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Psychological Contract Breaches, Organizational Commitment, and Innovation-Related Behaviors: A Latent Growth Modeling Approach

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Abstract

This study examined the relationships among psychological contract breaches, organizational commitment, and innovation-related behaviors (generating, spreading, implementing innovative ideas at work) over a 6-month period. Results indicate that the effects of psychological contract breaches on employees are not static. Specifically, perceptions of psychological contract breaches strengthened over time and were associated with decreased levels of affective commitment over time. Further, increased perceptions of psychological contract breaches were associated with decreases in innovation-related behaviors. We also found evidence that organizational commitment mediates the relationship between psychological contract breaches and innovation-related behaviors. These results highlight the importance of examining the nomological network of psychological contract breaches from a change perspective.

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... Psychological contract breach (PCB) refers to an unfulfilled promise between what is encountered and what is expected in a job (Morrison & Robinson, 1997) and is classified as a negative workplace event in an organization (Zhao et al., 2007). Employees who perceive an unfulfilled obligation are likely to reciprocate with negative emotions, resulting in harmful behaviors in exchanges with their organization (Coyle-Shapiro et al., 2019;Ng et al., 2010). This study analyses the likelihood that employees will display how and why they feel a promise is unfulfilled by employing pretending tactics to result in negative behavior and decreasing positive behavior. ...
... According to SET (Blau, 1964), employees respond to PCB by employers through diverse negative behaviors and the withdrawal of perceived contributions. For instance, employees who experience the breach of psychological contracts exhibit negative organizational citizenship behavior (Restubog et al., 2006), lower well-being (de Jong et al., 2015), inferior job performance (Orvis et al., 2008), and less commitment to the organization (Ng et al., 2010). Based on prior studies and the social exchange perspective, an unfulfilled promise or obligation in an organization may be a response to employee deviant behavior (Bordia et al., 2008;Klotz et al., 2018). ...
... Employees are likely to experience psychological attachment to organizations and respond to positive behaviors such as being respected and valued. However, when employees perceive that their organizations or employers have broken the psychological contract between them-by failing to honor their promises-they may reduce their affective commitment (Ng et al., 2010). Because PCB can produce negative responses from employees and generate a form of hostile reciprocation to their employers (Morrison & Robinson, 1997), employees who experience serious PCB may respond by faking values for survival in the organization. ...
Article
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Building on social exchange theory, this study considers an explanation—social exchange—as to why employees' experience of psychological contract breach (PCB) results in harmful employee behaviors via a false behavior. Using 672 employees (547 males, 125 females; average age 44.65 years) from two different industries, including manufacturing and public organizations located in Taiwan. The findings of this study found significant relationships between PCB and its outcomes (i.e., deviant behavior and voice behavior). This study further found that façade creation significantly mediates these relationships. A time‐lag design of three time periods was utilized to diminish common method variables in this study. Implications and directions for future study are discussed. Psychological contract breach (PCB) is positively related to deviant behavior and is negatively related to voice behavior. This study examines the façade creation as a critical mechanism between PCB and the corresponding behaviors, which provides insights into the influence of PCB on individual outcomes such as reduced voice behavior and increased deviant behavior. Psychological contract breach (PCB) is positively related to deviant behavior and is negatively related to voice behavior. This study examines the façade creation as a critical mechanism between PCB and the corresponding behaviors, which provides insights into the influence of PCB on individual outcomes such as reduced voice behavior and increased deviant behavior.
... Contemporary theories in organizational behavior have presumed a development over time, although such a time perspective has rarely been tested in empirical research (Pitariu & Ployhart, 2010;Ployhart & Vandenberg, 2010). Examples of an implicit temporal dimension in psychological contract research pertain to psychological contract breach that leads to enduring consequences (Ng, Feldman, & Lam, 2010;Solinger, Hofmans, Bal, & Jansen, 2016;Zhao, Wayne, Glibkowski, & Bravo, 2007). When organizational change, for example, provokes breach, it might persist over time and cause problems in productivity (Akhtar, Bal, & Long, 2016;Freese, Schalk, & Croon, 2011;Lo & Aryee, 2003;Tomprou, Nikolaou, & Vakola, 2012). ...
... Such research does not inform about fluctuations in psychological contracts or increase and decrease at a steady rate (Ployhart & Vandenberg, 2010) and does not permit to depict the lasting effect of organizational change on psychological contracts (e.g., Bellou, 2007;Turnley & Feldman, 1998). With a few exceptions (Bankins, 2015;De Vos & Freese, 2011;Freese et al., 2011;Ng et al., 2010;Tekleab, Orvis, & Taylor, 2013;Zhu, Tatachari, & Chattopadhyay, 2017), research on the development of psychological contracts is scarce and calls for an investigation of basic dynamics. Testing the longitudinal nature of psychological contracts is a prerequisite to support theoretical assumptions that imply a temporal dimension. ...
... First, it helps understanding psychological contract dynamics during organizational change and adds empirical evidence beyond the few existing studies . Theory building on psychological contracts will benefit from detailed knowledge on dynamics, so that the severity of consequences and their relevance for individuals and organizations can be assessed (e.g., Ng et al., 2010). More detailed knowledge on dynamics will aid to comprehend whether changes in psychological contracts persist and psychological contracts are impaired during organizational change. ...
... Each manager was asked to rate the LMX scale for their employees, thereby potentially leading to common method bias (Podsakoff et al., 2003). Follow-up data were collected 3 months after the first survey, as described in previous studies (Ng et al., 2010;Rosen et al., 2009). All managers provided the numbers of their employees to identify the supervisor-subordinate dyads at the end of each survey in this study. ...
... However, it should be noted that the theoretical approach of this study is not tied to a specific cultural context. Prior research has verified the validity of social exchange theory in the Chinese context (Ng et al., 2010). Therefore, future research investigating whether these prototypes differ in other countries would select diverse cultural samples to reduce generalizability issues. ...
Article
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This study examines the buffering role of a psychological contract breach in the process leading from façade creation (i.e., suppressing one’s own values and pretending to hold organization values) to workplace bullying through leader–member exchange (LMX). This study predicts that façade creation, particularly when the level of psychological contract breach is high, produces high LMX, which reduces bullying in the workplace. In total, 302 employee–employer dyads (265 males, 37 females; average age 46.07 years) from a large bank in Taiwan were surveyed. Surveys were conducted at two time points for employees and at one time point for their employers who volunteered. The findings of this study found significant relationships between facades of conformity and workplace bullying. This study further found that LMX mediates the relationship between façade creation and workplace bullying and demonstrate that a perceived breach of psychological contract moderates this mediating pathway. Strong psychological contract breach increases the relationship between façade creation and LMX. A time-lag design of two time periods and two different sources (i.e., employers and employees) were utilized to diminish common method variables (CMV) in this study. Implications and directions for future study are discussed.
... We tested hypotheses using a latent growth modeling (LGM) approach in Mplus Version 8.4 (Muthen & Muthen, 2017). Specifically, we applied a second-order factor (SOF) LGM procedure that allows modeling weekly change trajectories in positive, negative affect, and anticipation as well as concomitant change in these variables (Alessandri et al., 2020;Bentein et al., 2005;Ng et al., 2010). This allows testing Hypothesis 3 concerning the relation of change trajectories in anticipation with change trajectories in positive and negative affect, respectively. ...
... model fit was adequate when considering the RMSEA (configural: RMSEA = .08). Inconsistencies across global fit indices such as CFI/TLI and RMSEA are not rare (Lai & Green, 2016;Williams et al., 2020; see also Ng et al., 2010) and researchers have advised against discarding models when such disagreement occurs and individual indices fail to meet traditional cutoff values (Lai & Green, 2016;Williams et al., 2020). Importantly, fixing factor loadings to be equal across groups led to a change in CFI of only −.005, supporting metric invariance. ...
Article
Affective well-being of employees is a key outcome in the occupational health literature. Yet, researchers of emotions and affect have long called for a better understanding of the dynamic nature of such experiences. Directly addressing this call, we have built on temporal schema theories and the notion of temporal depth to develop and test the anticipation of work account as a theoretical explanation of systematic weekly change patterns in positive and negative affect. Using a 7-day experience-sampling design and latent growth curve modeling, we hypothesized and found that anticipation of work linearly decreased over the course of the workweek, so did negative affect. Supporting our hypothesis that change patterns in work anticipation drive change patterns in evening affect, the linear change trajectory of anticipation was significantly related to change trajectories in positive and negative affect. Furthermore, we identified the structure of the workweek and chronic workload as boundary conditions that interact in shaping weekly change patterns in anticipation. Specifically, patterns of decreasing anticipation were most pronounced for employees with a regular Monday-Friday workweek and high chronic levels of workload, while they were weakest for employees with a regular workweek but low levels of chronic workload. Taken together, our results highlight the role of work itself and working conditions in dynamic aspects of affect. They yield theoretical and practical implications for the study of affect and its work-related experiential and behavioral consequences. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2022 APA, all rights reserved).
... In addition, since the team-level Cronbach's alphas for team task conflict, TSFI, team information elaboration, and team innovation were quite high (> 0.90), there might be a potential issue of item redundancy (Boyle, 1991). Therefore, following Ng et al. (2010), we created shortened versions of the four scales (i.e., team task conflict, TSFI, team information elaboration, and team innovation) by removing redundant items, and reran hypotheses tests using those shortened scales. Consistent with Ng et al. (2010), we removed one item from each scale; that is, the one with the highest correlations to the rest of items in its original scale was removed. ...
... Therefore, following Ng et al. (2010), we created shortened versions of the four scales (i.e., team task conflict, TSFI, team information elaboration, and team innovation) by removing redundant items, and reran hypotheses tests using those shortened scales. Consistent with Ng et al. (2010), we removed one item from each scale; that is, the one with the highest correlations to the rest of items in its original scale was removed. Analyses showed that the result pattern remained the same and our hypotheses were again supported, suggesting that item redundancy may not be a severe issue in affecting our findings. ...
Article
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Whether team task conflict is beneficial or harmful to team innovation has long been controversial, and empirical studies on the team task conflict–team innovation relationship were inconsistent. Drawing on the contingency model of team innovation, the current study examined how team task conflict interacts with two types of team supportive climates, namely team support for innovation (TSFI) and team psychological safety (TPS), in predicting team innovation via team information elaboration. We tested our hypotheses using multi-source and lagged data collected from 361 employees working in 98 research and development teams. As expected, team information elaboration mediated the interaction effects between team task conflict and team supportive climates on team innovation. In particular, team task conflict had a positive indirect effect on team innovation via team information elaboration when TSFI or TPS was high. However, such indirect effect was negative when TSFI was low and was not significant when TPS was low. Residualized relative weight analysis comparing the moderation effects further suggests that TFSI and TPS are equally important team climates in activating the beneficial effect of team task conflict. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed.
... Commitment at the employee level is associated with organisational and personal outcomes; for instance, innovativeness and proactiveness affect SMEs' performance when combined with commitment (Covin et al., 2020). Preceding studies mainly focused on the effects of organisational commitment on job performance (Almutairi, 2016), innovation-related behaviours (Garg and Dhar, 2014;Thomas et al., 2010), and turnover intentions (Juhdi et al., 2013). This study focuses on assessing organisational commitment's effects on innovation performance through RAT. ...
... Organisational commitment characteristics, such as affective, normative, and continuance organisational commitment, were positively linked with SMEs' innovation performance in Pakistan, consistent with other studies (Covin et al., 2020;Yeşil et al., 2012). This study adds to the literature of organisational commitment's effects on innovation performance as compared to other studies, which mainly focuses on job performance (Almutairi, 2016), innovation-related behaviours (Garg and Dhar, 2014;Thomas et al., 2010), and turnover intentions (Juhdi et al., 2013). OC acts as an interlinked behaviour with several constructs found in the past literature. ...
... The key to promoting company creative performance is increasing its creative performance [13; 14]. This research provides employees performance which has found many factors influencing employees creative performance such as psychological modal [15], knowledge sharing [16; 17], creative climate [18], leadership style [19; 20; 21], employees involvement [22], gift [23], and psychological contract [24]. These factors can be classified into two major categories: behavior and psychology [24]. ...
... This research provides employees performance which has found many factors influencing employees creative performance such as psychological modal [15], knowledge sharing [16; 17], creative climate [18], leadership style [19; 20; 21], employees involvement [22], gift [23], and psychological contract [24]. These factors can be classified into two major categories: behavior and psychology [24]. However, a bigger number of researchers have found that the factors are influenced by work values, and the researches have set work values as antecedent factor influencing employees behavior and psychology [25; 26]. ...
Article
Full-text available
This research aimed to indicate the effect of work values of construction employees towards creative performance and to assess the role of mediation about sharing the knowledge among those variables. This research involved 315 respondents from various construction companies in Jakarta for assessing hypothesis research. Knowledge sharing had the role as mediator among comfort and status dimensions from work values towards creative performance. This research provided information about effect of work values towards creative performance from construction industry and confirmed the role of knowledge sharing in mediating work values dimension.
... Based on longitudinal ethnographic research in two newsrooms to study the broader culture that stimulates or hinders innovative behaviour (Porcu 2017;Porcu, Hermans, and Broersma 2020), "trust" and "fear" emerged as key conditions for the sharing of creative ideas. This is in line with research in fields such as creativity studies (Carmeli and Spreitzer 2009), organisational studies (Correia Rodrigues and de Oliveira Marques Veloso 2013), knowledge management studies (Evans, Frissen, and Choo 2019), managerial psychology (Neves and Eisenberger 2014), and applied psychology (Ng, Feldman, and Lam 2010). This research shows that perceptions of trust and fear are strong emotional drivers for people either to share their creative ideas or not. ...
... In short, organisational creativity and innovation research shows that if fear levels in organisations are actively reduced, trust can "offset" the perception of risk taking (Castillo-Vergara and García-Pérez-de-Lema 2020; Dewett 2006) and "outweigh" the fear of punishment (Neves and Eisenberger 2014;Ng, Feldman, and Lam 2010). Transposing this to the context of the newsroom, we define "fear" as a feeling of anxiety or unsafety of an individual in relation to his or her colleagues ("horizontal fear") and superiors ("vertical fear"). ...
Article
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This article analyses the social processes that stimulate the exchange of new ideas in newsrooms. New ideas are vital for legacy media news organisations to innovate and fundamentally reinvent themselves, which is crucial for their survival. Ample research in other disciplines has shown that perceptions of “trust” and “fear” are strong drivers for sharing (or not sharing) creative ideas at work. However, what fosters the sharing and developing of new ideas has been strikingly under-researched in journalism studies. To fill this research gap we ask: how do perceptions of trust and fear in the newsroom stimulate (or not) the sharing and developing of new ideas? Data have been gathered in the newsrooms of two Dutch newspapers, using qualitative interviews and non-participant observation. To enable new idea sharing to benefit all, people need to experience both trust in their peers and in their management. Results show that only newsroom elites perceive both types of trust and, hence, feel free to share their new ideas with management. This means that within newsrooms in transformation the innovative potential of the majority of people is not utilised as they fear to share their creative or new ideas upwards in the hierarchy.
... Organizational commitment characterizes an identification with and involvement in the organization and is reflected in the employee's acceptance of organizational goals, willingness to work hard for the organization, and the desire to stay with the organization (Mowday et al. 2013). Organizational commitment is defined as … "the relative strength of an individual's identification with and involvement in a particular organization" (Mowday et al. 2013) and commitment is "a force that binds an individual to a course of action of relevance to one or more targets" (Meyer and Herscovitch 2001). ...
... Organizational commitment characterizes an identification with and involvement in the organization and is reflected in the employee's acceptance of organizational goals, willingness to work hard for the organization, and the desire to stay with the organization (Mowday et al. 2013). Organizational commitment is defined as … "the relative strength of an individual's identification with and involvement in a particular organization" (Mowday et al. 2013) and commitment is "a force that binds an individual to a course of action of relevance to one or more targets" (Meyer and Herscovitch 2001). Organizational commitment develops slowly and consistently over time as a result of the employer/employee relationship. ...
Article
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Introduction Work-related threats and violence are major occupational hazards, with potentially serious consequences for both victims and the organization that employs them. Only a few studies have prospectively examined the mitigating effect of social support from supervisors on organizational commitment following exposure to work-related violence and threats. Objective This study aimed at examining the effect of immediate supervisor’s support on affective commitment within 1, 3, 6 and 12 months after exposure to violence and threats. Methods After exposure to work-related violence and threats, the employees received a questionnaire within the first month and after 3, 6 and 12 months. Right after the incident, 398 employees filled out the questionnaire, and 138 employees answered the questionnaire at all four time points. Prospective associations and mean differences between groups were calculated using linear mixed models. Results Employees receiving very high levels of social support from supervisors immediately after being exposed to work-related violence or threats had a significantly higher level of organizational commitment across all four time points when compared to the group experiencing middle/low levels of support. Furthermore, at 1- and 3-month follow-up employees receiving very high levels of social support from supervisors following work-related violence and threats reported significantly higher levels of commitment than did the group with high levels of social support from supervisors. Conclusion Organizations should enhance the availability of social support from supervisors for employees experiencing work-related violence and threats. Training of supervisors to be very much concerned about employees exposed to work-related violence may be of critical importance to both the health and work outcomes of employees.
... Commitment at the employee level is associated with organisational and personal outcomes; for instance, innovativeness and proactiveness affect SMEs' performance when combined with commitment (Covin et al., 2020). Preceding studies mainly focused on the effects of organisational commitment on job performance (Almutairi, 2016), innovation-related behaviours (Garg and Dhar, 2014;Thomas et al., 2010), and turnover intentions (Juhdi et al., 2013). This study focuses on assessing organisational commitment's effects on innovation performance through RAT. ...
... Organisational commitment characteristics, such as affective, normative, and continuance organisational commitment, were positively linked with SMEs' innovation performance in Pakistan, consistent with other studies (Covin et al., 2020;Yeşil et al., 2012). This study adds to the literature of organisational commitment's effects on innovation performance as compared to other studies, which mainly focuses on job performance (Almutairi, 2016), innovation-related behaviours (Garg and Dhar, 2014;Thomas et al., 2010), and turnover intentions (Juhdi et al., 2013). OC acts as an interlinked behaviour with several constructs found in the past literature. ...
... There are a lot of concepts that can be subsumed under innovative work behavior such as individual innovation (Scott and Bruce, 1994), innovative job performance (Hammond et al., 2011), on-the-job innovation (Dorenbosch et al., 2005), innovative behavior(s) at work or in the workplace (Yuan and Woodman, 2010), employee innovativeness (Huhtala and Parzefall, 2007), innovation-related behaviors (Ng et al., 2010), suggestion and implementation of new ideas (Krause, 2004) and employee creativity (Ng et al., 2010). However, as innovation processes are characterized by discontinuous activities rather than discrete, sequential stages, "individuals can be expected to be involved in any combination of these behaviors at any time" (Scott and Bruce, 1994, p. 582). ...
... There are a lot of concepts that can be subsumed under innovative work behavior such as individual innovation (Scott and Bruce, 1994), innovative job performance (Hammond et al., 2011), on-the-job innovation (Dorenbosch et al., 2005), innovative behavior(s) at work or in the workplace (Yuan and Woodman, 2010), employee innovativeness (Huhtala and Parzefall, 2007), innovation-related behaviors (Ng et al., 2010), suggestion and implementation of new ideas (Krause, 2004) and employee creativity (Ng et al., 2010). However, as innovation processes are characterized by discontinuous activities rather than discrete, sequential stages, "individuals can be expected to be involved in any combination of these behaviors at any time" (Scott and Bruce, 1994, p. 582). ...
Article
Purpose The effect of task conflict on innovative work behavior has yielded inconsistent results pointing to the need to examine the conditions under which task conflict is helpful for employees’ innovative work behavior. This study aims to develop a comprehensive model linking task conflict and innovative work behavior through constructive conflict, positive conflict value, cognitive flexibility and psychological safety. Design/methodology/approach Data were collected from 316 supervisor–subordinate dyads working in software development and high-technology companies located in Saudi Arabia. The research model was tested using partial least squares approach. Findings Results show that constructive conflict mediates the relationship between task conflict and innovative work behavior. Moreover, positive conflict value and cognitive flexibility mediate the effect of constructive conflict on innovative work behavior. Finally, psychological safety positively moderates the effect of positive conflict value and cognitive flexibility on innovative work behavior. Originality/value This study suggests that constructive conflict, cognitive flexibility, positive conflict value and psychological safety are important mechanisms that explain the link between task conflict and innovative work behavior.
... To test the model, we adopted the LGM approach using Mplus 7.0 software (Muthén & Muthen, 1998-2010. The LGM explores the change trajectory of a focal variable and can also assess how this change is related to other variables (e.g., Bollen & Curran, 2006;Ng, Feldman, & Lam, 2010). ...
... To test the model, we adopted the LGM approach using Mplus 7.0 software (Muthén & Muthen, 1998-2010. The LGM explores the change trajectory of a focal variable and can also assess how this change is related to other variables (e.g., Bollen & Curran, 2006;Ng, Feldman, & Lam, 2010). To evaluate the trajectory of employee robot-phobia (i.e., Hypothesis 1), we first conducted an unconditional LGM excluding any covariate. ...
... Given these premises, the next focus of this study lies in the examination of the individual innovation context by employing an interactional perspective to analyze how individual-contextual interaction affects individual innovative behavior. Although several researchers have examined the effects of individual and contextual factors on individual innovative behavior (e.g., Scott and Bruce 1994;Ramamoorthy et al. 2005;Ng, Feldman and Lam, 2010;Bysted, 2013;Madrid et al. 2014;Ma Prieto and Pilar Perez-Santana 2014), most of them have ignored or minimized the effects of how employees perceive their work environments or context and leadership skills (Pieterse et al. 2010;Hammond et al., 2011, Kör, 2016. Employees that perceive a high tendency to openness towards innovation within their work environment, are more likely to lead themselves effectively to cope with the complexity and uncertainty of innovation processes without fear of punishment in trying something new as well as generating or implementing ideas; which in turn promotes employees' innovative behaviors (Kör, 2016). ...
... Similarly, individual innovative behavior in the workplace is also defined by De Spiegelaere et al. (2012, p.7) as "all employee behavior directed at the generation, introduction and/or application (within a role, group or organization) of ideas, processes, products or procedures, new to the relevant unit of adoption that supposedly significantly benefit the relevant unit of adoption". Based on Abstein et al.'s (2014) conceptualization, the notion of the innovative work behavior concept has been classified under wide range of concepts: individual innovation or innovative behavior (Scott and Bruce, 1994;Pratoom and Savatsomboon, 2012;Wu et al., 2014), individual innovation at work (Bunce and West, 1995;Martin et al., 2007), innovative job performance (Janssen, 2000;Parzefall, M. R., Seeck and Leppänen 2008;Hammond et al., 2011), on-the-job innovation (Dorenbosch et al., 2005), innovative behavior(s) at work or in the workplace (Carmeli et al., 2006;Carmeli and Spreitzer, 2009;Yuan and Woodman, 2010;Vinarski-Peretz et al., 2011;Odoardi, 2015), employee innovativeness (Huhtala and Parzefall, 2007;Parzefall et al., 2008), innovationrelated behaviors (Ng et al., 2010), and suggestion and implementation of ideas (Axtell et al., 2000;Clegg et al., 2002;Krause, 2004). Furthermore, a number of researchers stressed one more related contrast in the literature that is individual creativity or creative behavior at work (Amabile, 1988;Oldham and Cumming, 1996;Amabile et al., 2005). ...
Conference Paper
Innovative capability and creativity, particularly in high value-added industries, are viewed as core to the competitiveness of a firm. Firms can increase their innovative capability by taking advantage of individual innovative behavior. Individual innovation is also important for firms to sustain innovation processes by including a broad set of behaviors regarding innovation, such as opportunity exploration, recognition of problem, transformation of ideas into tangible outcomes and strategically planning these outcomes integrated into organizational practice. Herein, it is crucial to find out which individual and/or contextual factors promote individual innovation in the workplace. In response to promoting individual innovation, firm’s orientation toward innovation and individual’s self-leadership may motivate individuals to engage in innovative behavior in the workplace. Therefore, this research seeks to gain a better understanding of how firms’ tendency to be innovative and individuals’ self-leadership influence individual innovation behavior among managers. Prior research regarding the relationship between self-leadership and innovative behavior, have failed to determine which self-leadership strategies stimulate innovative behavior. Thereby, in this research, we fill this literature gap as we focus on the self-leadership strategies-innovative behavior relation. Additionally, promoting individual innovation depends on identifying not only individual and contextual factors, but also their interactions. Hence, in order to achieve a more holistic understanding of individual innovative behavior, we concentrate on the relation of innovativeness to managers’ innovative behavior by examining not only how innovativeness influences managers’ innovative behavior through self-leadership, but also whether the perception of risk-taking within organization and gender of the manager facilitates or impedes the process. To study these relationships, data were collected from a sample of 340 managers in banking sector. The results of the research show innovativeness, self-leadership and strategies of self-leadership are positively related to innovative behavior. Furthermore, the results indicate that self-leadership skills fully mediated the relationship between innovativeness and innovative behavior, as well as risk-taking and gender of managers moderate the mediating effect of self-leadership on the relationship between innovativeness and manager’s innovative behavior. Overall, our findings will contribute to an improved insight into the role of firms’ innovativeness, risk-taking, as well as manager’s gender and self-leadership skills in facilitating innovative behavior at work.
... Past researches have observed that employees perceive the organization positively when they receive more incentives than expected (Conway & Briner, 2002;Turnley, Bolino, Lester, Bloodgood, 2003). Consequently, if an employee recognises that his employer has fulfilled his expectations and promises, he will feel more obliged to stay, will coordinate his values with the organizational values and will be more involved in the organizations development (Ng, Feldman, & Lam, 2010). When employees feel their psychological contract is unfulfilled, they may reduce their emotional attachment with the organization. ...
... Being reluctant to innovate is a type of negative reciprocation and employees demonstrate fewer proactive behaviors as they experience psychological contract breach. Bal, Chiaburu, & Diaz, (2011) studied proactive behaviors and psychological contract breach and found significant relationships among them (Ng, Feldman, & Lam, 2010). ...
Article
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This paper attempts to integrate individual and motivational mechanisms with proactive work behaviors. Although research has found that psychological contract breach is negatively associated with affective commitment but no connection has yet been made to combine proactivity with breach, hence, this research paper has made such an effort. A sample of 697 respondents has been taken from Karachi, Pakistan. Results showed that affective commitment fully mediates the relationship between breach and proactive work behaviors.
... Interestingly, they found that initial level of AC predicted the level of increase in role overload post-entry, and that the greater the rate of increase in role overload the greater the decline in AC over time. Finally, Ng, Feldman and Lam (2010) found that rate of increase in perceived psychological contract breach was positively related to the rate of decline in AC. Again, examining rate of change as a predictor or outcome would not have been possible using more traditional analytic strategies. ...
... Anchored in the JD-R and SIP theory, the results of our study reveal that psychological contract breach negatively influences innovative behavior and multidimensional well-being through job stress. The results of our study reveals psychological contract breach negatively influence innovative behavior, which is consistent with the past studies (Agarwal, 2017;Ng et al., 2010;Niesen et al., 2018). Overall, we can conclude that psychological contract breach generates stress and anxiety amongst employees, which restrict them to generate and promote innovative behavior. ...
Article
Purpose The study investigates the impact of psychological contract breach on employees' innovative behavior and well-being (happiness, work engagement and mental well-being) who are working from home during this COVID-19 pandemic situation. Drawing on social information processing (SIP) and job-demand resource (JD-R) theory, job stress was proposed as a mediator explaining this relationship. Design/methodology/approach Data were collected via a structured questionnaire through Google Docs from 258 respondents working at different capacity in Indian organizations. The study includes those respondents who are working from home during COVID-19 pandemic situation. The hypotheses were tested using structural equation modeling (SEM). Findings Psychological contract breach was negatively impacting innovative behavior and well-being. Job stress mediated the relationship between psychological contract breach and innovative behavior as well as well-being during the COVID-19 pandemic situation and especially for those who are working from home only. Research limitations/implications The data for the study were collected from the employees working from home during this COVID-19 pandemic situation was cross-sectional. The study implied or spoke about the unmet expectations leading to reduced innovative behavior harming the organization's effectiveness and it also reduces well-being which harms the individual in the era of social and financial uncertainty. Originality/value The novel contribution of the study is integrating SIP and JD-R theory during the pandemic situation. The results highlighted meticulous empirical evidence which answers the question that how the unmet expectations cause a detrimental effect on the employees as well as the organizations in this COVID-19 pandemic situation.
... In addition, the one whose individual personality fits with organizational character would be spiritually motivated to willingly share the risk of innovation-driven growth with a firm (Wu et al., 2016). According to the study of Ng et al. (2010), psychological contract and organizational commitment, representing psychological characteristics of organizations, play important roles in the induction process of technological innovation behaviors of employees. Organizational character influences the logic and process of strategy design and institution generation (Moore, 2005). ...
Article
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Purpose: On the background of innovation-driven growth strategy of the Chinese government, this study aims to explore the impact of the knowledge base on innovation-driven growth of a firm, which is moderated by organizational character. Design/methodology/approach: Based on the data of 965 Chinese listed companies, some hypotheses were tested using the method of hierarchical regression analysis. Findings: Organizational growth relies on both technological and business model innovations and their interactive effect. Knowledge base, both breadth and depth, makes a positive impact on the innovation-driven growth of an enterprise. In the impacting mechanism, an explicit organizational character not only has direct positive effects on business model innovation, it also strengthens the effect of knowledge breadth on business model innovation. On the contrary, an implicit organizational character is not significantly related to innovation. Research limitations/implications: In order to achieve growth, enterprises are suggested to adopt such dual innovation strategy, led by technological innovation and supplemented with business model innovation, which is supported by the integrated management of intangible resources, deep and broad knowledge, and explicit organizational character. Originality/value: A new theoretical framework of organizational innovation-driven growth was proposed. The realization paths of innovation-driven growth were explored. The idea of collaborative governance between the knowledge base and organizational character was raised.
... This analysis strategy allows intraindividual and interindividual variability in the intraindividual change within a model of antecedents and consequents (Preacher et al., 2008). In additional analyses, to examine the growth trajectory of individuals' the mindfulness during the intervention program, we utilized a multilevel growth model analysis (e.g., Ng et al., 2010;Leroy et al., 2013). Prior to testing hypotheses, the relative variance in study variables was examined for its intraclass correlation values (Bliese and Ployhart, 2002). ...
Article
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We investigated the week-to-week effects of a mindfulness intervention on emotional exhaustion, work engagement and job satisfaction in a field study involving 218 participants who participated and reported their weekly outcomes during the 8-week program. To examine how mindfulness impacted work outcomes, we used intra-individual modelling of the eight-week data. Mindfulness increased over time, and time also had indirect effects on emotional exhaustion, work engagement and job satisfaction, through mindfulness. Supplementary growth curve analyses on the improvement of mindfulness over time showed a slight decrease in the positive effect of time on mindfulness.
... Penelitian saat ini tentang kinerja kreatif karyawan telah menemukan bahwa banyak faktor mempengaruhi kinerja kreatif seseorang, seperti modal psikologis (Pieterse et al., 2010), berbagi pengetahuan (Carmeli et al., 2013;Sharifirad, 2016), iklim kreatif (Isaksen & Ekvall, 2010), gaya kepemimpinan (Gilmore et al., 2013;Griffith et al., 2018;Shin & Zhou, 2003), keterlibatan pekerjaan (Zhang & Bartol, 2010), hadiah (Malik et al., 2015), dan kontrak psikologis (Ng et al., 2010). Faktor-faktor ini dapat dibagi menjadi dua kategori utama: perilaku dan psikologis. ...
Article
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Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui pengaruh nilai-nilai kerja karyawan konstruksi terhadap kinerja kreatif dan menguji peran mediasi berbagi pengetahuan di antara variabel tersebut. Penelitian ini melibatkan 315 responden dari berbagai perusahaan konstruksi di Jakarta untuk menguji hipotesis penelitian. Berbagi pengetahuan berperan sebagai mediator antara dimensi kenyamanan dan dimensi status dari nilai-nilai kerja terhadap kinerja kreatif. Penelitian ini memberikan informasi pengaruh nilai-nilai kerja terhadap kinerja kreatif dari industri konstruksi dan mengkonfirmasi peran berbagi pengetahuan dalam memediasi dimensi nilai-nilai kerja.
... Moktadir et al. (2019) explored several antecedents such as green organizational culture, top management commitment for the implementation of GHRM practices (Kumar et al., 2020) also stated that organizational culture is the most influencing behavioural factor, followed by 'commitment from higher authority'. According to Ng et al. (2010), higher organizational commitment at all levels from senior management to people of the show floor leads to higher innovative work behaviour but there is a lack of empirical research related to it (Jafri, 2010) especially in the Asian context (Nguyen et al., 2019). Hence, exploring the role of employee commitment in innovation is crucial and therefore this work addresses the following research question:1) what are the major precursors of innovation in the textile industry? ...
Article
Increasing sustainability traction in business and the environmental consciousness of customers have forced multinationals to adopt eco-friendly processes. Despite using the different recycling approaches the textile industry is still fighting with problems like higher water pollution, emissions, and increased carbon footprint. Hence, the need for innovating green products or using sustainable material is growing and researchers still have discordance on the predictor and outcome of innovation in the industry. Considering this, the present study is tried to understand the impact of the environmental consciousness of consumers on the green performance of the textile industry. A conceptual model has been proposed which includes adaptability of green culture, innovation, green performance, and employee commitment. The study uses the data of 198 employees from textile manufacturing organizations through a structured questionnaire. With the help of the structural equation modelling (SEM) technique, it was found that the most relevant factor of innovation is the adaptability of green culture and green performance was found as the major outcome and significant mediating role of employee commitment between innovation and green performance. The findings of the study would help the textile industry managers to create a green culture by creating its link with green innovation and green performance through developing environmental consciousness among the employees which further support the textile industry in pollution reduction.
... As most of the measurements were referenced from existing models, confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was performed to extract the dimensions and validate them against the corresponding models (Coyle-Shapiro & Conway, 2005;Deckop et al., 1999;Ng et al., 2010). CFA was performed for the psychometric scales (locus of control and general trust). ...
Chapter
This technical chapter provides empirical evidence for the first laboratory scenario-based experiment (Study 1) that addresses how individual differences in personality interact with excessive extrinsic rewards, leading to employee cooperation. As such, this chapter sets out to (i) dispel the conflict on the efficacy of excessive extrinsic rewards, (ii) decompose individual differences among employees in their interaction with excessive extrinsic rewards, and (iii) examine the theoretical basis of cooperation. Furthermore, we examine the moderating effects of locus of control and general trust that underscore employee expectations in the relationship between excessive extrinsic reward and cooperation.
... As most of the measurements were referenced from existing models, confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was performed to extract the dimensions and validate them against the corresponding models (Coyle-Shapiro Deckop et al., 1999;Ng et al., 2010). CFA was performed for the psychometric scales (locus of control and general trust). ...
Book
This book is an essential guide for academics and practitioners to understand employees’ differences in personality and how best to motivate them accordingly. The authors provide an in-depth perspective of how organizations can better prepare for the new realities of the workplace. Amidst the war for talent and a continually evolving workplace that has reduced employee psychological attachment, employees prefer to be treated as individuals with the expectation of individual recognition and reward. The authors draw from their personal, corporate, and research experience by combining interdisciplinary perspectives (organizational behavior, human resource management, psychology, sociology, economics) to offer holistic insights into individual expectancy and motivation integral to a successful employer-employee interaction. Interestingly, research remains lacking on the effects of excessive extrinsic rewards on trust and cooperation. Hence, this book fulfills significant gaps in vital areas that existing studies have not yet sufficiently addressed. These areas are psychological contract, excessive extrinsic rewards, and individual differences in personality (locus of control and general trust). The authors use scenario-based laboratory experiments to examine the moderating effects of locus of control and general trust that underscore employee expectations. The differential effects contribute to insight on behavioral outcomes in the workplace that result from employee perception, personality, and intention towards the provision of rewards. Consequently, the book dispels the discrepancies between economists and psychologists about the efficacy of rewards. Findings demonstrate that although excessive extrinsic rewards augment all employees’ trust and cooperation, it is vital for employers to reward selectively those who are most deserving. Findings offer a deeper understanding of the saliency, efficacy, and judiciousness of excessive extrinsic rewards. Employers will benefit by understanding how best to tailor rewards to motivate each employee.
... SL represents a combination of behaviors, attitudes, and cognitions which are a competence for leading oneself across challenging and performing situations (Prussia et al. 1998;Houghton and Neck 2002). Self-leaders are more likely to view themselves as capable to perform at a higher level (Neck and Manz 2012), as well as exert over themselves to achieve the self-motivation and self-direction needed to behave in desirable ways (Manz 1992). According to Norris (2008), in environments where employees perceive the encouragement of leading themselves, SL skills may be useful for maximizing personal and professional strengths and performance. ...
Article
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Innovative work behavior has been one of the essential attribute of high performing firms, and the roles of entrepreneurial orientation and self-leadership have been important for promoting innovative work behavior. This study advances research on innovative work behavior by examining the mediating role of self-leadership in the relationship between perceived entrepreneurial orientation and innovative work behavior. Structural equation modelling is employed to analyze data from a survey of 404 employees in banking sector. The results of reliability measures and confirmatory factor analysis strongly support the scale of the study. The results from an empirical survey study in the deposit banks reveal that participants’ perceptions about high levels of entrepreneurial orientation have a positive impact on innovative work behavior. The results also provide support for the full mediating role of self-leadership in the relationship between participants’ perceptions of entrepreneurial orientation and innovative work behavior. Additionally, this study provides some implications for practitioners in the banking sector to facilitate innovative work behavior through entrepreneurial orientation and self- leadership.
... This is a clear illustration of the social exchange theory and norm of reciprocity in action. This reciprocation can be seen in a reduction of both inrole and extra-role performance levels (Costa & Neves, 2017a;Restubog et al., 2006;Robinson & Morrison, 1995), commitment (Ng et al., 2010;Rosen et al., 2009), or in an intensification of counterproductive behaviors (Bordia, Restubog, & Tang, 2008;Costa & Neves, 2017b;Rosen & Levy, 2013;Turnley & Feldman, 1999;Zagenczyk et al., 2015). ...
Chapter
The psychological contract – individual’s beliefs about the terms and conditions of a reciprocal agreement with the organization – has been changing since the ‘90s. This change is a result of labor market pressures, trends, and technology. Today, work and workplaces are more dynamic and digitalized than ever and expectations from employers and employees are shaped by these factors. However, the expectation about the fulfillment of employer obligations and promises (regardless of what these obligations may be) seems to be the same. This chapter highlights the changes from the old to the new psychological contract, and from the new psychological contract to emergent forms of psychological contracts. Moreover, it also discusses whether these changes may (or may not) impact employees’ perceptions of breach and violation, by discussing content and measurement issues and suggesting future research directions.
... For example, under-delivering perceived commitments may result in a breach of the employee's psychological contract-that is, employee perceptions of how well the organization fulfills their side of their contract and honors its terms (Coyle-Shapiro, 2002;Rousseau, 1995). Consistent findings show that when employees perceive a breach, they tend to form negative attitudes, such as feelings of violation, an emotional response toward the employer, such as anger and betrayal (Robinson & Morrison, 2000), and turnover intentions, among others (Bal, De Lange, Jansen, & Van Der Velde, 2008;Bordia, Restubog, & Tang, 2008;Ng, Feldman, & Lam, 2010;Zhao et al., 2007). We note that perceived breach may not always lead to feelings of violation, depending on how the perceived breach is interpreted. ...
Article
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Algorithms increasingly automate or support managerial functions in organizations, with implications for the employee-employer relationship. We explored how algorithmic management affects this relationship with a focus on psychological contracts, or employees' perceptions of their own and their employers' obligations. Through five online experiments, we investigated how organizational agent type—algorithmic versus human—influenced one's psychological contract depending on the organizational inducement type—transactional versus relational. We explored psychological contracts in two stages of employment: during early phases, such as recruiting (Studies 1 and 2) and onboarding (Studies 4 and 5), when the agent explains the inducements to the employee; and during employment, when the agent under-delivers the inducements to varying degrees (Studies 3–5). Our results suggest that agent type did not affect psychological contracts around transactional inducements but did so for relational inducements in the cases of recruiting and low inducement delivery (Studies 1–5). Algorithmic agents signaled reduced employer commitments to relational inducements during recruiting (Study 1). Using human agents resulted in greater perceived breach when delivery of relational inducements was low (Study 5). Regardless of inducement type, turnover intentions were higher when the human agent under-delivered compared to the algorithmic agent (Study 5). Our studies show how algorithmic management may influence one's psychological contract.
... Innovative work behavior with the manager's support and organizations can be one of the competitive advantages for organizations (Shalley, Zhou, & Oldham, 2004). Innovative work behavior has a close relationship with employee motivation (Amabile, Conti, Coon, Lazenby, & Herron, 1996); (Ng, Feldman, & Lam, 2010). Innovation is the creative thinking embodiment. ...
Article
This study was to analyze the training and development effect on employee innovative work behavior and employee performance in PT. Telkom Banda Aceh. The population was 202 people, they were the employees at PT. Telkom Banda Aceh. A sampling of each unit was done at simple random by lottery. Determination of the sample used the Stratified Random Sampling technique based on the grid. The number of samples was determined by the Slovin formula so that 134 people were obtained. Data were analyzed through structural equation modeling (SEM). Result reveals that in the PT. Telkom Banda Aceh, training, development, innovative work behavior, and employee performance of PT. Telkom Banda Aceh has been going well, training affects the performance of employees, development affects the performance of employees, training affects the innovative work behavior of employees, development affects the innovative work behavior of employees, innovative work behavior affects the performance of employees, training affects employee performance through innovative work behavior of employees, Development affects employee performance through innovation in employee work behavior. In the model, we can see that the innovative work behavior acts as a partial mediator. So the function of improving employee performance at PT. Telkom Banda Aceh is a function of increasing the frequency and quality of training and development, as well as increasing the innovative work behavior of its employees. These findings can be the basis of academic theory and can be developed for further research by adding other variables to the model.
... ‫ذة‬ ‫الحنظيوي‬ ‫ذة‬ ‫السه‬ (Paşamehmetoğlu et al., 2022) ‫ذة‬ ‫الحنظيوي‬ ‫ذة‬ ‫املواطن‬ ‫ذلوييات‬ ‫ط‬ ‫ذاطكا‬ ‫الػ‬ ‫ام‬ ‫ذل‬ ‫الالت‬ ‫إلايكا‬ ‫ذو‬ ‫ال‬ ‫ذا‬ ‫الس‬ (Ferris et al., 2008) ‫ذى‬ ‫ئل‬ ‫ذسد‬ ‫الك‬ ‫ذدقؼ‬ ‫ي‬ ‫ذا‬ ‫يو‬ ‫املنحسف‬ ‫الظلوى‬ ‫يم‬ ‫اط‬ ‫الانمس‬ (Peng & Zeng, 2017 (Bal et al., 2008;Ng et al., 2010;Suazo, 2009;Zhao et al., 2007) . ...
... Existing research has begun to pay attention to the role of social capital in organizational innovation. Some scholars have pointed out that internal social capital (ISC), such as internal cooperation, employees' common experiences, employees' interactive identity, etc., has a positive impact on organizational innovation (Campbell, 2020;Zhou et al., 2021), and ISC affects EIB through relational psychological contracts, knowledge sharing, and dual learning (Ng et al., 2010;Dong et al., 2017;Cohen and Ehrlich, 2019;Kiazad et al., 2019;Ye et al., 2021;Zhang et al., 2022). Although the influence of ISC on innovation behavior has been examined, the discussion on the relationship mechanism between the two has yet to be deeply explored, and the influence mechanism between ISC, innovative identity, and innovative behavior needs to be further studied. ...
Article
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With the digital transformation of the economy and the rise of community innovation, how stimulating employees’ innovative behavior (EIB) becomes the basis for building sustainable competitive advantage in organizations. However, research has yet to systematically investigate the effect of internal social capital (ISC) on EIB. Based on social identity theory and resource conservation theory, this paper constructs a model to explain the mediating role of II between ISC and EIB and the moderating role of workplace friendship (WF). Using SPSS 27 and Amos 24 to analyze the data of 284 questionnaires, the results show that (1) ISC has a positive effect on EIB, (2) II plays a partial mediating effect in the relationship between ISC and EIB, and (3) WF has a positive moderating effect on the relationship between ISC and EIB. The conclusion provides management insight and practical guidance for creating an internal organizational climate to promote EIBs.
... This analysis strategy allows intraindividual and interindividual variability in the intraindividual change within a model of antecedents and consequents (Preacher et al., 2008). In additional analyses, to examine the growth trajectory of individuals' the mindfulness during the intervention program, we utilized a multilevel growth model analysis (e.g., Ng et al., 2010;Leroy et al., 2013). Prior to testing hypotheses, the relative variance in study variables was examined for its intraclass correlation values (Bliese and Ployhart, 2002). ...
... On a practical scale, various organizations have adopted the business frameworks integrative of generating and improving EE and ECB. The different variables that were identified in multiple studiespertaining to the effective use of personality traits, interpersonal skills, work environment and demographic factorshave been thus utilized and manipulated in order to form an engaging work environment (Ng, 2010;Jiang, 2012;Agarwal, 2012;Agarwal, 2014). This, in turn, aids in the development and use of creativity by the employees in their work. ...
Article
Full-text available
The main objective of this research is to analyze the impact of incentives, training, employee relations, empowerment, and leadership factors as independent variables, on to employee creative behaviour (ECB) as a dependent variable, for the workplaces in Kuwait. The study also aims to assess the mediating effect of employee engagement (EE) on ECB. Moreover, the difference in ECB is also evaluated, on the basis of demographic variables, such as age, gender, income, education, marital status, overall experience, experience at current position and level of employment for the employees working in Kuwaiti companies. A quantitative research method was used through a mixed inductive and deductive approach, on a positivist level. The study tested the hypotheses and concluded that the male and female respondents have no significant differences in their perception towards ECB at workplace in Kuwait. ECB shows no significant difference based upon different ages as well. No significant difference exists among different groups of age, marital status, income, overall experience and experience at current position towards the ECB's at workplace in Kuwait. However, there exists a difference in groups of education and level of employment towards ECB at workplace in Kuwait. Also, employee engagement was found to be significantly mediating the impact of incentives, employee relation, training, leadership, and employee empowerment on employee creative behaviour. The study suggests that the effective integration of these identified relations within the organizational infrastructure will enable the formation of a highly competitive industrial sector on a global scale.
... All participants were invited to answer the surveys, which measured demographic characteristics, CCB and emotional exhaustion at Time 1 in the workplace. Follow-up data was collected 3 months after the first survey packets were distributed, as previously described (Ng et al., 2010). A total of 702 usable surveys were returned for Time 1 (a return rate of 88%). ...
Article
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Employees view compulsory citizenship behavior (CCB) as concessionary behavior they undertake because of pressure exerted by their organizations. This study applies affective events theory to CCB-workplace deviance relationships, and impression management theory to CCB-facades of conformity relationships, to posit that employee emotional exhaustion is an essential mediating factor that effectively explains how CCB contributes to workplace deviance and facades of conformity. This study utilizes two mediation models to investigate whether employees' CCBs are positively related to their work deviance and false behavior, and how emotional exhaustion mediates those relationships. Two-wave data collected from 655 valid participants (480 males, 175 females; average age of 30.1 years) in a public sector bank and a large private bank in Taiwan supported our hypotheses. We conducted surveys with volunteer employees that included CCB, emotional exhaustion, facades of conformity, and work deviance. The results of this study uncovered statistically significant relationships between CCB and work deviance and between CCB and facades of conformity and revealed that emotional exhaustion significantly mediated these relationships. Implications and directions for future study are discussed.
... Antecedents considered at the job-specific level include job demands and job security (Janssen, 2000;Niesen et al., 2018). At the organisational level, antecedents to IWB include organisational processes (Ramamoorthy et al., 2005), the organisational climate, specifically the climate for innovation (Sethibe & Steyn, 2018;Shanker et al., 2017) and psychological contracts (Bhatnagar, 2014;Ng et al., 2010). Some antecedents deal with leader behaviour, for example, leadership style (Sethibe & Steyn, 2018;Soomro et al., 2021), relative leader-member exchange (Li et al., 2014), and perceived supervisor support (Bhatnagar, 2014). ...
Article
Full-text available
Numerous empirical studies reveal that innovative work behaviour (IWB) has several antecedents, including leadership style (LS) and climate for innovation (CfI). However, literature reporting on how different types of employee voice (EV) influence IWB is scant. This research aims to empirically determine how different dimensions of EV are linked to IWB, and also to determine the relative importance of EV, compared to other predictors of IWB, namely LS and CfI. In a cross-sectional survey, respondents were asked questions on EV and IWB, as well as on CfI and the leadership styles. Reliability and validity for all measures were calculated, as well as correlation and regression analyses were used to test the bivariate and relative prediction power of the EV as an antecedent of IWB. The demographics of the 620 respondents from 11 organisations resonated well with national workplace statistics. All measures showed acceptable psychometric properties. Supportive voice and, particularly, constructive voice, positively correlated with IWB, while defensive and destructive voice had no effect on IWB. The model in which EV was used to predict IWB was superior to models that included leadership style as well as CfI. This research provides empirical evidence that EV contributes positively to IWB, depending on the type of EV expressed, and that EV, more than other often-mentioned antecedents, predicts IWB, emphasising the relative importance of EV as a predictor of IWB. Managers should monitor the EV expressed in their environment, and promote the expression of supportive voice and, particularly, constructive voice, should they aspire to foster IWB in their workplaces.
... of employees' experience of psychological contract breach (Bankins, 2015;Ng et al., 2010;Solinger, Hofmans, Bal, & Jansen, 2015). These studies examine processes subsequent to the experience of psychological contract breach and treat psychological contract breach as a single discrete episode in an ongoing exchange relationship. ...
Chapter
This chapter contributes to existing literature on psychological contracts by adopting a process-oriented lens to understand how psychological contract breach occurs. Drawing on neuroscientific insights, the authors extend and complement recently developed work on psychological contract dynamism by examining the intra-individual processes that precede the cognition of psychological contract breach. They argue that breach is affected by direct, indirect, and slow triggers that elicit conscious attention to the psychological contract terms and demand a shift from automatic processing to conscious attention. Moreover, stimuli matching with the (preconsciously buffered) memories of past triggers—connected triggers—will effortlessly activate the psychological contract. This results in an idiosyncratic chain of connected triggers processed in a cumulative manner, building up the pressure in the employment relationship and exacerbating the impact of breach. A better knowledge and understanding of these processes will offer employers alternative modes for handling and managing perceptions of psychological contract breach.
Article
The effects of psychological contract violation are the subject of considerable research. Yet, their effects in work arrangements with more than two parties are largely unknown. Multi‐party work arrangements differ from traditional ones because individuals may be vulnerable to psychological contract breach and violation by more than one party, potentially directing negative emotional responses not only towards the responsible party but also displacing it to the other (innocent) party. Primary data from a two‐wave survey of 221 current expatriates is used to test the effects of displaced aggression and emotion regulation in multi‐party psychological contracts. We find that the negative emotions (violation experiences) associated with breach predict reduced commitment both to the perpetrating organization and the innocent party. However, this spillover effect is asymmetric and follows displaced aggregation theory: Expatriates displace their aggressive behaviour on to the host when the home organization violated the psychological contract, not the reverse.
Chapter
The psychological contract—individual’s beliefs about the terms and conditions of a reciprocal agreement with the organization—has been changing since the 1990s. This change is a result of labor market pressures, trends, and technology. Today, work and workplaces are more dynamic and digitalized than ever and expectations from employers and employees are shaped by these factors. However, the expectation about the fulfillment of employer obligations and promises (regardless of what these obligations may be) seems to be the same. This chapter highlights the changes from the old to the new psychological contract, and from the new psychological contract to emergent forms of psychological contracts. Moreover, it also discusses whether these changes may (or may not) impact employees’ perceptions of breach and violation, by discussing content and measurement issues and suggesting future research directions.
Chapter
The definition of work has been significantly impacted by the rise of the open talent economy and a greater focus on outcome-based work design. These changes have led to a reconceptualisation of the psychological contract as organisations seek new ways of work to achieve sustainable success, whilst employees are expecting work design as part of an attractive employee value proposition. With the acceleration of the changing world of work it has become imperative to explore how organisations respond to the changing psychological contract. The chapter provides a high-level and speculative perspective on the trends that will impact the world of work over the coming years and positions these trends as changes to what we refer to as ‘work’.
Article
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Using the concept of affective commitment and two types of group cohesion, i.e., social cohesion and task cohesion, this research attempts to study the impact of psychological bonds toward one’s workgroup and organization on innovative behavior through voice behavior. The study also considered promotive and prohibitive voice behavior together in the model to determine their relative impact on innovative behavior. Thus, using the structural equation modeling, the effects of three antecedents-affective commitment, social cohesion, and task cohesion-on innovative behavior through both promotive and prohibitive voice were examined in an integrated model. A total of 350 online survey responses from Chinese employees were used for analyses. First, only affective commitment and social cohesion positively affected innovative behavior through employee voice behavior; task cohesion did not have significant effects on either voice or innovative behavior. Second, both promotive voice and prohibitive voice were found to have a positive effect on innovative behavior. However, the indirect effect of voice behavior on innovative behavior was significant only for promotive voice but not for prohibitive voice. Implications were discussed.
Article
In recent years, robotics has been widely adopted in the workplaces of various industries. Resultantly, human employees have to work increasingly with non-human robotic coworkers. Although the rapid development of robotic technology (e.g., stronger capabilities and more human-like qualities) brings about greater efficiency, human employees may feel threatened and harbor fears toward robots (i.e., robot-phobia). This study explores the complexity of employees' robot-phobia by examining its change trajectory during the adaptation phase. Further, by drawing upon an integrated threat theory, we propose two perceived threats that impact robot-phobia: robots' perceived advantages compared to humans and anthropomorphism. The model was tested via quantitative (Study 1) and qualitative (Study 2) analyses. In Study 1, we tracked 163 hotel employees seven times over one and a half months from their first days working with service robotics and analyzed the data using the Latent Growth Modeling (LGM) approach. Results reveal a positive quadratic growth curve regarding employee robot-phobia over time. Moreover, this growth curve is influenced by employees’ perceived advantages of robots compared to humans and perceived anthropomorphism. Study 2 consists of a series of post-hoc semi-structured interviews with 18 hotel employees, which further corroborates our theoretical mechanism. Our study advances the knowledge of the dynamics of employee robot-phobia, facilitating future applications of robotics in the workplace.
Article
Purpose Scholars have emphasized the antecedent role of personal factors such as creative self-efficacy (CSE) in enhancing innovative behavior in work settings. Existent studies have revealed that individuals with high CSE have the cognitive ability to resiliently exhibit innovative work behavior (IWB). Little is however known as regards the influence of CSE on innovative work behavior in service settings, more so in developing countries. This study sought to establish the antecedent role of CSE on IWB as a multistage process comprising creativity and IWB. Design/methodology/approach The research adopted a cross-sectional research design to establish the hypothetical influence of CSE on innovative work behavior and collected data at one point in time. The researchers used regression analysis to establish the influence of CSE on IWB using a sample of teaching staff selected from Ugandan public Universities. Findings The findings reveal that CSE has a significant effect on creativity as the first step in the innovation process. The results further revealed that CSE has a statistically significant influence on IWB. Research limitations/implications The researchers collected data from public Universities, and the application of the findings may fall short when applied to a setting of private universities. Therefore, future research can consider a setting of private universities to replicate the current study findings. The study was cross-sectional, and yet employees' CSE and innovation behavior may change over time. This study opens grounds for longitudinal research in the same research area. Practical implications The study shapes direction for practicing managers to resiliently strategize for enhancing creative self-efficacy of employees to promote IWB. Specifically, our study indicates that organizations must enhance positive organizational behavior like CSE to enhance employees' ability to resiliently overcome the fear of uncertainty associated with innovation. While devising the intervention strategies geared towards enhancing CSE, organizations need to consider the stage of IWB required whether at creativity or innovation stage of the innovative behavior. Originality/value This research is empirically and theoretically valuable. This is an original study to establish a direct causal influence of CSE on creativity and IWB using a sample drawn from public Universities in the context of a developing Country. Theoretically, the study expands on the applicability of the social cognitive theory (SCT) by revealing that the influence of an individual's personality characteristics like CSE varies with the stage of IWB because the tasks involved in the various types of IWB differ and thus the magnitude of influence varies.
Article
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Our paper develops and tests a research model that proposes that job satisfaction (JSAT), career satisfaction (CSAT) and work engagement (WENG) mediate the effect of psychological contract breach (PCB) on affective organizational commitment (AOC). Data were collected from small-sized hotel employees who occupy frontline positions in three waves in four cities in Ghana. The hypothesized linkages were assessed via structural equation modelling. The empirical data confirmed all the hypothesized relationships. Specifically, PCB had a negative impact on AOC. Additionally, JSAT, CSAT and WENG mediated the effect of PCB on AOC. Discussion of implications of the findings are included in the paper.
Article
Purpose In this research, the authors try to answer the question of when broad-based employee share ownership (ESO) is more likely to be used and how it can be managed more effectively from the vertical fit perspective in strategic human resource management (HRM). Design/methodology/approach The study analyzes an unbalanced panel sample of 614 organizations (1,601 organization-year data points) in South Korea, utilizing hierarchical linear modeling (HLM). Findings The analysis demonstrates that organizations are more likely to adopt broad-based ESO when they utilize the prospector and analyzer strategies as opposed to the defender strategy. The analysis also reveals that the relationship between broad-based ESO and labor productivity is positive only when organizations utilize the prospector strategy as opposed to other types of strategies (i.e. analyzer and defender strategies). Practical implications The findings first indicate that the decision to adopt a broad-based ESO in organizations should be informed by their business strategy if they want to enhance labor productivity. Specifically, the results demonstrate that only the prospector firms, rather than defenders or analyzers, can reap the productivity benefit of broad-based ESO. Second, since innovation is a major source of productivity for prospector firms, the findings demonstrate that a broad-based ESO can be a vehicle that drives innovation. As a result, firms may want to consider utilizing broad-based ESOs to foster innovation. Originality/value The findings emphasize the relevance of the “vertical fit” perspective in examining the broad-based ESO and firm productivity relationship. Most past research utilized the “horizontal fit” framework in refining the relationship between broad-based ESO and productivity. Thus, the study emphasizes the need to utilize the “vertical fit” perspective, and not only the “horizontal fit” perspective, in the broad-based ESO research. Through this, the study meaningfully extends the research on the productivity effect of broad-based ESO by adding an important moderator (i.e. strategy) to the model.
Article
Although it is common that employees can experience multiple psychological contract (PC) breaches with their employer over time, it is unclear how a past PC breach serves as a temporal context factor in shaping the impact of a present PC breach on employee outcomes. Integrating contrast effect theory and conservation of resources theory (COR), this research develops and tests hypotheses concerning how a past PC breach alters employees’ reaction intensity to a present PC breach. Three studies were conducted to investigate the hypotheses. In Study 1, findings from 168 employee-supervisor dyads of a building supply company supported the contrast effect of past and present PC breaches. Specifically, when a past PC breach was low, a present PC breach had a stronger negative influence on employee organizational citizenship behavior (OCB). Results of Study 2, comprised of 412 full-time working adults, found that burnout mediated the contrast effect of past and present PC breaches on OCB. Specifically, the negative indirect effects of a present PC breach on OCB through burnout were stronger when a past PC breach was low. In Study 3, 154 subjects participated in a scenario-based experiment in which past and present PC breaches were manipulated. Results supported the contrast effect of past and present PC breaches on anticipated future breach. Implications of these results for future PC breach research and management practice are discussed.
Article
In the context of international assignments, this study investigates the psychological contract breach‐violation relationship from a multi‐party employment perspective. Multi‐party employment refers to arrangements where employees have concurrent psychological contracts with more than one party. Drawing on two‐waves of survey data from 221 expatriates, we find both direct relationships and asymmetric spillover effects of psychological contract breach on violation. Psychological contract breach by either the home or host organization is directly linked to psychological contract violation by the breaching party. Additionally, spillover effects occur such that a breach by the host predicts psychological contract violation by the home organization, though not the reverse. These relationships are shaped by the expatriates’ organizational identification. Identification with the host buffers the direct effect between breach and violation by the host, while dual organizational identification mitigates the direct effect between breach and violation by the home organization. Identification with the home organization diminishes the spillover effect from host breach to home organization violation. The opposite, identification with the host, amplifies the spillover effect of host breach to home organization violation. By examining the distinct dynamics of home and host organization contract breach and violation, we develop theoretical implications for understanding PCs in multi‐party work arrangements.
Article
This paper attempts to explore the association between adoption of policy innovation and public organization performance, with the case study of innovative Bookstart Programme in Taiwan. This research employed the method of moderated mediation analysis, as we treat organizational commitment as mediator and mandatory/voluntary public libraries as moderator in our SEM model. Our empirical results suggested that while mediator is insignificant, it does facilitate the association between adoption of policy innovation and public performance. Our SEM model also revealed that mandatory adoption of policy innovation does moderate the relation between organizational commitment and public performance with significance.
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Despite the increasing interest in specific forms of proactive employee behavior in domains such as career development and organizational change, little research has investigated proactive behavior in the realm of customer service. Based on a review of the literatures on proactive behavior, customer service, and job performance, this study investigated relationships between a relevant set of individual and situational predictor variables and proactive customer service performance (i.e., individual service employees' self-started, long-term-oriented, and persistent service behavior that goes beyond explicitly prescribed requirements). Field survey data from 186 supervisor-subordinate dyads working in a large financial services organization demonstrated that proactive service performance, as rated by supervisors, was factorially distinct from prescribed task performance. Multiple regression analysis revealed that proactive service performance was significantly and positively associated with employee ratings of trait personal initiative, affective organizational commitment, task complexity, and participative leadership. The task and leadership variables explained incremental variance in proactive service performance beyond the individual predictors.
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This study examines the relationships betweenviolations of employees' psychological contracts andtheir exit, voice, loyalty, and neglect behaviors. Usinga sample of over 800 managers, this research found that psychological contract violations resultin increased levels of exit, voice, and neglectbehaviors and decreased levels of loyalty to theorganization. In addition, this research examines themoderating effects that situational factors (such as theavailability of attractive employment alternatives) haveon the relationships between psychological contractviolations and managers' behaviors. The results suggest that these situational factors moderatethe relationship between psychological contractviolations and exit, but not the relationships betweenpsychological contract violations and voice, loyalty, or neglect. Finally, this research alsoexamines differences in the nature of psychologicalcontract violations experienced across three categoriesof workers: new managers entering the workforce,expatriates and managers in international business, andmanagers working in downsizing or restructuring firms.The results suggest that psychological contractviolations are both more frequent and more intense among managers working in downsizing or restructuringfirms, particularly in terms of job security,compensation, and opportunities foradvancement.
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Multivariate latent growth modeling was used to conceptualize and analyze intraindividual changes in children's social skills and interindividual differences in these changes in home and school settings. Parent and teacher ratings assessing children's social skills at home and school settings, respectively, were obtained for a sample of 378 children at 4 time points spaced at approximately 12-month intervals over a 4-year period from Kindergarten to Grade 3. Results showed that, in initial status at Kindergarten, there were significant individual differences in social skills in both home and school settings and a significant positive association between initial status in social skills in the two settings. Systematic between-settings differences in children's social skill development were found. Social skills development at home was best described with a nonlinear trajectory in which skills increased from Kindergarten to Grade 2 with a substantially larger increase from Grade 1 to Grade 2 than from Kindergarten to Grade 1, and then remained relatively constant from Grade 2 to Grade 3. In contrast, social skills development at school was best described with a negative linear trajectory in which skills decreased at a constant rate from Kindergarten to Grade 3. The differences in social skills development may derive form the fact that different teachers with different expectations regarding social skills provided ratings each year while the same parent was the source of at-home social skills ratings. There were significant individual differences in growth rates in the school as well as the home setting. Evidence of between-settings differences in social skills development were obtained from differential patterns of associations between growth parameters (initial status and growth rate) and individual predictors (family income, parent education, child verbal skills) across settings.
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The psychological contract held by an employee consists of beliefs about the reciprocal obligations between that employee and his or her organization. Violation refers to the feelings of anger and betrayal that are often experienced when an employee believes that the organization has failed to fulfill one or more of those obligations. This article provides a model outlining the psychological sensemaking processes preceding an employee's experience of psychological contract violation. It also identifies factors that affect those processes with the aim of encouraging future empirical research.
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It has been proposed that a clear separation of measurement from structural reasons for model failure can be obtained via a procedure testing 4 nested models: (a) a factor model, (b) a confirmatory factor model, (c) the anticipated structural equation model, and (d) possibly, a more constrained model. Advocates of the 4-step procedure contend that these nested models provide a trustworthy way of determining whether one's model is failing as a result of structural (conceptual) inadequacy, or as a result of measurement misspecification. We argue that measurement and structural issues can not be unambiguously separated by the 4 steps, and that the seeming separation is incomplete at best and illusory at worst. The prime difficulty is that the 4-step procedure is incapable of determining whether the proposed model contains the proper number of factors. As long as the number of factors is in doubt, measurement and structural assessments remain dubious and entwined. The assessment of model fit raises additional difficulties because the researcher is implicitly favoring of the null hypothesis, and the logic of the root mean square error of approximation (RMSEA) as a test of "close fit" is inconsistent with the logic of the 4-step. These discussions question whether factor analysis can dependably determine the proper number of factors, and argue against the routine use of. 05 as the probability target for structural equation model chi-square fit.
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The concept of change over time is fundamental to many phenomena investigated in organizational research. This didactically oriented article proposes an integrative approach incorporating longitudinal mean and covariance structures analysis and multiple indicator latent growth modeling to aid organizational researchers in directly addressing fundamental questions concerning the conceptualization and analysis of change over time. The approach is illustrated using a numerical example involving several organizationally relevant variables. Advantages, limitations, and extensions of the approach are discussed.
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Summary Predictors of submitting suggestions and their quality were studied in a Dutch company with a well-developed suggestion system (nà 207 blue collar workers). A model with person variables (initiative at work, higher order need strength, control aspirations, and interest in work innovation), work characteristics (control and complexity), motives (better work, reward), self-eÅcacy, and system factors (system inhibitors, system respon- siveness, and supervisor support) was developed and tested. They are related to the three process variables, deemed to be important in making a suggestion: having ideas, sub- mitting suggestions and quality of the suggestions. A path analysis revealed that the most important factors related to these process variables were initiative at work, higher order need strength, self-eÅcacy, expected improvements in work and suggestion inhibitors (negatively). Copyright #1999 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Article
Purpose The purpose of the research is to demonstrate the impact of psychological contract infringement (independent variable) on organizational commitment, exit, voice and neglect (dependent variables) within a Canadian federal public organization located in Quebec, where individual (e.g. age), organizational (e.g. stricter rule enforcement) and situational (e.g., employment alternatives) variables are controlled. Design/methodology/approach – A pre‐tested questionnaire (204 questions) on the psychological contract was distributed to 357 Canadian civil servants in a one site federal department. One hundred and thirty‐two questionnaires were returned and considered usable for research, for a 37 per cent response rate. Bivariate analysis was performed on the various determinants and individual responses to psychological contract violation, including organizational commitment, departure designs and counterproductive behaviors. Findings – Results clearly illustrate the great complexity of the link between organizational variables and individual reactions and shed light, on a higher level, on the need to outgrow arguments that reduce bureaucracy to its mere perverse effects. These results suggest that the managerial challenge is not so much to produce a shift from an environment where the rule of law, standards and regulations prevails to an open and flexible environment where individual autonomy is prized as it is to ensure compliance with normative and regulatory constraints. Originality/value – The research seeks to enrich the knowledge base on the subject area because previous research has dealt almost exclusively with the psychological contract within large private companies.
Article
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to examine the role of psychological contract violation (PCV) as a mediating variable in the relations between psychological contract breach (PCB) and work‐related attitudes and behaviors. In addition, this study aims to expand the generalizability of psychological contract theories by examining service‐oriented employees rather than a population of managers as in most research on PCB. Design/methodology/approach A survey was administered to 196 service‐oriented employees working in the USA. Factor analyses (principal components, varimax rotation) were conducted on all the variables in the study to determine the factorial independence of the constructs. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses were conducted to test the main effects and mediating hypotheses. Findings The findings are consistent with the proposed mediation model of the study. PCV was found to fully mediate the relations between PCB and job satisfaction, organizational commitment, intentions to quit, perceived organizational support, service delivery, service‐oriented organizational citizenship behavior, and participation service‐oriented organizational citizenship behavior. PCV was found to partially mediate the relation between PCB and loyalty service‐oriented organizational citizenship behavior. PCV was not found to mediate the relation between PCB and in‐role job performance. Research limitations/implications The use of a cross‐sectional non‐experimental design does not allow for definitive conclusions regarding causality and there is a possibility that the results may be influenced by common method variance. Practical implications Managers need to carefully consider and manage the psychological contracts of their subordinates from a cognitive perspective (PCB) and an affective perspective (PCV). Originality/value The paper empirically examines the PCB‐PCV Outcomes model using a sample of service‐oriented employees.
Article
The establishment of measurement invariance across groups is a logical prerequisite to conducting substantive cross-group comparisons (e.g., tests of group mean differences, invariance of structural parameter estimates), but measurement invariance is rarely tested in organizational research. In this article, the authors (a) elaborate the importance of conducting tests of measurement invariance across groups, (b) review recommended practices for conducting tests of measurement invariance, (c) review applications of measurement invariance tests in substantive applications, (d) discuss issues involved in tests of various aspects of measurement invariance, (e) present an empirical example of the analysis of longitudinal measurement invariance, and (f) propose an integrative paradigm for conducting sequences of measurement invariance tests.
Book
Introduction Contracting A Modern Dilemma Contract Making The Contract Makers Contemporary Contracts Violating the Contract Changing the Contract Business Strategy and Contracts Trends in the New Social Contract
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This paper examines the theoretical and empirical relationships between employees' trust in their employers and their experiences of psychological contract breach by their employers, using data from a longitudinal field of 125 newly hired managers. Data were collected at three points in time over a two-and-a-half-year period: after the new hires negotiated and accepted an offer of employment; after 18 months on the job; and after 30 months on the job. Results show that the relationship between trust and psychological contract breach is strong and multifaceted. Initial trust in one's employer at time of hire was negatively related to psychological contract breach after 18 months on the job. Further, trust (along with unmet expectations) mediated the relationship between psychological contract breach and employees' subsequent contributions to the firm. Finally, initial trust in one's employer at the time of hire moderated the relationship between psychological contract breach and subsequent trust such that those with high initial trust experienced less decline in trust after a breach than did those with low initial trust.
Article
This study examined reactions to psychological contract breach from two separate perspectives, that is, employee's reactions to perceptions of employer breach and supervisor's reactions to perceptions of employee breach of the psychological contract. In addition to the main effects, we also hypothesized that the benevolence (or kindness) of the supervisor and the traditional values (or respect for authority) of the employee would attenuate the negative effects of psychological contract breach. We tested these hypotheses with a sample of 273 supervisor-subordinate dyads from the People's Republic of China. The results showed that employer breach correlated negatively with employee outcomes of organizational commitment (OC), organizational citizenship behavior (OCB), and work performance, but this negative relationship was weaker for employees with traditional values. The results also demonstrated that employee breach correlated negatively with responses from the supervisor, in terms of the mentoring provided to the employee and the leader-member exchange (LMX) quality. However, more benevolent supervisors reacted less negatively in terms of the mentoring than did the less benevolent supervisors. Implications for future research are offered. Copyright © 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Article
Employees who were attending classes at a local university responded to measures of perceived organizational support, the content of their psychological contracts (e.g., relational and transactional obligations), social and economic exchange, the level of fulfillment of both employee and organizational obligations, and organizational commitment. Part-time employees (N=319) reported higher levels of perceived organizational support and stronger economic exchange relationships, while full-time employees (N=282) reported higher levels of continuance commitment—sacrifice and greater relational and transactional obligations to their organizations. There were no significant differences between the two groups in terms of the strength of social exchange relationships, the levels of their organizations' relational and transactional obligations to them, the degree to which they had fulfilled their obligations to their organizations or their organizations had fulfilled their obligations to them, the level of continuance commitment—perceived alternatives, affective commitment, and normative commitment. There were no differences in the strength of the relations between perceived organizational support and the other exchange variables depending on work status. Overall, the findings suggested that social exchange processes operate similarly for part-time and full-time employees. Copyright © 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Article
This study examines factors affecting employees' perceptions that their psychological contract has been breached by their organization, and factors affecting whether this perception will cause employees to experience feelings of contract violation. Data were obtained from 147 managers just prior to their beginning of new job (time 1) and 18 months later (time 2). It was found that perceived contract breach at time 2 was more likely when organizational performance and self-reported employee performance were low, the employee had not experienced a formal socialization process, the employee had little interaction with organizational agents prior to hire, the employee had a history of psychological contract breach with former employers, and the employee had many employment alternatives at the time of hire. Furthermore, perceived breach was associated with more intense feelings of violation when employees both attributed the breach to purposeful reneging by the employer and felt unfairly treated in the process. Theoretical and practical implications of these results are discussed. Copyright © 2000 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Article
This article examines the adequacy of the “rules of thumb” conventional cutoff criteria and several new alternatives for various fit indexes used to evaluate model fit in practice. Using a 2‐index presentation strategy, which includes using the maximum likelihood (ML)‐based standardized root mean squared residual (SRMR) and supplementing it with either Tucker‐Lewis Index (TLI), Bollen's (1989) Fit Index (BL89), Relative Noncentrality Index (RNI), Comparative Fit Index (CFI), Gamma Hat, McDonald's Centrality Index (Mc), or root mean squared error of approximation (RMSEA), various combinations of cutoff values from selected ranges of cutoff criteria for the ML‐based SRMR and a given supplemental fit index were used to calculate rejection rates for various types of true‐population and misspecified models; that is, models with misspecified factor covariance(s) and models with misspecified factor loading(s). The results suggest that, for the ML method, a cutoff value close to .95 for TLI, BL89, CFI, RNI, and Gamma Hat; a cutoff value close to .90 for Mc; a cutoff value close to .08 for SRMR; and a cutoff value close to .06 for RMSEA are needed before we can conclude that there is a relatively good fit between the hypothesized model and the observed data. Furthermore, the 2‐index presentation strategy is required to reject reasonable proportions of various types of true‐population and misspecified models. Finally, using the proposed cutoff criteria, the ML‐based TLI, Mc, and RMSEA tend to overreject true‐population models at small sample size and thus are less preferable when sample size is small.
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