Nuclear translocation of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase is regulated by acetylation

Department of Cell Biology, Immunology and Neurosciences, Faculty of Medicine, University of Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain.
The international journal of biochemistry & cell biology (Impact Factor: 4.05). 10/2010; 42(10):1672-80. DOI: 10.1016/j.biocel.2010.06.014
Source: PubMed


Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) is considered a housekeeping glycolitic enzyme that recently has been implicated in cell signaling. Under apoptotic stresses, cells activate nitric oxide formation leading to S-nitrosylation of GAPDH that binds to Siah and translocates to the nucleus. The GAPDH-Siah interaction depends on the integrity of lysine 227 in human GAPDH, being the mutant K227A unable to associate with Siah. As lysine residues are susceptible to be modified by acetylation, we aimed to analyze whether acetylation could mediate transport of GAPDH from cytoplasm to the nucleus. We observed that the acetyltransferase P300/CBP-associated factor (PCAF) interacts with and acetylates GAPDH. We also found that over-expression of PCAF induces the nuclear translocation of GAPDH and that for this translocation its intact acetylase activity is needed. Finally, the knocking down of PCAF reduces nuclear translocation of GAPDH induced by apoptotic stimuli. By spot mapping analysis we first identified Lys 117 and 251 as the putative GAPDH residues that could be acetylated by PCAF. We further demonstrated that both Lys were necessary but not sufficient for nuclear translocation of GAPDH after apoptotic stimulation. Finally, we identified Lys 227 as a third GAPDH residue whose acetylation is needed for its transport from cytoplasm to the nucleus. Thus, results reported here indicate that nuclear translocation of GAPDH is mediated by acetylation of three specific Lys residues (117, 227 and 251 in human cells). Our results also revealed that PCAF participates in the GAPDH acetylation that leads to its translocation to the nucleus.

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Available from: Joan Serratosa, Nov 11, 2014
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    • "This result seemed to rule out the involvement of a redox modification of the catalytic cysteine for the nuclear translocation of GAPDH in Arabidopsis. Recently, a mechanism based on the acetylation of three lysine residues was alternatively proposed for the nuclear translocation of GAPDH after the apoptotic stimulus in animal cells (Ventura et al., 2010). Whether a mechanism of this type may apply to Cd-induced nuclear translocation of GAPC in plants is still an open question. "
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    ABSTRACT: Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) is a ubiquitous enzyme involved in glycolysis and shown, particularly in animal cells, to play additional roles in several unrelated non-metabolic processes such as control of gene expression and apoptosis. This functional versatility is regulated, in part at least, by redox post-translational modifications that alter GAPDH catalytic activity and influence the subcellular localization of the enzyme. In spite of the well established moonlighting (multifunctional) properties of animal GAPDH, little is known about non-metabolic roles of GAPDH in plants. Plant cells contain several GAPDH isoforms with different catalytic and regulatory properties, located both in the cytoplasm and in plastids, and participating in glycolysis and the Calvin-Benson cycle. A general feature of all GAPDH proteins is the presence of an acidic catalytic cysteine in the active site that is overly sensitive to oxidative modifications, including glutathionylation and S-nitrosylation. In Arabidopsis, oxidatively modified cytoplasmic GAPDH has been successfully used as a tool to investigate the role of reduced glutathione, thioredoxins and glutaredoxins in the control of different types of redox post-translational modifications. Oxidative modifications inhibit GAPDH activity, but might enable additional functions in plant cells. Mounting evidence support the concept that plant cytoplasmic GAPDH may fulfill alternative, non-metabolic functions that are triggered by redox post-translational modifications of the protein under stress conditions. The aim of this review is to detail the molecular mechanisms underlying the redox regulation of plant cytoplasmic GAPDH in the light of its crystal structure, and to provide a brief inventory of the well known redox-dependent multi-facetted properties of animal GAPDH, together with the emerging roles of oxidatively modified GAPDH in stress signaling pathways in plants.
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    • "In order to trigger cell cycle related events, it is possible that both GAPDH and FoxM1 translocate from the cytoplasm to the nucleus in cancer cells. Nuclear translocation of GAPDH may be regulated by acetylation [32]. FoxM1 is localized predominantly in the cytoplasm in late G1 and S phases. "
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    ABSTRACT: Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) is often used as a stable housekeeping marker for constant gene expression. However, the transcriptional levels of GAPDH may be highly up-regulated in some cancers, including non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLC). Using a publically available microarray database, we identified a group of genes whose expression levels in some cancers are highly correlated with GAPDH up-regulation. The majority of the identified genes are cell cycle-dependent (GAPDH Associated Cell Cycle, or GACC). The up-regulation pattern of GAPDH positively associated genes in NSCLC is similar to that observed in cultured fibroblasts grown under conditions that induce anti-senescence. Data analysis demonstrated that up-regulated GAPDH levels are correlated with aberrant gene expression related to both glycolysis and gluconeogenesis pathways. Down-regulation of fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase (FBP1) in gluconeogenesis in conjunction with up-regulation of most glycolytic genes is closely related to high expression of GAPDH in the tumors. The data presented demonstrate that up-regulation of GAPDH positively associated genes is proportional to the malignant stage of various tumors and is associated with an unfavourable prognosis. Thus, this work suggests that GACC genes represent a potential new signature for cancer stage identification and disease prognosis.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2013 · PLoS ONE
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    • "Besides directly regulating the accessibility of substrate, acetylation can indirectly regulate substrate acces­ sibility by affecting subcellular localization of the metabolic enzyme. One such an example is acetylation­mediated nuclear translocation of glyceraldehyde­3­phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH; Ventura et al., 2010). GAPDH, long considered to be a housekeeping gene that is widely used as a protein loading control because of its relatively constant levels, catalyzes the NAD + ­dependent conversion of glyceraldehyde­3­phosphate (G3P) to 1,3 bisphosphoglycerate (1,3BPG). "
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    ABSTRACT: The activity of metabolic enzymes is controlled by three principle levels: the amount of enzyme, the catalytic activity, and the accessibility of substrates. Reversible lysine acetylation is emerging as a major regulatory mechanism in metabolism that is involved in all three levels of controlling metabolic enzymes and is altered frequently in human diseases. Acetylation rivals other common posttranslational modifications in cell regulation not only in the number of substrates it modifies, but also the variety of regulatory mechanisms it facilitates.
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