Article

[Mouthwash solutions with microencapsuled natural extracts: Efficiency for dental plaque and gingivitis].

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  • International university of Agadir
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Abstract

Mouthwash solutions are mainly used for their antiseptic properties. They currently include synthetic agents (chlorhexidine, triclosan, etc.) or essential oils (especially Listerine). Many natural extracts may also be used. These associate both antiseptic effects and direct action on host response, due to their antioxidant, immunoregulatory, analgesic, buffering, or healing properties. The best known are avocado oil, manuka oil, propolis oil, grapefruit seed extract, pycnogenol, aloe vera, Q10 coenzyme, green tea, and megamin. The development of new technologies, such as microencapsulation (GingiNat concept), may allow an in situ slow release of active ingredients during several hours, and open new perspectives for mouthwash solutions.

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... Nowadays, Japan is the leading importer of propolis, with a manifest preference for propolis from Brazil [10]. Although brown propolis is the most common, used and studied propolis worldwide [13] [14] [15] [16], recent studies have also demonstrated the effect of green propolis in biological systems [17] [18] [19]. Postulated as a new type of propolis by Alencar et al. [20], red propolis has ...
... Nowadays, Japan is the leading importer of propolis, with a manifest preference for propolis from Brazil [10]. Although brown propolis is the most common, used and studied propolis worldwide [13][14][15][16], recent studies have also demonstrated the effect of green propolis in biological systems [17][18][19]. Postulated as a new type of propolis by Alencar et al. [20], red propolis has biologically active compounds never reported in other types of Brazilian propolis. The consistent literature data demonstrate that propolis may be beneficial for human health. ...
... Several clinical studies have demonstrated propolis efficacy in clinical trials, but the majority of studies involve topical application [20,[136][137][138]. The great diversity and the complexicity of chemical components makes difficult to standardize and to research the mechanisms of action. ...
... The antimicrobial activity, for example, may be effective when considering the synergism between the components. Moreover, there was always the concern of several authors to develop oral mouthwashes-based propolis to control oral microbiota [138][139][140]. Koo et al. [141] demonstrated the effect of a mouthrinse containing selected propolis on 3-day dental plaque accumulation and polysaccharide formation and observed the Dental Plaque Index(PI) for the experimental group was 0.78 (0.17), significantly less than for the placebo group, 1.41 (0.14). ...
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Propolis is a Greek word meaning “defender of the city.” Constituents of propolis possess health promoting properties. Propolis plays a very important role in the field of medicine and dentistry. This paper is an attempt to review various applications of this compound in improving the general health of an individual.
... They display antiseptic, antioxidant, analgesic, buffering, immunoregulatory, or healing properties. The development of microencapsulation technology may facilitate a slow and steady liberation of active ingredients from mouthwash solutions over several hours (Vervelle et al., 2010). A low pH value augmented the suppressive action of naringenin on growth and adherence of Salmonella to intestinal epithelial cells, although the mechanism awaits elucidation (Gyles and Gong, 2012). ...
Chapter
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... Besides its antibacterial, antifungal and antiviral properties, propolis presents many other beneficial biological activities such as antioxidant, antiinflammatory, antitumor, hepatoprotective, local anesthetic, immunostimulatory, antimutagenic (Ali et al., 2010;Santos, 2012;Ferreira et al., 2007;Silva-Filho et al., 2008). For these reasons, propolis has been used as a popular remedy in folk medicine, in apitherapy, as a constituent of biocosmetics, health foods and in numerous other purposes (Vervelle et al., 2010;Stepanovic et al., 2003;Siqueira et al., 2009). Brazilian samples present striking differences in their chemical composition when compared with samples from temperate zones. ...
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Propolis is an organotherapeutic product collected by honeybees and has relevant pharmacological properties, highlighting the high antimicrobial activity. This study aimed to evaluate in vitro the synergistic effect between three ethanol extract of different Brazilian propolis samples: green (Baccharis dracunculifolia) (A), red (Dalbergia ecastophyllum) (B) and brown (Copaifera sp) (C) propolis by antimicrobial sensitivity of Streptococcus mutans (ATCC 25175) and Streptococcus sanguinis (ATCC 10557), through the agar diffusion method. Aliquots of each microorganism containing 1.0x10 6 CFU / mL were inoculated on Mueller-Hinton agar supplemented with 5% dextrose and sterile blank discs containing 20 μL of each propolis sample (A, B, C) and combined (A + B, A + C, B + C, and A + B + C) were planted on the agar. Tetracycline 30 mg discs and blank discs containing 70% alcohol served as controls. After incubation at 37°C in bacteriological incubator in a 5% CO 2 atmosphere for 24 and 48 h the inhibition zones were measured. The results showed that all extracts inhibited the growth of both microorganisms, while the samples (B) and (A + B), were significantly more effective than the others. For samples B and C similar results were observed.
... Besides its antibacterial, antifungal and antiviral properties, propolis presents many other beneficial biological activities such as antioxidant, antiinflammatory, antitumor, hepatoprotective, local anesthetic, immunostimulatory, antimutagenic (Ali et al., 2010;Santos, 2012;Ferreira et al., 2007;Silva-Filho et al., 2008). For these reasons, propolis has been used as a popular remedy in folk medicine, in apitherapy, as a constituent of biocosmetics, health foods and in numerous other purposes (Vervelle et al., 2010;Stepanovic et al., 2003;Siqueira et al., 2009). Brazilian samples present striking differences in their chemical composition when compared with samples from temperate zones. ...
Article
Full-text available
Propolis is an organotherapeutic product collected by honeybees and has relevant pharmacological properties, highlighting the high antimicrobial activity. This study aimed to evaluate in vitro the synergistic effect between three ethanol extract of different Brazilian propolis samples: green (Baccharis dracunculifolia) (A), red (Dalbergia ecastophyllum) (B) and brown (Copaifera sp) (C) propolis by antimicrobial sensitivity of Streptococcus mutans (ATCC 25175) and Streptococcus sanguinis (ATCC 10557), through the agar diffusion method. Aliquots of each microorganism containing 1.0x106 CFU / mL were inoculated on Mueller- Hinton agar supplemented with 5% dextrose and sterile blank discs containing 20 μL of each propolis sample (A, B, C) and combined (A + B, A + C, B + C, and A + B + C) were planted on the agar. Tetracycline 30 mg discs and blank discs containing 70% alcohol served as controls. After incubation at 37°C in bacteriological incubator in a 5% CO2 atmosphere for 24 and 48 h the inhibition zones were measured. The results showed that all extracts inhibited the growth of both microorganisms, while the samples (B) and (A + B), were significantly more effective than the others. For samples B and C similar results were observed.
Article
Manuka oil, an essential oil derived from the Leptospermum scoparium, has been traditionally used for wound care and as a topical antibacterial, antifungal, and anti-inflammatory. However, the essential oil is not well retained at mucosal sites, such as the oral cavity, where the benefits of the aforementioned properties could be utilized toward the treatment of persistent biofilms. Within this study, L. scoparium essential oil was incorporated into a semisolid emulsion for improved delivery. The safety profile of L. scoparium essential oil on human gingival fibroblasts was determined via cell viability, cytotoxicity, and caspase activation. The minimal bactericidal concentration of L. scoparium essential oil was determined, and the emulsionʼs antibiofilm effects visualized using confocal laser scanning microscopy. L. scoparium essential oil demonstrated a lower IC50 (0.02% at 48 h) when compared to the clinical control chlorhexidine (0.002% at 48 h) and displayed lower cumulative cytotoxicity. Higher concentrations of L. scoparium essential oil (≥ 0.1%) at 6 h resulted in higher caspase 3/7 activation, suggesting an apoptotic pathway of cell death. A minimal bactericidal concentration of 0.1% w/w was observed for 6 oral bacteria and 0.01% w/v for Porphyromonas gingivalis. Textural and rheometric analysis indicated increased stability of emulsion with a 1 : 3 ratio of L. scoparium essential oil: Oryza sativa carrier oil. The optimized 5% w/w L. scoparium essential oil emulsion showed increased bactericidal penetrative effects on Streptococci gordonii biofilms compared to oil alone and to chlorhexidine controls. This study has demonstrated the safety, formulation, and antimicrobial activity of L. scoparium essential oil emulsion for potential antibacterial applications at mucosal sites.
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Objective To provide a systematic overview on the efficacy of green tea catechin as an adjunct to scaling and root planing (SRP) in terms of probing pocket depth (PPD). Materials and methods A systematic literature search was performed using electronic databases in PubMed, Scopus, Medline, Cochrane, CINAHL, and Web of Science on randomized clinical trials up to January 2017. The research question was posed in accordance with PRISMA guidelines. Results The search provided 234 studies. After analyzing the full texts, five studies were included, with four studies qualifying for meta-analysis. Mean PPD reduction was significantly higher (α = 0.05) when green tea catechin was used as an adjunct to SRP (test group) than with SRP alone (control group). The difference in the reduction was 0.74 mm [0.35–1.13; 95% CI]. Conclusion The local application of green tea catechin as an adjunct to SRP may result in a beneficial reduction in PPD. Due to the highly heterogeneous data and some risk of bias, however, this data still needs to be interpreted with caution. Clinical relevance The finding suggests that green tea catechin may be a topical adjunct to SRP without negative side effects.
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