancy and postpartum) as the within factor and Group as the between factor for each dependent variable linked to the dimensions of the Dyadic Adjustment Scale was carried out to explore whether the quality of the couple relationship differed 3 months after childbirth. Results Results highlighted that, during pregnancy, mothers expecting one child (both primiparas and multiparas) reported a higher level of couple relationship quality than did women expecting twins. However, after childbirth, mothers of twins reported significant improvements on some qualitative aspects of their couple relationship (Affective Expression), whereas the other mothers reported some worsening in the perceived couple relationship 3 months after the birth of the child, especially regarding global score, Dyadic Cohesion, and Affective Expression. Conclusion In conclusion, birth preparation courses must pay attention not only to parenting transition but also to promoting involvement of both partners in household duties. Anticipating a fair division of household chores can allow partners to prepare for childbirth and limit the stress of the couple. Implications The promotion of dyadic adjustment can reduce parenting stress and increase parents' well-being.
Article
Postpartum depression (PPD) is a major depressive disorder that affects women during the perinatal period. Our study aimed to evaluate the onset of psychological effects in spontaneous pregnancies in contrast with pregnancies resulting from in vitro fertilization (IVF). We carried out a prospective cohort study using the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale to evaluate postpartum depression. Patients were divided into 3 different groups based on their conception method: group A included spontaneous pregnancies, group B included pregnancies after homologous IVF, and group C pregnancies after heterologous IVF. The study included 245 patients. In the first year postpartum the incidence of psychological disorders was different exclusively at discharge from hospital (24.8% A vs. 38.7 B vs. 19% C) [P < .05] and one year after childbirth (13.3% A vs. 3.4% B vs. 4.8% C) [P < .05]. The multifactorial analysis showed a significant positive association between psychological distress and advanced maternal age, low parental education, nulliparity, preterm delivery and low fetal weight at birth, multiple pregnancies and multiple births, low pain threshold, and high rate of requesting analgesia intrapartum [P < .05]. Our results suggest a high correlation between PPD and pregnancies resulting from homologous IVF at the time of discharge, whereas there is a higher chance that spontaneous pregnancies develop postpartum depression one year after delivery.
Article
Background: Having twins is associated with more depressive symptoms compared to having singletons. However, the association between having twins and psychiatric morbidity requiring Emergency Department (ED) visit or inpatient hospitalization is less well-known. Objectives: To determine whether women have higher risk of having a psychiatric diagnosis at an ED visit or inpatient admission in the year after having twins versus singletons. Study design: This retrospective cohort study used International Classification of Diseases, 9th Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM) diagnosis and procedure codes within the Florida State Inpatient and State ED Databases, which have an encrypted identifier allowing nearly all inpatient and ED encounters statewide to be linked to the medical record. The first delivery of Florida residents aged 13 to 55 years old from 2005 to 2014 was included, regardless of parity; women with ICD-9-CM coding for psychiatric illness or substance misuse during pregnancy or for stillbirth or higher-order gestations were excluded. The exposure was an ICD-9-CM code during delivery hospitalization of liveborn twins. The primary outcome was an ICD-9-CM code during an ED encounter or inpatient admission within one year of delivery for a psychiatric morbidity composite (suicide attempt, depression, anxiety, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), psychosis, acute stress reaction, or adjustment disorder). The secondary outcome was drug or alcohol use or dependence within one year of delivery. We compared outcomes after delivery of liveborn twins versus singletons using multivariable logistic regression adjusting for sociodemographic and medical factors. We tested for interactions between independent variables in the primary model and conducted sensitivity analyses stratifying women by insurance type and presence of severe intrapartum morbidity (SMM) and/or medical comorbidities. Results: 17,365 women who had liveborn twins and 1,058,880 who had singletons were included. Within one year of birth, 1.6% (n=270) of women delivering twins and 1.6% (n=17,236) of women delivering singletons had an ED encounter or inpatient admission coded for psychiatric morbidity (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 1.00 (95% Confidence Interval (CI) 0.88 - 1.14)). Coding for drug or alcohol use or dependence in an ED encounter or inpatient admission in the year following twin versus singleton delivery was also similar (n=96 (0.6%) versus 6,222 (0.6%); aOR 1.11 (95% CI 0.91 - 1.36)). However, women with Medicaid were more likely to have PTSD after twin versus singleton delivery (n=75 (1.2%) versus n=4,858 (n=1.0%); aOR 1.27 (95% CI 1.01 - 1.60)). Women with ≥1 medical comorbidity or SMM or who were low income also had increased risk of psychiatric morbidity after twin delivery (comorbidities: n=7,438 (42.8%), aOR 1.30 (95% CI 1.25 - 1.34); SMM: n=940 (5.4%), aOR 1.65 (95% CI 1.49 - 1.81); lowest income quartile: n=4,409 (26.8%), aOR 1.31 (95% CI 1.23 - 1.40); second-lowest income quartile: n=4,770 (29.0%), aOR 1.34 (95% CI 1.26 - 1.43). Conclusions: Overall, diagnostic codes for psychiatric illness or substance misuse in ED visits or hospital admissions in the year after delivery is similar after twins and singletons. However, women with Medicaid, who are low-income, or who have comorbidities or SMM are at increased risk of postpartum psychiatric morbidity after twin versus singleton delivery. Trial registration: Not Applicable.
Article
Objective To determine the prevalence of symptoms of postpartum depression (PPD) and examine how fathers’ presence and involvement in the care of their newborns affect symptoms of PPD within the first 2 weeks after birth among mothers with newborns in the NICU. Design Observational cohort study. Setting Open-bay, 40-bed, tertiary level NICU in Eastern Canada. Participants Mothers (N = 105) of newborns who were anticipated to survive and required more than 5 days of hospitalization in the NICU. Methods Participants completed the Postpartum Depression Screening Scale (PDSS) 14 days after they gave birth. They kept daily diaries to record the amount of time that fathers spent by the newborns’ bedsides (i.e., presence) and actively caring for their newborns (i.e., involvement such as skin to skin). Participants completed daily diaries from the time of enrollment in the study until their newborns were discharged home. We analyzed the data using linear regression; score on the PDSS was the dependent variable, and fathers’ presence and involvement were the independent variables. We adjusted for covariates. Results The prevalence of positive screening for symptoms of major PPD was 24.1% (n = 20), and the prevalence of significant symptoms of PPD was 27.7% (n = 23). Participants reported that fathers were present in the NICU an average of 3.8 hours per day and were actively involved with their newborns 53% of the time. Fathers’ involvement was significantly associated with lower scores on the PDSS (adjusted β = −3.85; 95% confidence interval [CI] [−6.10, −1.60]). A history of anxiety was significantly associated with greater scores on the PDSS (adjusted β = 12.06, 95% CI [2.07, 22.05]). Maternal age and income less than $50,000 CAD were marginally associated with greater scores on the PDSS (adjusted β = −0.86, 95% CI [−1.77, 0.05] and adjusted β = 10.69, 95% CI [−0.73, 22.11], respectively). The overall explained variance in the PDSS scores with the independent variables was R² = 0.35. Conclusion Fathers’ involvement in the care of their newborns in the NICU was significantly associated with fewer symptoms of PPD among mothers. We recommend research with targeted interventions to promote fathers’ involvement in the NICU to potentially mitigate the symptoms of PPD among mothers of newborns in the NICU.
Article
Objective To study whether conception by means of in vitro fertilization (IVF) is associated with maternal depressive symptoms during pregnancy or postpartum. Design Longitudinal observational study. Setting University hospital. Patient(s) A total of 3,283 women with singleton pregnancies receiving antenatal care and delivering in Uppsala from 2010 to 2015. Intervention(s) A web-based self-administered structured questionnaire including sociodemographic, clinical and pregnancy-related items, and the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) was delivered at 17 and 32 gestational weeks and at 6 weeks and 6 months postpartum. Main Outcome Measure(s) Prevalence of significant depressive symptoms (EPDS ≥12) and EPDS scores. Result(s) A total of 167 women (5%) had conceived via IVF and 3,116 (95%) had a spontaneous pregnancy. IVF mothers were more frequently ≥35 years of age (46.1% vs. 22.6%) and primiparous (71.7% vs. 49.9%) and had a higher cesarean delivery rate (22.4% vs. 14.2%). Demographic and clinical characteristics were otherwise similar between the two groups. Significant depressive symptoms were reported by 12.8%, 12.4%, 13.8%, and 11.9% of women at 17 and 32 gestational weeks and 6 weeks and 6 months postpartum, respectively. The prevalence of depressive symptoms and the EPDS scores during pregnancy and postpartum were similar between women conceiving spontaneously or through IVF. The mode of conception was not associated with significant depressive symptoms at any time point, even when adjusting for several possible confounders in multivariable logistic regression analysis. Conclusion(s) Despite the psychologic distress characterizing subfertility and its treatment, conception by means of IVF is not associated with maternal depressive symptoms during pregnancy or postpartum.
Article
Objective Recent reports have shown a considerable number of couples received infertility treatment, raising new concerns about the association between infertility treatment and perinatal depressive symptoms. However, the conclusions of existing studies were inconsistent. Therefore, we conducted a meta-analysis to determine whether infertility treatment increase the risk of developing perinatal depressive symptoms. Methods A systematic literature search was performed in several databases up to July 2018 for relevant articles. Pooled odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using a random-effects model. Subgroup and sensitivity analyses were performed to explore possible sources of heterogeneity. Results Twenty-two studies with a total of 69,201 individuals were included in this study. The pooled OR of the association between infertility treatment and perinatal depressive symptoms was 1.01(95% CI: 0.83, 1.23), with substantial heterogeneity (I² = 63%, P < .001). However, in subgroup analyses, a significantly positive association between infertility treatment and depressive symptoms was observed only in some Asian countries (six studies), and the pooled OR was 1.73 (95% CI:1.07, 2.81). An inverse association was found in 6–12 months after delivery (OR = 0.56, 95% CI:0.33, 0.96). Sensitivity analyses validated evidence of the robustness of the findings. Conclusion The results show that women who receive infertility treatment do not appear to be at increased risk of significant perinatal depressive symptoms compared with those after spontaneous conception.
Article
Research question: Are self-reported symptoms of stress and depression associated with pregnancy outcomes within the first year after referral to a tertiary recurrent pregnancy loss unit? Design: Prospective cohort study with online questionnaires using the Major Depression Inventory (MDI) and Cohen's Stress Scale (PSS) at referral and after 1 year. The study was conducted between 2010 and 2014. A total of 301 women who had experienced recurrent pregnancy loss completed the first questionnaire. One year after referral, 185 women (61%) completed a follow-up questionnaire. Results: A score above the threshold for major depression on the MDI at referral was not a predictor for outcome in the first pregnancy after referral; OR (95% CI) for live birth 1.71 (0.66 to 4.44), neither was increasing scores on the PSS: OR 0.98 (95% CI 0.94 to 1.02). At follow-up, women who had achieved a pregnancy resulting in a live birth had significantly lower scores on both the MDI: 13.45 (11.05) versus 11.04 (11.07); difference -2.41 (95% CI -4.60 to -0.23); and the PSS: mean 17.69 (7.59) versus 13.03 (6.83); difference -4.66 (95% CI -6.04 to -3.28), respectively. This was not the case for women who did not have a successful pregnancy. Women who experienced recurrent pregnancy loss after a successful birth were less likely to report symptoms corresponding to major depression than women who had only experienced losses (n = 7 [5%] versus 19 [12%]; P = 0.04). Conclusions: Self-reported emotional distress did not affect future chance of live birth. A live born child decreased emotional distress.
Article
Objective: To determine risk factors for a positive postpartum depression screen among women with private health insurance and 24/7 access to care. Study design: Retrospective cohort study of all patients delivered by a single MFM practice from April 2015–September 2016. All patients had private health insurance and 24/7 access to care. All patients were scheduled to undergo the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) at their 6-week postpartum visit and a positive screen was defined as a score of 10 or higher, or a score greater than zero on question 10 (thoughts of selfharm). Using logistic regression, risk factors for postpartum depression were compared between women with and without a positive screen. Results: Of the 1237 patients delivered, 1113 (90%) were screened with the EPDS. 81 patients (7.3, 95% CI 5.9–9.0%) of those tested had a positive screen. On regression analysis, risk factors associated with a positive screen were nulliparity (aOR 1.8, 95% CI 1.1, 2.9), cesarean delivery (aOR 1.7, 95% CI 1.1, 2.8), nonwhite race (aOR 2.0, 95% CI 1.1, 3.5), and a history of depression or anxiety (aOR 4.6, 95% CI 2.6, 8.1). Among the 100 women with a history of depression or anxiety, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) use in the postpartum period was not associated with a reduced risk of a positive screen (25.5% in those taking an SSRI versus 18.4% of those not taking an SSRI, p = 0.39). Conclusion: Among women with private health insurance and access to care, the incidence of a positive screen for postpartum depression is approximately 7%. The use of an SSRI did not eliminate this risk. All women should be screened for postpartum depression.
Article
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We determined the prevalence of postpartum depression and related risk factors in Turkey based on relevant research. This study is a systematic review and meta-analysis and was conducted by performing a scan of the Turkish and English literature over the period January-February 2016. Most of the research included in this systematic compilation made use of the Edinburgh Postpartum Depression Scale. The scans executed indicated that 4740 women out of 18780 were at risk for postpartum depression. In the computations made based on these data, it was found that the consolidated prevalence of postpartum depression was 24% (21%-27% at a confidence interval of 95%) and that this rate varied between 9% and 51%. The study revealed 54 risk factors related to postpartum depression. Those most commonly reported were mental problems/depression prior to pregnancy, unplanned/unwanted pregnancy, low income/socioeconomic level, bad marital relationship/problems with spouse/dissatisfaction with married life and being a housewife. In this study, we showed that the prevalence rate of postpartum depression is significantly high, that it varies within a wide range, that the prevalence of depression decreased with the increase of the time passed after childbirth, and that it is related to numerous and different factors.
Chapter
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Article
Objective Postpartum depression is related to many adverse effects in both mothers and their children; therefore, proper screening and early interventions are needed. This study aims to identify the risk factors of postpartum depression. Our primary focus is on obstetric risk factors. Methods This study is a cross-sectional study which we extracted the data of women who gave birth between January 1st, 2010 and December 31st, 2012 from the Health Insurance Review and Assessment service (HIRA) database. We analyzed the data using multivariable logistic regression models. Results A total of 17,483 (1.4%) women suffered from depression during the postpartum period. Younger (< 20 years) and advanced maternal age (≥ 35 years), primiparity, previous depression, peripartum hysterectomy, uterine artery embolization, preterm delivery, placental abruption, cesarean delivery, induced labor, and preeclampsia were found to increase the likelihood of having depression after delivery. Conclusions Our findings suggest that there are several risk factors that lead women to postpartum depression. Therefore, early detection and well-management of the symptoms and risk factors for postpartum depression along with social support can help both physical and psychological conditions of women after childbirth.
Article
To study the effects of mode of conception (spontaneous vs. assisted) on health-related quality of life (HRQoL) throughout pregnancy and in the postpartum period. Secondary analysis of data from the All Our Babies cohort. Not applicable. A total of 243 women with assisted conception and 3,309 women with spontaneous conception. Short Form 12 (SF-12) health survey administered by means of questionnaires at <25 weeks, 34-36 weeks of gestation, and 4 months postpartum. Changes in the SF-12 Physical (PCS) and Mental (MCS) Component Summary scores from pregnancy to postpartum. The PCS scores were lower during pregnancy and at <25 weeks and 34-36 weeks of gestation among women with assisted conception, but were equivalent to those of women with spontaneous conception by 4 months postpartum. The MCS scores were higher at <25 weeks among women with assisted conception, but by 34-36 weeks of gestation and at 4 months postpartum they were similar regardless of the method of conception. Analysis of covariance showed no significant differences for the changes in PCS and MCS scores from pregnancy to postpartum between assisted and spontaneous conception groups, after adjusting for covariates. Women with assisted conception may report lower physical and better mental health during pregnancy than women with spontaneous conception. At 4 months postpartum, there were no differences in self-reported HRQoL between modes of conception. Women with assisted conception may benefit from support and reassurance that perception of suboptimal health may improve over pregnancy and into the postpartum period. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Article
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Systematic reviews and meta-analyses have become increasingly important in health care. Clinicians read them to keep up to date with their field [1],[2], and they are often used as a starting point for developing clinical practice guidelines. Granting agencies may require a systematic review to ensure there is justification for further research [3], and some health care journals are moving in this direction [4]. As with all research, the value of a systematic review depends on what was done, what was found, and the clarity of reporting. As with other publications, the reporting quality of systematic reviews varies, limiting readers' ability to assess the strengths and weaknesses of those reviews. Several early studies evaluated the quality of review reports. In 1987, Mulrow examined 50 review articles published in four leading medical journals in 1985 and 1986 and found that none met all eight explicit scientific criteria, such as a quality assessment of included studies [5]. In 1987, Sacks and colleagues [6] evaluated the adequacy of reporting of 83 meta-analyses on 23 characteristics in six domains. Reporting was generally poor; between one and 14 characteristics were adequately reported (mean = 7.7; standard deviation = 2.7). A 1996 update of this study found little improvement [7]. In 1996, to address the suboptimal reporting of meta-analyses, an international group developed a guidance called the QUOROM Statement (QUality Of Reporting Of Meta-analyses), which focused on the reporting of meta-analyses of randomized controlled trials [8]. In this article, we summarize a revision of these guidelines, renamed PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses), which have been updated to address several conceptual and practical advances in the science of systematic reviews (Box 1). Box 1: Conceptual Issues in the Evolution from QUOROM to PRISMA Completing a Systematic Review Is an Iterative Process The conduct of a systematic review depends heavily on the scope and quality of included studies: thus systematic reviewers may need to modify their original review protocol during its conduct. Any systematic review reporting guideline should recommend that such changes can be reported and explained without suggesting that they are inappropriate. The PRISMA Statement (Items 5, 11, 16, and 23) acknowledges this iterative process. Aside from Cochrane reviews, all of which should have a protocol, only about 10% of systematic reviewers report working from a protocol [22]. Without a protocol that is publicly accessible, it is difficult to judge between appropriate and inappropriate modifications.
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The average prevalence rate of non-psychotic postpartum depression based on the results of a large number of studies is 13%. Prevalence estimates are affected by the nature of the assessment method (larger estimates in studies using self-report measures) and by the length of the postpartum period under evaluation (longer periods predict high prevalences). A meta-analysis was undertaken to determine the sizes of the effects of a number of putative risk factors, measured during pregnancy, for postpartum depression. The strongest predictors of postpartum depression were past history of psychopathology and psychological disturbance during pregnancy, poor marital relationship and low social support, and stressful life events. Finally, indicators of low social status showed a small but significant predictive relation to postpartum depression. In sum, these findings generally mirror the conclusions from earlier qualitative reviews of postpartum depression risk factors.
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It is known that infertility affects emotional well-being, satisfaction with life and self-esteem and that failed assisted reproductive technology (ART) treatment is associated with diminished life satisfaction, reduced self-confidence and substantial psychological distress. Investigations of whether these persist when treatment results in a pregnancy and live birth have been undertaken. A systematic search for English-language research articles on psychological and social aspects of pregnancy, childbirth and the first post-partum year after ART conception. Of 466 retrieved papers, 46 met inclusion criteria. These reported data from 28 studies. There is consistent evidence that marital satisfaction, emotional well-being and self-regard in pregnancy, attachment to the fetus and parent-infant relationship in ART groups are similar to comparison groups. Anxiety about the survival of the fetus and early parenting difficulties appear to be higher and post-natal self-confidence lower. Evidence about adjustment to pregnancy and parenthood and the experience of childbirth is inconclusive and reports of parental perceptions of infant temperament and behaviour are contradictory. Between-study methodological differences may explain the lack of consistency in findings of the influence of infertility and ART on some aspects of the transition to parenthood. Overall, this body of evidence is best described as emergent. It is possible that in pregnancy after ART, parenthood might be idealized and this might then hinder adjustment and the development of a confident parental identity.
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Several studies found that maternal symptoms of anxiety or depression are related to functioning and development of the offspring. Within a population-based study of 2,724 children, we investigated the effect of maternal anxiety or depression on infant neuromotor development. Symptoms of anxiety and depression were measured during pregnancy and after giving birth; infant neuromotor development was assessed by trained research nurses during a home visit at the age of 3 months. The current study showed that mothers who were anxious during pregnancy had an elevated risk of having an infant with non-optimal neuromotor development.
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To provide an overview of methods to identify postnatal depression (PND) in primary care and to assess their validity, acceptability, clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness, to model estimates of cost, to assess whether any method meets UK National Screening Committee (NSC) criteria and to identify areas for future research. Searches of 20 electronic databases (including MEDLINE, CINAHL, PsycINFO, EMBASE, CENTRAL, DARE and CDSR), forward citation searching, personal communication with authors and searching of reference lists. A generalised linear mixed model approach to the bivariate meta-analysis was undertaken for the validation review with quality assessment using QUADAS. Within the acceptability review, a textual narrative approach was employed to synthesise qualitative and quantitative research evidence. For the clinical and cost-effectiveness reviews methods outlined by the Centre for Reviews and Dissemination and the Cochrane Collaboration were followed. Probabilistic models were developed to estimate the costs associated with different identification strategies. The Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) was the most frequently explored instrument across all of the reviews. In terms of test performance, postnatally the EPDS performed reasonably well: sensitivity ranged from 0.60 (specificity 0.97) to 0.96 (specificity 0.45) for major depression only; from 0.31 (specificity 0.99) to 0.91 (specificity 0.67) for major or minor depression; and from 0.38 (specificity 0.99) to 0.86 (specificity 0.87) for any psychiatric disorder. Evidence from the acceptability review indicated that, in the majority of studies, the EPDS was acceptable to women and health-care professionals when women were forewarned of the process, when the EPDS was administered in the home, with due attention to training, with empathetic skills of the health visitor and due consideration to positive responses to question 10 about self-harm. Suggestive evidence from the clinical effectiveness review indicated that use of the EPDS, compared with usual care, may lead to reductions in the number of women with depression scores above a threshold. In the absence of existing cost-effectiveness studies of PND identification strategies, a decision-analytic model was developed. The results of the base-case analysis suggested that use of formal identification strategies did not appear to represent value for money, based on conventional thresholds of cost-effectiveness used in the NHS. However, the scenarios considered demonstrated that this conclusion was primarily driven by the costs of false positives assumed in the base-case model. In light of the results of our evidence synthesis and decision modelling we revisited the examination of PND screening against five of the NSC criteria. We found that the accepted criteria for a PND screening programme were not currently met. The evidence suggested that there is a simple, safe, precise and validated screening test, in principle a suitable cut-off level could be defined and that the test is acceptable to the population. Evidence surrounding clinical and cost-effectiveness of methods to identify PND is lacking. Further research should aim to identify the optimal identification strategy, in terms of key psychometric properties for postnatal populations. In particular, research comparing the performance of the Whooley and help questions, the EPDS and a generic depression measure would be informative. It would also be informative to identify the natural history of PND over time and to identify the clinical effectiveness of the most valid and acceptable method to identify postnatal depression. Further research within a randomised controlled trial would provide robust estimates of the clinical effectiveness.
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To evaluate the effectiveness of telephone based peer support in the prevention of postnatal depression. Multisite randomised controlled trial. Seven health regions across Ontario, Canada. 701 women in the first two weeks postpartum identified as high risk for postnatal depression with the Edinburgh postnatal depression scale and randomised with an internet based randomisation service. Proactive individualised telephone based peer (mother to mother) support, initiated within 48-72 hours of randomisation, provided by a volunteer recruited from the community who had previously experienced and recovered from self reported postnatal depression and attended a four hour training session. Edinburgh postnatal depression scale, structured clinical interview-depression, state-trait anxiety inventory, UCLA loneliness scale, and use of health services. After web based screening of 21 470 women, 701 (72%) eligible mothers were recruited. A blinded research nurse followed up more than 85% by telephone, including 613 at 12 weeks and 600 at 24 weeks postpartum. At 12 weeks, 14% (40/297) of women in the intervention group and 25% (78/315) in the control group had an Edinburgh postnatal depression scale score >12 (chi(2)=12.5, P<0.001; number need to treat 8.8, 95% confidence interval 5.9 to 19.6; relative risk reduction 0.46, 95% confidence interval 0.24 to 0.62). There was a positive trend in favour of the intervention group for maternal anxiety but not loneliness or use of health services. For ethical reasons, participants identified with clinical depression at 12 weeks were referred for treatment, resulting in no differences between groups at 24 weeks. Of the 221 women in the intervention group who received and evaluated their experience of peer support, over 80% were satisfied and would recommend this support to a friend. Telephone based peer support can be effective in preventing postnatal depression among women at high risk. ISRCTN 68337727.
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Although twin deliveries after assisted reproduction treatment (ART) are common, the mental health of the parents has scarcely been addressed. Therefore, we evaluated the psychological well-being of ART and spontaneously conceiving parents of twins and singletons. Furthermore, the impact of parity and children's health-related factors on mental health was evaluated. We conducted a prospective longitudinal questionnaire study among ART parents of 91 pairs of twins and of 367 singletons and on control parents of 20 pairs of twins and of 379 singletons in the 2nd trimester of pregnancy (T1), and when the children were 2 months (T2) and 1-year old (T3). Symptoms of depression and anxiety, sleeping difficulties and social dysfunction were addressed via a questionnaire. The effects of parity and child-related factors were assessed at T2. At T1, ART mothers of twins showed fewer symptoms of depression than control mothers of twins (P < 0.05). At T2, both ART and control mothers of twins had more symptoms of depression and anxiety than all mothers of singletons (F = 5.20, P < 0.05 and F = 3.93, P < 0.05, respectively). At T3, both ART and control mothers of twins continued to report more symptoms of depression than the mothers of singletons (F = 10.01, P < 0.01), but a difference in anxiety symptoms was seen only in the control group. All fathers had similar mental health at T1. At T2, ART and control fathers of twins reported more symptoms of depression (F = 4.15, P < 0.05) and social dysfunction than fathers of singletons. At T3, both ART and control fathers of twins had more symptoms of depression (F = 4.29, P < 0.05) and anxiety (F = 5.40, P < 0.05) than fathers of singletons. Control fathers of twins had more sleeping difficulties than fathers of singletons (F = 6.66, P < 0.01). Parity did not differently affect parental mental health at T2 in the study groups. Prematurity did not affect maternal mental health, but it had a negative impact on control fathers' social dysfunction (F = 3.34, P < 0.05). Twin parenthood, but not ART, has a negative impact on the mental health of mothers and fathers during the transition to parenthood. ART parents' mental health was not affected by parity or children's health-related factors.
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The aim of this study was to compare 70 couples who had conceived by in-vitro fertilization (IVF) with 63 matched controls for the prevalence of anxiety and quality of attachment to the baby during pregnancy. Results for mothers showed no group differences using a global measure of anxiety, the Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory. However, pregnancy-specific measures revealed significantly higher levels of anxiety in IVF mothers about the survival and normality of their unborn babies, about damage to their babies during childbirth and about separating from their babies after birth. When IVF mothers were differentiated according to the number of treatment cycles, more differences in anxiety level were revealed, with most increases occurring in mothers who had experienced two or more treatment cycles. IVF fathers did not differ from controls on the global anxiety measure. No data on pregnancy-specific anxiety were available for fathers. Neither IVF mothers nor IVF fathers differed from controls on measures of attachment to the baby during pregnancy. Results are discussed in the context of the need for researchers to employ differentiated and issue-specific measures to identify concerns that may be unique to IVF couples. Clinical implications regarding the need for psychological support during pregnancy are also discussed.
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Objective: To determine whether women who get pregnant as a result of IVF differ psychologically from pregnant women who conceived naturally. Design: Prospective, longitudinal study. Setting: Healthy volunteers from outpatient infertility and obstetrics practices. Patient(s): Seventy-four women who became pregnant via IVF and 40 women conceiving without medical intervention. Intervention(s): Subjects completed self-report questionnaires about demographic and reproductive history, rewards and concerns of pregnancy, self-esteem, marital adjustment, depressive symptoms, and anxiety at 12 and 28 weeks' gestational age. Main outcome measure(s): Self-esteem, depression, and anxiety scores. Result(s): There were no significant differences between groups on any of the outcome measures assessing psychological status at the two assessment times. Differences were found on specific items assessing the rewards and concerns of pregnancy. Within-group changes over time indicated that IVF women, not controls, showed an increase in self-esteem and a decrease in anxiety during pregnancy. Conclusion(s): Pregnant IVF women are similar psychologically to women who become pregnant naturally on dimensions of self-esteem, depression, and anxiety at 12 and 28 weeks' gestational age. The IVF group, not controls, reported improved self-esteem and decreased anxiety as the pregnancy progressed.
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The aim of the study was to identify differences in psychological characteristics between couples with fertility disorders, especially idiopathic infertility, and a representative sample. A total of 564 couples was examined using psychological questionnaires pertaining to sociodemographic factors, motives for wanting a child, dimensions of life satisfaction and couple relationships, physical and psychic complaints, and a personality inventory. Specific to our sample was the high educational level of the couples, and the large number with idiopathic infertility (27% of all diagnoses). There were no remarkable differences in psychological variables between the infertile couples and a representative sample, except that the infertile women showed higher scores on the depression and anxiety scales. Couples with idiopathic infertility showed no remarkable differences in the questionnaire variables compared with couples with other medical diagnoses of infertility. A typical psychological profile for infertile couples could not be identified using standardized psychometric rating methods. This may be an effect of the specific characteristics of our sample. For some couples, the infertility crisis can be seen as a cumulative trauma, which indicates that these couples have a marked need for infertility counselling.
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The incidence of postpartum depression (PPD) in Western societies is approximately 10-15% and its cause multi-faceted. Because mothers largely constitute infants' social environment and mediate their experience of the external world, it is imperative to investigate the effects of PPD on child growth and development. PsycInfo, Medline, Embase, CINAHL, ProQuest, and Health Star databases were searched with key terms for English language abstracts from 1990 onwards, and key contents were searched. There are small effects of PPD on cognitive development such as language and IQ, seen particularly among boys. Behavioral effects are variably supported, but may persist up to 5 years postpartum and beyond. However, chronic or recurrent maternal depression, rather than postpartum depression per se is likely related to later effects on the child. These adverse effects of PPD based on sex of infant are discussed.
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Objective: The postpartum period is recognized as a time of vulnerability to affective disorders, particularly postpartum depression. In contrast, the prevalence and clinical presentation of anxiety disorders during pregnancy and the postpartum period have received little research attention. In this article, we review the medical literature as it relates to the prevalence and clinical presentation of panic disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, posttraumatic stress disorder, and generalized anxiety disorder during pregnancy and the postpartum period. Data Sources: MEDLINE (1966 to July 2005 week 1) and PsycInfo (1840 to July 2005 week 1) were searched using combinations of the following search terms: pregnancy, childbirth, postpartum, panic disorder, phobia, obsessive-compulsive disorder, posttraumatic stress disorder, and generalized anxiety disorder. Study Selection: All relevant papers published in English and reporting original data related to perinatal anxiety disorders were included. Data Extraction: Studies were examined for data related to the prevalence, presentation, predictors/risk factors, new onset, course, and treatment of anxiety disorders during pregnancy and the postpartum period. Data Synthesis: Anxiety disorders are common during the perinatal period, with reported rates of obsessive-compulsive disorder and generalized anxiety disorder being higher in postpartum women than in the general population. The perinatal context of anxiety disorders presents unique issues for detection and management. Conclusions: Future research is needed to estimate the prevalence of perinatal anxiety disorders more precisely, to identify potential implications of maternal anxiety disorders for maternal quality of life and child development, and to determine safe and effective treatment methods.
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Data on a comparative study between a group of 26 primiparous women who gave birth to a child after an homologous In Vitro Fertilization Treatment (IVF) and a group of 26 women also primiparous, who gave birth to a child after a natural conception, were analyzed to explore the prevalence of psychopathology in the IVF group as opposed to the control group. No differences were detected as regards the psychological parameter of depression between the two groups. The results of the Eysenck Personality Scale point out that there are no differences between the personality profile of women who resort to IVF treatment and women who conceive naturally, as no statistically significant differences were discovered in three of the four sub-scales of the EPI among the two groups. There was a differentiation only in the first sub-scale (psychoticism), where the IVF group recorded lower scores to a statistically significant degree.
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Background: Psychological outcomes of successful in vitro fertilization (IVF) treatment are poorly understood, particularly in couples experiencing a multiple birth. Methods: Anxiety and depression at 18 weeks of pregnancy, 28 weeks of pregnancy, and at 6 weeks postpartum were compared in couples conceiving twins or triplets following IVF (IVFM), couples conceiving a single baby (IVFS), and couples conceiving without treatment for infertility (NC). Parenting stress was also assessed at 1 year postpartum. Results: The IVFM group was significantly more anxious at 18 weeks and 28 weeks of pregnancy than both the IVFS group and the naturally conceiving group. Over 30% of female partners in this group had levels of anxiety suggestive of a clinical disorder. There was no evidence that women conceiving following IVF treatment were at increased risk of developing postnatal depression. In couples with a single birth, male rates of postpartum depression were significantly lower than those of females, but in the IVFM group, men had rates that were higher but statistically similar to females. Conclusion: Psychological complications of multiple IVF pregnancies include increased anxiety during pregnancy and, for fathers, poorer mental health in the early postpartum period.
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Based on American Society for Reproductive Medicine (ASRM) and Society for Assisted Reproductive Technology data available in 2007, ASRM's guidelines for the number of embryos to be transferred in in vitro fertilization cycles have been further refined in continuing efforts to reduce the number of higher-order multiple pregnancies. This version replaces the document of the same name that was published most recently in November 2008. (Fertil Steril (R) 2009;92:1518-9. (C) 2009 by American Society for Reproductive Medicine.)
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Motherhood and Mental Health Ian Brockington Oxford University Press, 1996,612 p.
Depression or anxiety disorders may affect more than 25% of multiple birth parents during the perinatal period. Such parents often are uninformed, suffer in silence and fear, and are reticent to seek help. When depression, panic attacks, and obsessive-compulsive disorder are not recognized or are left untreated, parent health, parent-infants interaction, child development, and family stability may be seriously compromised. Nurses, as partners in care at the family and community levels, have a pivotal role to play in prevention-focused health, education, and social support programs; the identification of parents at risk; and the early recognition and support of women and families affected by these disorders.
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A review of our recent research suggests that infants of depressed mothers appeared to be less responsive to faces and voices as early as the neonatal period. At that time they have shown less orienting to the live face/voice stimulus of the Brazelton scale examiner and to their own and other infants' cry sounds. This lesser responsiveness has been attributed to higher arousal, less attentiveness and less "empathy." Their delayed heart rate decelerations to instrumental and vocal music sounds have also been ascribed to their delayed attention and/or slower processing. Later at 3-6 months they showed less negative responding to their mothers' non-contingent and still-face behavior, suggesting that they were more accustomed to this behavior in their mothers. The less responsive behavior of the depressed mothers was further compounded by their comorbid mood states of anger and anxiety and their difficult interaction styles including withdrawn or intrusive interaction styles and their later authoritarian parenting style. Pregnancy massage was effectively used to reduce prenatal depression and facilitate more optimal neonatal behavior. Interaction coaching was used during the postnatal period to help these dyads with their interactions and ultimately facilitate the infants' development.
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Despite the progress made in assisted reproductive technology, live birth rates remain disappointingly low. Multiple-embryo transfer has been an accepted practice with which to increase the success rate. This has led to a higher incidence of multiple-order births compared with natural conception, which not only increase the risk of mortality and morbidity to both mother and children but are also associated with social and economic consequences. Elective single-embryo transfer (eSET) was developed in an effort to increase singleton pregnancies in assisted reproduction. Studies comparing eSET with multiple-embryo transfer highlight the benefit of this approach and suggest that, with careful patient selection and the transfer of good-quality embryos, the risk of a multiple-order pregnancy can be reduced without significantly decreasing live birth rates. Although the use of eSET has gradually increased in clinical practice, its acceptance has been limited by factors such as availability of funding and awareness of the procedure. An open discussion of eSET is warranted in an effort to enable a broader understanding by physicians and patients of the merits of this approach. Ultimately, eSET may provide a more cost-effective, potentially safer approach to patients undergoing assisted reproduction technology.
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Postpartum depression occurs in at least one in seven new mothers, usually within the first 6 months after delivery. By the time of onset of postpartum depression, the mother has usually long since been discharged from the maternity hospital. Early identification and treatment of these mothers reduces both maternal and infant suffering. Careful risk-benefit decision-making regarding various treatment options in the postpartum should be discussed with the mother. Risks of untreated depression include poor bonding with the infant, lack of self care, infant neglect and infanticide.
Article
The purpose of the study was to assess the relationship between multiple births and maternal depressive symptoms measured 9 months after delivery. Data were derived from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort, a longitudinal study of a nationally representative sample of children born in 2001. Depressive symptoms were measured at 9 months by using an abbreviated version of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale. Logistic regression analyses were conducted to study the association between multiple births and maternal depressive symptoms, with adjustment for demographic and household socioeconomic characteristics and maternal history of mental health problems. A total of 8069 mothers were included for analyses. The prevalence of moderate/severe depressive symptoms at 9 months after delivery was estimated to be 16.0% and 19.0% among mothers of singletons and multiple births, respectively. Only 27.0% of women who had moderate/severe depressive symptoms reported talking about emotional or psychological problems with a mental health specialist or a general medical provider within the 12 months before the interview. The proportions of women with depressive symptoms who were receiving mental health services did not vary according to plurality status. Mothers of multiple births had 43% greater odds of having moderate/severe, 9-month postpartum, depressive symptoms, compared with mothers of singletons. Greater attention is needed in pediatric settings to address maternal depression in families with multiple births.
Article
Postpartum depression (PPD) affects up to 15% of mothers. Recent research has identified several psychosocial and biologic risk factors for PPD. The negative short-term and long-term effects on child development are well-established. PPD is under recognized and under treated. The obstetrician and pediatrician can serve important roles in screening for and treating PPD. Treatment options include psychotherapy and antidepressant medication. Obstacles to compliance with treatment recommendations include access to psychotherapists and concerns of breastfeeding mothers about exposure of the infant to antidepressant medication. Further research is needed to examine systematically the short-term and long-term effect of medication exposure through breastmilk on infant and child development.
Article
To determine the psychosocial risks associated with multiple births (twins or triplets) resulting from assisted reproductive technology (ART). Transverse study. Infertility units of a university hospital and a private hospital. Mothers and fathers of children between 6 months and 4 years conceived by ART (n = 123). The sample was divided into three groups: parents of singletons (n = 77), twins (n = 37), and triplets (n = 9). The questionnaire was self-administered by patients. It was either completed at the hospital or mailed to participants' homes. Scales measured material needs, quality of life, social stigma, depression, stress, and marital satisfaction. Logistic regression models were applied. Significant odds ratios were obtained for the number of children, material needs, social stigma, quality of life, and marital satisfaction. The results were more significant for data provided by mothers than by fathers. The informed consent form handed out at the beginning of ART should include information on the high risk of conceiving twins and triplets and on the possible psychosocial consequences of multiple births. As soon as a multiple pregnancy is confirmed, it would be useful to provide information on support groups and institutions. Psychological advice should also be given to the parents.
Article
Recent evidence suggests that the prevalence of postnatal depression (PND) is highest in low-income developing countries. This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of PND and its associated risk factors among Bangladeshi women. The study was conducted in the Matlab subdistrict of rural Bangladesh. A cohort of 346 women was followed up from late pregnancy to post-partum. Sociodemographic and other related information on risk factors was collected on structured questionnaires by trained interviewers at 34-35 weeks of pregnancy at the woman's home. A validated local language (Bangla) version of the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS-B) was used to measure depression status at 34-35 weeks of pregnancy and at 6-8 weeks after delivery. The prevalence of PND was 22% [95% confidence interval (CI) 17.7-26.7%] at 6-8 weeks post-partum. After adjustment in a multivariate logistic model, PND could be predicted by history of past mental illness [odds ratio (OR) 5.6, 95% CI 1.1-27.3], depression in current pregnancy (OR 6.0, 95% CI 3.0-12.0), perinatal death (OR 14.1, 95% CI 2.5-78.0), poor relationship with mother-in-law (OR 3.6, 95% CI 1.1-11.8) and either the husband or the wife leaving home after a domestic quarrel (OR 4.0, 95% CI 1.6-10.2). The high prevalence of PND in the study was similar to other countries in the South Asian region. The study findings highlight the need for programme managers and policy makers to allocate resources and develop strategies to address PND in Bangladesh.
Article
The differences in maternal identity and early mothering behavior were compared in previously infertile and never infertile women in this pilot study to evaluate the relationship between previous infertility and the early maternal experience. Women were tested by questionnaire, observation, and interview. No significant differences were noted between groups for quantitative early mothering behavioral measurements. Previously infertile mothers demonstrated lower postpartum maternal identity scores, delay in preparation of the home environment, and less self-confidence.
Article
The present study was conducted to assess the immediate psychological impact of failed in vitro fertilization (IVF). Emotional status and marital functioning were also examined pre-IVF, and both demographic information and psychological test scores were evaluated as predictors of reaction to treatment failure. After a failed first cycle, both males and females showed significant increases in anxiety and depressive symptoms. Although group means were not clinically elevated and most participants were coping adequately, the prevalence of both mild and moderate depression increased substantially, particularly among women. In addition, women without children were a subgroup particularly vulnerable to the stress of failure. Predisposition towards anxiety, pre-IVF depressive symptoms, and fertility history were the most important predictors of emotional response. Treatment implications of these findings were discussed.